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Collegialism

(511 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
According to the traditional understanding, collegialism designates a theory advanced in justification of (Protestant) territorial church government (the last of such older theories after the territorial and episcopal systems). Unlike earlier theories, however, it includes both a sociological and a theological theory of the church and of church law. The basis is the view, derived from natural law and the Enlightenment, of the social nature of the church (as a collegium, as for S. Pufendorf and J. H. Boehmer). In the middle of the 18th century early collegialists (e.g., C. M. Pfaff…

Göttliches Recht

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
1. Begriff und Herkunft Der Begriff des G. R. (lat. ius divinum) beruht auf der in vielen Kulturen anzutreffenden Vorstellung, das Recht oder ein Teil des Rechts sei göttlichen Ursprungs. Es liegt auf der Hand, dass im Europa der Nz. das Christentum die Entwicklung der Lehre vom G. R. prägte. Die klassische röm. Jurisprudenz hatte Religion und Recht in zwei getrennte Regelungsbereiche aufgespalten. Folgenreich für die abendländische Geschichte wurde jedoch, dass die Juristen der röm. Kaiserzeit die Herrschaft des princeps wiederum auf G. R. gründeten. Damit wurde das ius divinum

Ius divinum (divine law)

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
1. Definition and originsThe concept of ius divinum (“divine law”) is based on the idea found in many cultures that law or part of law has divine origins. Obviously, in early modern Europe, Christianity significantly influenced the theory of ius divinum.Classical Roman jurisprudence split religion and law into two separate areas. Imperial Roman jurists’ attribution of the Imperial of the power of the princeps to ius divinum would prove particularly consequential for the West. In this way, ius divinum became the basis for the legitimacy of all law (Legitimacy). The scho…
Date: 2019-03-20

Puchta

(374 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Puchta, Georg Friedrich (31.8.1798 Cadolzburg – 8.1.1846 Berlin), ev. Jurist. Nach juristischem Studium in Erlangen dort 1820 Promotion, Habil. für Röm. Recht und 1823 Extraordinariat; 1823 o. Prof. in München, 1835 in Marburg und 1837 in Leipzig. 1842 erhielt er nach dessen Ernennung zum Minister den Lehrstuhl F.C. v. Savignys, den damals prominentesten in Deutschland; 1844 außerdem Geheimer Rat am Preußischen Obertribunal, 1845 Mitglied des Staatsrats und der Gesetzeskommission. …

Staatskirche

(855 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] I. Geschichte S. bez. eine Zuordnung von Kirche und Staat dergestalt, daß die Kirche dem Staat eingegliedert ist und als Staatsanstalt erscheint. Daraus folgen nicht nur staatl. Eingriffsrechte in das Innere der Kirchenverfassung (Stellenbesetzung, Entscheidung von Lehrkonflikten, Verfügung über Kirchengut u.a.), sondern auch die Indienstnahme der Kirche für staatl. Zwecke. 1. Die Gesch. der S. beginnt unter Theodosius I. durch die Erhebung der christl. zur alleinberechtigten Reichskirche. In Ostrom befestigte sich ein sakraler…

Neutralität

(647 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] . I. Im Völkerrecht umschreibt N. die Rechtsstellung eines nicht am Krieg anderer Staaten teilnehmenden Staates. Daraus ergeben sich für diesen eine Reihe von Rechten (Integrität des Staatsgebiets, bewaffnete Zurückweisung von N.-Verletzungen u.a.) und Pflichten (insbes. weder militärische noch finanzielle oder sonstige Unterstützung einer Kriegspartei, hinreichendes militärisches Potential zur Abwehr von Angriffen schon in Friedenszeiten, Duldung der Durchsuchung von Schiffen durc…

