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Chersikrates

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Χερσικράτης). Korinther, Nachkomme der Bakchiaden (Timaios FGrH 566 F 80). Nach Strab. 6,2,4 wurde Ch. von Archias, dem Gründer von Syrakus, auf dem Weg nach Sizilien zurückgelassen und besiedelte Kerkyra. Die Glaubwürdigkeit dieser in sich widersprüchlicher Nachrichten muß bezweifelt werden. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Hunericus, Hunerich

(165 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] Ältester Sohn des Geisericus, als dessen Nachfolger 477-484 n.Chr. König der Vandalen ( rex Vandalorum et Alanorum; Victor Vitensis 2,1). H. war zunächst mit einer Tochter des Westgotenkönigs Theoderich I. vermählt (Iord. Get. 184), seit 456 mit Eudokia [2], der Tochter Valentinians III. (Prok. BV 3,5,6), eine Ehe, die wohl beschlossen wurde, als H. als Geisel bei diesem weilte, um die Einhaltung des Vertrags von 442 zwischen Römern und Vandalen zu sichern (Prok. BV 3,4,13). H. suchte nur zu Beg…

Eutherius

(105 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] Armenier, Heide, Eunuch, kam als Sklave an den Hof Constantins I., diente später unter Constans und war unter Iulian praepositus sacri cubiculi (356-360 n.Chr.). In Mailand verteidigte E. 356/7 Iulianus vor Constantius II. gegen die Anschuldigungen des Marcellus (Amm. 16,7,2f.); nach der Erhebung des Iulianus zum Augustus 360 fungierte er als dessen Gesandter zu Constantius (Amm. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); 361 rief ihn Iulianus erneut an den Hof (Iul. epist. 10 Wright). Später zog er sich nach Rom zurück. Ammianus zollt ihm höchste Anerkennung (16,7,2-10). Me…

Anaxandros

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] [1] Spartan. König z.Z. des 2. Messenischen Krieges Nach Paus. 3,3,4 und 4,15,3 spartanischer König z.Z. des 2. Messenischen Krieges, Agiade, Sohn des Eurykrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Führer der Thebaner (480 v. Chr.) Nach Aristophanes von Boiotien (FGrH 379 F 6) Führer der Thebaner bei den Thermopylai (480). Vgl. aber Hdt. 7,233, der in dieser Position Leontiades nennt. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [3] Thebaner, Söldnerführer im Peloponnesischen Krieg Thebaner, 411 v. Chr. Söldnerführer im Pelopon…

Damippos

(93 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Δάμιππος). Spartiat im Dienst des Hieronymos von Syrakus, dem er 215 v.Chr. zu einem Festhalten am Bündnis mit Rom riet (Pol. 7,5,3). Später diente er auch dem Epikydes, wurde 212 als Gesandter zu Philipp V. von Makedonien gesandt und fiel dabei den Römern in die Hände. Die Verhandlungen über seine Freilassung, bei denen M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus auf einen von den Syrakusanern nur schwach bewachten Turm aufmerksam wurde, hatten schließlich den erfolgreichen röm. Angriff auf Epipolai zur Folge (Liv. 25,23,8ff.; Plut. Marcellus 18; Polyain. 8,11). Meier, Mischa …

Echestratos

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Ἐχέστρατος). Legendärer spartanischer König, Sohn des Agis I., Vater des Labotas und damit der dritte König aus dem Haus der Agiaden (Hdt. 7,204). Nach Paus. 3,2,2 sollen unter der Basileia des E. die Kynureer aus der Argolis vertrieben worden sein. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herostratos

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Ἡρόστρατος). Unbekannter Herkunft, Brandstifter bei der Zerstörung des Artemis-Tempels von Ephesos 356 v.Chr. Auf der Folter gestand er Ruhmsucht als Motiv, weshalb die Ephesier beschlossen, daß sein Name nie wieder genannt werden dürfe. Nach Valerius Maximus (8,14 ext. 5) hielt nur Theopompos sich nicht daran (auf ihm basieren Ail. nat. 6,40; Solin. 40,2-5; Strab. 14,1,22). Tatsächlich nennen die übrigen Quellen keinen Namen (gesammelt bei [1. 262ff.]). Der Synchronismus des Brandes mit der Geburt Alexanders [4] d.Gr. ist fiktiv. Meier, Mischa (Bielefel…