Sehling

(101 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Sehling, Emil (9.7.1860 Essen – 30.11.1928 Erlangen), ev. Jurist. Nach a.o. Professuren in Leipzig und Kiel seit 1888 o. Prof. in Erlangen. Neben zahlreichen Werken zu anderen Rechtsgebieten widmete er sich bes. dem Ehe- und Kirchenrecht, das er unter Ausschluß »aller rel. und theol. Erörterungen« behandelte. Durch sein monumentales Hauptwerk, die Edition der ev. Kirchenordnungen der Reformationszeit (5 Bde., 1902–1913; nach 1951 fortgeführt vom Kirchenrechtlichen Institut der EKD…

Weber

(353 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Weber, Werner (31.8.1904 Wülfrath – 29.11.1976 Göttingen), Staats- und Verwaltungsrechtslehrer. Nach Studium in Marburg, Berlin, Bonn (hier auch noch von C. Schmitt betreute Promotion) 1930 Eintritt in das Preußische Kultusministerium, zunächst in die Geistl. Abt., später Versetzung in die Abt. für Volksbildung; daneben 1931 Lehrbeauftragter, 1935 o. Prof. Handelshochschule Berlin, 1942 Leipzig, 1949 Göttingen, 1956–1958 Rektor, 1972 emeritiert. – W. sah mit Sorge den zunehmenden …

Obermayer

(164 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Obermayer, Klaus (5.5.1916 Wiesbaden – 14.8.1988 Erlangen), ev. Jurist; zunächst aktiver Offizier und Kriegsteilnehmer der ersten Stunde; nach 1945 in München Studium und Referendariat, danach Praxisjahre in der staatl. und kirchl. Verwaltung; 1958 Habil.; seit 1960 bis zur Emeritierung 1984 o.Prof. für Öfftl. Recht und Kirchenrecht in Erlangen. – O. gehörte zu den Pionieren einer rechtsstaatl., grundrechtskonformen Durchdringung des Verwaltungsrechts, verbunden mit umfassender ge…

Religionsmündigkeit

(190 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] bez. die von der allg. Geschäftsfähigkeit (Mündigkeit) abweichende Fähigkeit Jugendlicher, eigenständige rel. Entscheidungen mit rechtlicher Relevanz zu treffen. In Deutschland ist sie – gemäß dem fortgeltenden Reichsgesetz über die religiöse Kindererziehung vom 15.7.1921 (RKEG) – gestuft: vom 12. Lebensjahr an kann das Kind nicht mehr gegen seinen Willen in einem anderen Bekenntnis als bisher erzogen werden, vom 14. Lebensjahr an hat es selbst über seine Bekenntniszugehörigkeit …

Recursus ab abusu

(354 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] (appel comme d'abus) bez. die Anrufung staatl. Instanzen gegen einen Mißbrauch der geistl. Amtsgewalt durch Überschreitung der staatsgesetzlich gezogenen Grenzen – und damit (neben dem Plazet) ein bes. wirksames Instrument der staatl. Kirchenhoheit. Seine bes. Ausprägung erhielt er in Frankreich 1539. Hier diente der R. v.a. der Abwehr von Eingriffen in die gallikanischen Freiheiten (Gallikanismus); nach franz. Vorbild wurde er auch in Spanien und den Niederlanden geübt. Als Rech…

Schoen

(107 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Schoen, Paul (16.5.1867 Königsberg – 21.9.1941 Göttingen), ev. Jurist. 1896 a.o., 1900 o. Prof. in Jena, im gleichen Jahr o. Prof. in Göttingen. Neben zahlreichen Arbeiten zum öfftl. Recht unternahm es Sch. in seinem zweibändigen Hauptwerk »Das ev. Kirchenrecht in Preußen« (1903–1910; Neudr. 1967), dieses Rechtsgebiet unter Verzicht auf dessen theol. und kirchenpolit. Dimension, dafür in Parallelität zum Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht zu entwickeln. Trotz Ausblendung der zentralen P…

Stephani

(304 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] 1.Joachim , (Mai 1544 Pyritz, Pommern – 14.1.1623 Greifswald). Zunächst (1572) Prof. der Mathematik in Greifswald, seit 1578 ebd. Prof. der Rechte, herzoglicher Rat und Konsistorialpräsident. – Als – neben seinem jüngeren Bruder (2.) – führender Vertreter des Episkopalsystems (Episkopalismus: I.) legitimiert S. das sich herausbildende ev. landesherrliche Kirchenregiment reichsrechtlich aus dem Übergang der (kath.) bfl. Jurisdiktionsrechte auf die ev. Reichsstände und findet dafür…

Reservatrechte

(158 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Reservatrechte, im Alten dt. Reich Inbegriff derjenigen (hist. wechselnden) Rechte, die dem Kaiser ohne Zustimmungserfordernisse von Kurfürsten und Reichstag zukamen. In Anlehnung daran bez. R. im 19.Jh. solche – im Summepiskopat des Landesherrn wurzelnde – kirchenleitende Befugnisse, die sich dieser zur persönlichen Ausübung (d.h. nicht durch in seinem Namen handelnde Kirchenbehörden) vorbehalten hatte. Dazu zählten v.a.: Sanktionierung der von den Synoden beschlossenen Kircheng…

Reinking(k)

(266 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Reinking(k), Dietrich (Theodor; seit 1650: v.; 10.3.1590 Windau, Kurland – 15.12.1664 Glückstadt), bedeutender luth. Staatsrechtslehrer und Politiker; zunächst Prof. in Gießen, seit 1618 hohe Staatsämter in hessen-darmstädtischen, mecklenburgischen, erzbfl. bremischen (hier Vertreter des Erzstifts bei den Osnabrückischen Friedensverhandlungen) und dänischen Diensten. In seinem wiss. Hauptwerk »Tractatus de Regimine seculari et ecclesiastico« (1619, 71717) beschreibt R. die Reichsverfassung als Monarchie des Kaisers, der nur in d…

Collegialism

(491 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] Following episcopalism (I) and territorialism, collegialism was the latest of the three 17th- and 18th century theories on the origin and legitimation of vesting ecclesiastical authority of prince in the Protestant territories of the German Empire. The early collegialists (C.M. Pfaff, L. v. Mosheim) were concerned to limit the comprehensive claim to the prince's authority over religious matters as an aspect of public order asserted …

Schoen, Paul

(135 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (May 16, 1867, Königsberg [Kaliningrad] – Sep 21, 1941, Göttingen), Protestant jurisprudent. He was appointed associate professor at Jena in 1896 and a full professor in 1900; in the same year he was appointed to a full professorship in Göttingen. Besides numerous works on public law, he wrote a major two-volume Das evangelische Kirchenrecht in Preußen (1903–1910, repr. 1967), discussing church law in Prussia without reference to its theological dimension or ecclesiastical politics, developing instead its parallelism with state and co…

State Church

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] I As one type of relationship between church and state, a state church is a church incorporated into the state in such a way that it appears to be a state institution. As a result, the state not only has the right to intervene in the internal governance of the church (staffing, deciding doctrinal conflicts, disposition of church property, etc.; Church polity) but also may use the church for state purposes. 1 The history of state churches began when Theodosius I made the Christian church the only recognized church of the Roman Empire ( Reichskirche). In East Rome, a sacral …

Ius emigrandi

(246 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] refers to the right under imperial law to emigrate for religious reasons. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) guaranteed the estates of the empire the ¶ ius reformandi , i.e. the authority to determine the confession of their territory (religious ban). Subjects of other confessions were granted as a legal benefit ( beneficium) a qualified right to emigrate (i.e. taking along family and belongings) to a territory of their confession – and, therewith, the first constitutionally guaranteed basic right. The Peace of Westphalia confirmed this…

Placet

(566 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (“it pleases”; also placetum regium, exequatur regium) is the formula expressing assent by the local prince to ecclesiastical legislation, especially papal legislation. It was both a requirement before the law could take effect in the ruler’s territory and authorization to promulgate it (Publication). First put into practice in England and in French Gallicanism, it was introduced after the 17th century in many countries of western and southern Europe. In the German Empire, initially onl…