Herpyllis

(107 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Ἑρπυλλίς). Lebensgefährtin (zunächst als Sklavin, dann als Freigelassene, aber wohl nicht zweite Ehefrau) des Aristoteles [6] (gest. 322 v.Chr.), in dessen Testament sie mit Geld, Dienerschaft und Wohnrecht wahlweise auf den Gütern des Philosophen in Chalkis oder Stageira bedacht wurde, da sie sich eifrig um ihn bemüht habe (ὅτι σπουδαία περὶ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο). Im Falle einer späteren Heirat sollten die Testamentsvollstrecker Sorge tragen, daß sie keinem Unwürdigen gegeben werde (Dio…

Diadochenkriege

(783 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] Als D. bezeichnet man die Kämpfe der ehemaligen Gefährten und Generäle des Königs Alexandros [4] (Diadochen und Epigonen) untereinander um sein Erbe in der Phase nach seinem Tod 323 v.Chr. bis zur Ausbildung des hell. Staatensystems. Die Zeit der D. läßt sich grob in zwei Abschnitte gliedern, die Kriege bis zum Tod des Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos (301), des energischsten Verfechters der Reichseinheit, und die folgende Phase, beginnend bereits ca. 305, in der die hell. Nachfolgestaaten des Alexanderreiches allmählich eigenstaatliche Konturen gewinnen. Da Alexa…

Kalokagathia

(272 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (καλοκἀγαθία). “Vortrefflichkeit”, wie kalós k(ai) (“und”) agathós zusammengesetzt aus kalós (“schön”), und agathós (“gut”). Da sich griech. Aristokraten seit homer. Zeit u.a. mit diesen beiden Adjektiven selbst definierten [1. 8f.], deutete man bisher k. als Ausdruck adliger Selbstrepräsentation in homer. Trad. (vgl. z.B. [2]). Dies hat sich jedoch als unzutreffend erwiesen [3. Bd. 1, 611ff.]: k. ist erst in der 2. H. des 5. Jh. v.Chr. als feste Wendung bezeugt (Belege: [4. 1054ff.; 1070ff.]; vgl. [3. Bd. 1, 113ff.]); sie erschei…

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gundobad

(229 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gundiok, king of the Burgundians in AD 474-516, Arian. On the side of  Ricimer he, as magister utriusque militiae in 472, killed Anthemius [2] (Chron. min. 1,306 Mommsen), administered the western empire and in 473 elevated Glycerius to the status of Augustus (Chron. min. 1,664). In 474 he ─ in the meantime comes and patricius ─ returned to Gaul and succeeded Ricimer in Vienna. He defeated the Alemanni and around 490 invaded Liguria (Ennod. 80). In 496 he married his son Sigismundus to Areagni, a daughter of Theoderic. In 501 he defeated…

Eraricus, Erarich

(95 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐράριχος; Erárichos). A Rugian, AD 541 king of the Ostrogoths in succession to Ildibad. Officially, E. negotiated with Justinian a withdrawal of the Goths to the region north of the Po, but secretly he offered to abandon the whole of Italy in return for a large sum of money and the status of patricius. While his ambassadors were still negotiating, E. was eliminated after having reigned for only five months; his successor was Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,2; Jord. Rom. 378f.; Chron. min. 2,106f. Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gunthamundus

(60 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gentunis, king of the Vandals in AD 484-496 (Iord. Get. 170; Procop. Vand. 1,8,6f.), fought successfully against the Moors. In 491 his attempt to reconquer Sicily failed (Ennod. Panegyricus 70). He showed tolerance to the Catholics after initially persecuting them. PLRE 2, 525f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich, 1966, 84-88.

Eparchia

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (ἐπαρχία; eparchía). Territorial administrative unit in Hellenistic states. In the Seleucid kingdom, Antiochus [5] III especially supported the setting up of smaller provinces in order to prevent power concentrations in the areas of individual satraps, as for example  Molon (222 BC). Polybius describes their head, who evidently had military and civil power, as éparchos or stratēgós (Pol. 5,46,7; 48,14); however his terminology is misleading since from the middle of the 2nd cent. BC on, eparchia started taking on the meaning of Lat . provincia (cf. SIG3 683,55 and …

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Duenos inscription

(465 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] An inscription in archaic Latin on the so-called ‘Vasculum Dresselianum’, a ceramic vessel discovered in Rome, south-east of the Quirinal, in 1880 by H. Dressel. The triangular object with rounded tips and concave sides (length of sides: 10,3-10,5 cm; max. height: 4,5 cm; cf. [1. 55]) has a round opening at each tip. The inscription is on the outer side, written in three lines to be read from right to left (see fig.; other fig. in [1; 2. 134f., 140]; a version of transcription in [3. 70]). The dating of the text ranges from the 7th to the late 3rd cent. BC; ar…

Ereleuva

(111 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Erelieva, Hereleuva). Concubina of the Amal Thiudimer, mother of  Theoderic the Great (Iord. Get. 269); for the legal position of marriage [1. 262]; for her origins, Anon. Val. 58: Gothic lady; but differing [1. 263]: possibly of provincial Roman origin. E. accompanied her son on his military campaigns (Malchus fr. 18, FHG 4, 130) and was honoured for that by Ennodius (Ennod. MGH (AA) 7,208). At a Catholic baptism, she was given the name Eusebia (Anon. Val. 58) and maintained conta…

Cornelius Bocchus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Mentioned by Pliny the Elder as the source for parts of his Naturalis historia (Plin. HN 16,216; 37,24; 97; 127); Solinus also repeatedly draws on a C.B. as a source for chronological details (cf. Solin. 1,97; 2,11; 2,18); still the identity of this C.B. with that referred to in Pliny (suspected by [1. XIV]) cannot be proved [2. 646f.]. The inscriptions CIL II 35 and 5184 (=ILS 2920 and 2921) from Lusitania (1st cent. AD), according to which a Lucius CB was flamen provinciae and tribunus militum legionis III Augustae, however probably do relate to Pliny's source. PIR2 C. 133…

Fredericus

(243 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Frederick). [German version] [1] Son of the West Gothic king Theodoric I, co-ruler of Theoderic II about AD 450 Son of the West Gothic king Theoderic I, brother and co-ruler of Theoderic II, whom he helped to the throne in AD 453 after the murder of the eldest brother Thorismud (Chron. min. 1,483; 2,27 Mommsen; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,7); after successful battles against the Spanish Bagauds (probably as magister militum, cf. Chron. min. 2,27; in this regard [1. 690f.]) he was involved in 455 in the rise of  Avitus [1] to the position of emperor (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,…

Godigiselus

(102 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Vandal Hasdingians around AD 400, father of  Gundericus and  Geisericus. Under G. the Hasdingians moved from Pannonia via Vindelicia and Noricum to the Rhine-Neckar area where G. fell in battle in 406 fighting the Franks, who were defending the Roman Rhine border (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9); Procop. (Vand. 3,3,2; 22f.) and Theophanes (5931; 6026) erroneously report that G. led the Hasdingians to Spain. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515f. F. Clover, The Late Roman West and the Vandals, 1993 Chr. Courtois, Les vanda…