State Religion

(245 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] The term state religion denotes a religious element unifying the collectivity of subjects, considered indispensable for the existence of the state (“un roi, une loi, une foi”). It was taken for granted as the foundation of nearly every early form of the state. To the extent that religion is considered an element of public order, religious pluralism is perceived as a threat to the unity of the state, since it bears the seed of civil war, or at least qualified loyalty on the part of th…

Liermann, Hans

(269 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 23, 1893, Frankfurt am Main – Feb 22, 1976, Erlangen) was a Protestant historian of law, and lectured in state and canon law. After studies in Freiburg im Breisgau and Halle, and military service from 1914 to 1918, Liermann gained his Habilitation in Freiburg in 1926. Initially appointed associate professor in 1929, he held a chair in Erlangen from 1931 to 1961. In addition to numerous works on the history of law, Liermann exerted a formative influence particularly through his textbook on canon law of 1933. He summar…

Schulte, Johann Friedrich (Ritter von)

(154 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Apr 23, 1827, Winterberg, Westphalia – Dec 19, 1914, Obermais, near Meran), Catholic canonist and legal historian. He was appointed associate professor in Prague in 1854, full professor in 1855; from 1873 to 1906, he taught as a professor in Bonn. Although originally closely tied to the Catholic Church, in 1870 he became one of the most prominent critics of the dogma of papal infallibility and – with J. v. Döllinger – a leading organizer of the Old Catholic movement (Old Catholic…

Potestas directa/indirecta/directiva

(444 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] refers to modalities of the medieval and modern Catholic claim to ecclesial (and esp. papal) authority in temporal (worldly) matters ( in temporalibus). Invoking older doctrinal tra-¶ ditions, the medieval papacy in particular claimed papal supremacy over all secular powers (most strongly articulated in the Unam sanctam bull of Boniface VIII [1302], doctrine of the two swords), and thus not only the supreme legislative authority in spiritualibus et temporalibus but also a right to intervene directly in the legal order of states through the repeali…

Friedberg, Emil

(247 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1837, Konitz, Western Prussia – Sep 7, 1910, Leipzig), (Protestant) jurist who became associate professor at the University of Halle in 1865, followed by Freiburg in 1868; from 1869, he was full professor at Leipzig. Deeply committed to the Hegelian idea of the state (G.W.F. Hegel), Friedberg belonged to the most prominent “state canonists” who sided with the state in the Kulturkampf . Although Friedberg sought to legitimate his position from a scientific-historical standpoint, his evaluation of the medieval conflic…

Grundmann, Siegfried

(238 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1916, Chemnitz – Mar 29, 1967, Munich) was a Protestant lawyer who studied from 1936 to 1939, received his doctorate in 1940, and, following almost a decade of military service and imprisonment in Russia, became a lawyer serving the church. He gained his Habilitation in 1956 (Munich), became professor of state and church law in Marburg in 1958/59, and professor of church and state law in Munich in 1959. Grundmann's life work was devoted especially to Protestant canon law …

Prussian Civil Code

(672 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] The Prussian Civil Code ( Preußisches Allgemeines Landrecht) went into effect on Jun 1, 1794, as a law code for the unified Prussian monarchy. It was drafted at the behest of Frederick the Great by the new chancellor, Casimir v. Carmer (1780); among those contributing to its content, Carl Gottlieb Svarez and Ernst Ferdinand Klein stand out. Completed in 1791, after Frederick’s death, it was to have taken effect in 1792 as the Allgemeines Gesetzbuch für die Preußischen Staaten [Civil code for the Prussian states]. Not least in reaction to the French Revoluti…

Reservatrechte (Reserved Rights in German Empire)

(187 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] In the Holy Roman Empire, reserved rights were the epitome of the (historically varying) rights enjoyed by the emperor without any requirement of approval by electors and the Reichstag. Borrowing from this usage, in the 19th century Reservatsrechte were those rights of church governance, rooted in the summepiscopate of the territorial prince, that he had reserved to be exercised personally (i.e. not by church officials acting in his name). The most important were: approbation of ecclesiastical legislation passed by synods, in ¶ some cases including the right to…

Recursus ab abusu

(415 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] ( appel comme d’abus) is an appeal of civil authorities against an abuse of power by an ecclesiastical authority transgressing the boundaries drawn by civil law; it was thus (along with the placet) a particularly effective instrument of secular supremacy. It achieved its distinctive form in France in 1539, when it served primarily as a defense against encroachments on Gallican liberties (Gallicanism). The French model also inspired its use in Spain and the Netherlands. Initially legal title was vested in royal church advocacy (Church advocate). The recursus came in…

Territorialism/Territorial System

(492 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] Territorialism is a theory of the legal relationship between the state and the church, according to which the all-embracing sovereignty of the prince includes sovereignty over the church and the public practice of religion in his territory; this means that all leadership authority in the church derives from the territorial lord. Chronologically the territorial system gradually gave way to episcopalism (which was influenced increasingly by territorialist arguments as it emerged); i…

Puchta, Georg Friedrich

(447 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 31, 1798, Cadolzburg – Jan 8, 1846, Berlin), Protestant jurisprudent. Puchta studied law at Erlangen, receiving his degree in 1820; after gaining his habilitation in Roman law in 1823, he became an associate professor. In 1825 he was appointed full professor at Munich; in 1835 he moved to Marburg and in 1837 to Leipzig. In 1842, when F.C. v. Savigny was appointed high chancellor, Puchta succeeded to his chair at Berlin, then the most prominent in Germany. In 1842 he was also …

Neutrality

(830 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] I. In international law, neutrality is the legal status of a state that is not participating in a war involving other states. This status carries various rights (e.g. territorial integrity, armed resistance to violations of neutrality) and duties (esp. no military, financial, or other support of any belligerent, sufficient military potential to defend against attacks in peacetime, willingness to allow ships on the high seas to be searched by belligerents, and equal treatment of the…

Stahl, Friedrich Julius

(363 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] ( Jan 16, 1802, Munich – Aug 10, 1861, Brückenau), Protestant jurisprudent and politician. Stahl (orig. Jolson) was of Jewish parentage; in 1819 he converted to Lutheranism and took the name Stahl when he was baptized. In 1832 he was appointed associate professor at Erlangen and in the same year full professor at Würzburg; in 1834 he was ¶ appointed full professor at Erlangen. As representative of the university in the Bavarian Landtag, he was reprimanded on account of a conflict with the government; in 1840 he therefore accepted an appointment in Be…

Rieker, Karl

(209 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1857, Urach – Nov 28, 1927, Erlangen), Protestant jurist. After studying theology and philosophy, Rieker first worked for the church. He then studied law in Leipzig, where he gained a doctorate and Habilitation in 1891. In 1893 he was appointed assistant professor, and from 1903 full professor of public law and history of law, in Erlangen. In his main work on the legal position of the Protestant Church in Germany, Rieker essentially seeks to prove that the synodal and presbyterial principles have no basis…

Summepiscopate of the Princes

(468 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] The summepiscopate of the princes is a 19th-century term for the governance of the Protestant churches, but its roots go back to the 16th century. After the breakdown of episcopal jurisdiction, with the approval of the Reformers the Protestant estates of the Empire set about restructuring the governance of the church; only “out of Christian charity” (Luther), it was to be put in the hands of the sovereign as praecipuum membrum ecclesiae (Melanchthon), but not by virtue of his temporal authority. Therefore Luther was not the progenitor of the princes’…

Scheurl, Christoph Gottlieb Adolf von (Baron)

(113 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 7, 1811, Nuremberg – Jan 24, 1893, Nuremberg), Lutheran legal historian and canonist. He was appointed associate professor at Erlangen in 1840 and full professor in 1845. Besides Roman law and matrimonial law, his major interest was canon law (IV, 2.b), whose institutions he explained in the spirit of the historical school of law. In confessional disputes, he emphatically took the side of Lutheranism, while at the same time supporting greater independence of the church from the state. Christoph Link Bibliography C.A. Stumpf, Kirchenrecht als Bekenntnisrecht.…