Dekadarchia

(482 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(δεκαδαρχία; dekadarchía). [German version] [1] Rule by ten c. 400 BC ‘Rule by ten’; commissions of ten men, used in 405/04 BC by the oligarchically inclined Spartan Lysander, especially in the former Athenian sphere of influence; according to Diodorus (14,13,1), besides dekadarchia he also set up oligarchies, but according to Xenophon (Hell. 3,5,13; 6,3,8), Plutarch (Lys. 13) and Nepos (Lys. 1,4-2,1) dekadarchia persisted ‘everywhere’. This is improbable, as Sparta had proclaimed freedom and autonomy as its goal in the war against Athens, and in Greek constitutional conceptions d…

Guntharith

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Guntharis, Gundarus, Gontharis). Bucellarius of  Solomon I, magister militum and dux Numidiae from AD 545 (Iord. De origine actibusque Romanorum 384). G., whom Solomon had sent out in advance to Bagae on the River Abigas with an army to fight the Moors, escaped defeat only through the latter's rapid assistance (Procop. Vand. 2,19,6-16). In a secret alliance with the prince of the Moors Antalas, G. decided in 546 to remove  Areobindus [3], which also occurred (Procop. Vand. 2,25,1-28). G. oc…

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …

Euricus, Euric

(323 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Eurichus, Euarix). King of the Visigoths in AD 466-484, son of Theoderic I, succeeded to the throne after the murder of his brother Theoderic II (Iord. Get. 190; Hydatius Lemiensis 237). E.'s reign was marked by the constant endeavour to expand the area of his kingdom (originally Aquitania II, Novempopulana and parts of Narbonensis I) and to weaken the dependence on Rome, which is clear from the termination of the   foedus with the Romans. From 468 he advanced against the Suebi and in the following years conquered almost the e…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Dagisthaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαγισθαῖος; Dagisthaîos). As a young Roman commander D., who probably was of Gothic origin, unsuccessfully besieged Persian-occupied Petra in the area of the Lazi in AD 548/9 (Procop. Pers. 2,29 especially 33-43). On account of this he was later taken to court under Justinian on the charge of pro-Persian sentiments and arrested by the emperor (Procop. Goth. 4,9,1-4). For the Narses campaign to Italy he was released from custody and took part in the decisive battle against Totila a…

Daochus

(157 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Δάοχος; Dáochos). [German version] [1] D.I. Tagos of the Thessalian koinon 431-404 BC from Pharsalus, son of Agias, was the   tagos of the Thessalian koinon for 27 years ( c. 431-404 BC?); his tageia was reputedly a time of peace and prosperity (Syll.3 273) [1. 110f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] D. II. Thessalian, envoy of Philip II 338 BC high-ranking Thessalian, grandson of D. [1]. In 338 BC, Philip II sent him together with others to the Thebans to procure support against Athens (Pol. 18,4,4; Dem. Or. 18,211…

Cethegus

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen of a branch of the patrician  Cornelii (ThlL, Onom. 356-59). Attested from the 3rd cent. BC onwards; also Cetegus (Cic. Or. 160); Greek Κέθηγος ( Kéthēgos), supposedly because the family refused to wear the tunica (Porph. Hor. Ars P. 50). Also attested in inscriptions as a family name [1. 293]. There is perhaps no connection between the imperial and republican bearers of the name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rufius Petronius Nicomachus C. Cos. 504 AD Cos. AD 504, patricius from c. 512, mag. officiorum, princeps senatus. During the siege of Rome …

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…

Euclidas

(205 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
(Εὐκλείδας; Eukleídas; Paus. 2,9,1; 3: Epicleidas). [German version] [1] Spartan king about 227-222 BC Spartan king c. 227-222 BC, son of Leonidas II, Agiad. His brother Cleomenes III elevated him as king after the murder of the Eurypontid Archidamus III to formally preserve the double monarchy. Tradition attributes the Spartan catastrophe against Antigonus [3] Doson (222) at Sellasia to his tactical incompetence. E. was killed in this battle (Plut. Cleom. 11,5; 28,3; 6f.; Phil. 6; Paus. 2,9,1; 3; Pol. 2,65-68). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Syracusan die cutter…