Ius in sacra / ius circa sacra

(329 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] The expressions ius in sacra and ius circa sacra came into use in the 17th century but were not clearly distinguished until the 19th century. They denote the legal authority of the territorial ruler by virtue of his supervisory authority over all corporations and religious bodies (Secular supremacy: ius in sacra), grounded in his secular authority, and his authority as summepiscopus (Summepiscopate of the princes) of the Protestant church ( ius in sacris). Episcopalist theology (Episcopalism: I) developed a graduated theory of secular authority, in co…

Episcopalism

(1,566 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] I. Protestantism – II. Catholicism I. Protestantism In the 16th and 17th century (before territorialism and collegialism), episcopalism and the theory of the episcopal system developed by its proponents represented the earliest justification of the ecclesiastical authority wielded by Protestant princes in their realms. 1. While the Reformers regarded these local rulers as mere fellow Christians, albeit as praecipuum membrum ecclesiae, and wished to invest them with this authority only as long as seemed necessa…

Grotius, Hugo

(875 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Huig de Groot; Apr 10, 1583, Delft, The Netherlands – Aug 28, 1645, Rostock), an impor-¶ tant jurist and theologian. From a patrician Delft family, Grotius attended the University of Leiden already as an eleven-year-old. After studying classical philology, history, theology, and law, he received the Dr.iur. in Orléans on an ambassadorial journey in 1598 and became a lawyer in 1599. An expert's opinion in the conflict of the sea-trade interests of Holland and Portugal contained the pioneering chapter De mare libero (1604; ET: The Free Sea, 2004), in which Grotius j…

Pulpit Clause

(161 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] At the request of the liberal Bavarian minister of culture Johannes v. Lutz (1826–1890), §130a, the Kanzelparagraph, was included in the German criminal code by a law of Dec 10, 1871, part of the legislation enacted during the Kulturkampf. It threatened the clergy, with other official religious leaders, with up to two years imprisonment if they discussed state matters in public or in their preaching and threatened the public order. A law of Feb 28, 1872, extended the statutory offense to include dissemination of similar ideas in writing. During the Kirchenkampf (Nation…

Religious Societies (Germany)

(948 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] 1. History. The concept originated in the rational Enlightenment doctrine of natural law (IV), and especially in the state-church law theory of collegialism. “Religious societies” is thus a short formula for the outside view of the churches, and later of all religious confessional societies from the vantage point of the religiously neutral state, which no longer concerns itself with the issue of religious truth and is therefore committed in principle to equal treatment. It was in this form that the concept found its way via the Prussian Civil Code, the Paulskirchenverf…

Wahrmund, Ludwig

(216 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 21, 1860, Vienna – Sep 10, 1932, Prague), Catholic professor of canon law. After his habilitation in law in Vienna (1889), he was appointed associate professor (1891) and full professor (1894) in Chernivtsi. In 1896 he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of law at Innsbruck. Wahrmund, who had been noted for his studies on legal history, became really famous in the “Wahrmund affair.” He aggressively asserted the incompatibility of the “Catholic worldview” with mode…

Itio in partes

(204 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] refers to the division of the Reichstag according to religious parties ( Corpus Catholicorum and Corpus Evangelicorum ) when one side declared the question at issue to be a matter of religion. Deliberations then began first within the confessional blocks – separated according to curias. If these separately reached decisions differed from one another, only the path of compromise, the amicabilis compositio remained. Matters of religion could not, therefore, be decided in a plenary session according to the majority principle. Exercised de facto as early as 1526, b…

Hontheim, Johann Nikolaus von

(499 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1701, Trier – Sep 2, 1790, Montquintin Castle, Luxemburg), Catholic historian and canonist. Hontheim was from a patrician family in Trier. He studied law, theology and classical philology in Trier, Leuven and Leiden. He received the Dr.iur.utr. in 1724 and became a priest and canonist in 1728, first in Trier then in Coblenz in 1740. He was professor of Roman law in Trier (1733–1738), administrator of the diocesan court in Coblenz (1738) and auxiliary bishop and pro-chancellor of the University in Trier (1748). Despite ecclesial and political success in th…

Summepiskopat des Landesherren

(406 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] . Der Begriff bez. im 19.Jh. das landesherrliche Kirchenregiment über die ev. Kirche, seine Gesch. reicht aber bis ins 16.Jh. zurück. Nach dem Zerfall der bfl. Jurisdiktion nahmen die ev. Reichsstände zwar mit Billigung der Reformatoren die Neuordnung des Kirchenwesens in Angriff; dies sollte indes nur »aus christl. Liebe« (Luther), mit der Autorität des Landesherrn als »praecipuum membrum ecclesiae« (Melanchthon) erfolgen, nicht aber kraft weltl. Machtstellung. Nicht Luther ist …

Potestas directa/indirecta/directiva

(374 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] bez. Modalitäten der ma. und neuzeitlichen kath. Inanspruchnahme einer kirchl. (insbes. päpstl.) Gewalt in zeitlichen (weltl.) Dingen (in temporalibus). Gestützt auf ältere Lehrtraditionen behauptete v.a. das ma. Papsttum (am schärfsten formuliert in der Bulle »Unam sanctam« Bonifatius' VIII. 1302, Zwei-Schwerter-Lehre) die päpstl. Suprematie über alle weltl. Gewalt und damit nicht nur die oberste Rechtssetzungsmacht in spiritualibus et temporalibus, sondern auch ein direktes Ein…

Parität

(359 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] bez. die gleichrangige Rechtsstellung von Religionsgemeinschaften im Staat; sie setzt deshalb die Auflösung der konfessionellen Homogenität im Staatsverband voraus. – Zuvor schon faktisch geübt, gewann die P. in Deutschland durch die (freilich noch beschränkte) Gleichstellung der kath. und ev. Religionspartei erste rechtliche Gestalt v.a. im Augsburger Religionsfrieden. Eine ausdrückliche verfassungsrechtliche Verankerung erfuhr sie im Westfälischen Frieden als »aequalitas exacta…

Rieker

(175 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Rieker, Karl (27.3.1857 Urach – 28.11.1927 Erlangen), ev. Jurist. Nach Theologie- und Philosophiestudium zunächst im Kirchendienst, danach rechtswiss. Studium in Leipzig, dort 1891 Promotion und Habil., 1893 a.o. Prof., seit 1903 o. Prof. für Öfftl. Recht und Rechtsgesch. in Erlangen. In seinem Hauptwerk über die rechtliche Stellung der ev. Kirche in Deutschland geht es R. im wesentlichen um den Nachweis, daß Synodal- und Presbyterialsprinzip keine Grundlage in der luth. Theol. ha…

Richter

(280 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] Richter, Aemilius Ludwig (15.2.1808 Stolpen – 8.5.1864 Berlin), ev. Kirchenrechtslehrer. 1835 a.o. Prof. in Leipzig, o. Prof. in Marburg (1838), seit 1846 in Berlin; 1850–1859 zugleich Mitglied des Ev. Oberkirchenrats, danach Geheimer Oberregierungsrat im Preußischen Kultusministerium. – R. zählte neben K.F. Eichhorn zu den Begründern des kirchenrechtlichen Zweigs der Hist. Rechtsschule. Erst 31jährig, legte er eine krit. Neuedition des Corpus Iuris Canonici vor. Neben zahlreichen …

Preußisches Allgemeines Landrecht

(556 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph
[English Version] (ALR) bez. das am 1.6.1794 in Kraft getretene Gesetzbuch für die preußische Gesamtmonarchie. Seine Abfassung beruht auf einem Befehl Friedrichs II., des Großen, an den neuen Kanzler Casimir Graf v. Carmer (1780); unter seinen Mitarbeitern haben das ALR insbes. Carl Gottlieb Svarez und Ernst Ferdinand Klein inhaltlich geprägt. Nach dem Tode Friedrichs 1791 vollendet, sollte es 1792 als »Allgemeines Gesetzbuch für die Preußischen Staaten« (AGB) in Kraft treten. Polit. Widerstände d…
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