Chirisophus

(237 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χειρίσοφος; Cheirísophos). [German version] [1] Spartan commander under Cyrus Spartiate; on the instructions of his polis, at Issus in 401 BC he joined the army of the younger  Cyrus with 700 hoplites (Xen. An. 1,4,3; Diod. Sic. 14,19,4f.); after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa C. was sent by  Clearchus to Ariaeus, to offer him the Persian throne (Xen. An. 2,1,4f.). After Clearchus had been imprisoned and put to death, C. received supreme command of the entire remaining army (Diod. Sic. 14,27,1), and led the ret…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Carrinas

(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…

Dengizich

(96 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Dintzic, Greek Δεγγιζίχ, Δινζίριχος; Dengizích, Dinzírichos). Son of Attila, king of the Huns; after the latter's death D. assembled an army from the elements of the Hun empire that were still under his control, to fight the Goths. He was, however, defeated at Bassianae (Pannonia) by the Goths (probably after AD 456/57, Iord. Get. 272f.). He later conducted several wars against the Romans but was killed in 469 by the mag. mil. per Thracias Anagestes (Prisc. fr. 36 [FHG 4,107f.]; Chron. pasch. 323d Dindorf). PLRE 354f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Boch…

Fritigern

(180 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Dux ( reiks) of the  Tervingi; in AD 376, with the permission of  Valens and under threat from the Huns, he led his tribe as dediticiideditio ) across the Danube to Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,4,8; Iord. Get. 134), where the Arian won over parts of the indigenous population. After conflicts with the Romans the Goths defeated the Romans on 9 Sept. 378 in the battle of Hadrianople (Amm. Marc. 31,6,3-5; 11,5; 12,8 [1. 133-139]). F., who was not able to take advantage of the victory because his …

Gannascus

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A Canninefate, who deserted from Roman service and together with the Chauci laid waste to Lower Germania and the Gallic bank of the Rhine after the death of  Sanquinius Maximus, the governor of Lower Germania, in AD 47. The new governor  Domitius [II 11] Corbulo drove G. away and restored order. When he had G. murdered by a ruse, unrest again broke out among the Chauci, causing Claudius to pull the advance troops back to the west bank of the Rhine (Tac. Ann. 11,18f.). PIR2 G 73. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Cornelianus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31 Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31, cf. [1]. PIR2 C 1301. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. N. Sherwin-White, Comm. ad loc. [German version] [2] Ab epistulis Graecis under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus Ab epistulis Graecis in the imperial chancellery under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Phrynichus dedicated his eclogues to C., and acclaimed him as reviving classical rhetoric (pp. 55, 306, 474-75, 482, 492-93 Rutherford). He can probably not be identified with the C. named in Fronto (ad Am. 1,1; 1,2, cf. [1.…

Gundericus

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gunderic). In AD 406 G. was chosen as king of the Vandal Hasdingians after the death of his father  Godigiselus; he united his troops with the Alani under Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), defeated the Franks and by the end of 406 crossed the Rhine. Without facing organized resistance, he plundered Gaul (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), crossed the Pyrenees in 409 (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) and secured for himself the east of th…

Dynasteia

(593 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (δυναστεία; dynasteía, cf. also δυνάστης; dynástēs, ‘Ruler’). Derived from δύνασθαι; dýnasthai, ‘to be capable’, ‘to be able’; ‘to have influence’, ‘to be wealthy’ [1. 116]. Dynasteia was primarily the rule ( rulership) of a small, influential group, within which high offices were inherited. Two basic levels of meaning are to be distinguished for dynasteia: in the first of them, its character as the term for a group of rulers or an individual ruler expresses more the original sense of the word; in the second the inheritance of lea…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Eclectus

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἔκλεκτος; Éklektos, also Electus, Eiectus). E. from Egypt, freedman of Verus, later lived in the palace of Marcus Aurelius (SHA Ver. 9,5f.) after whose death he became cubicularius of that emperor's nephew M. Ummidius Quadratus. When the latter was executed in AD 182, Commodus took on E. (Herodian. 1,16,5; Cass. Dio 72,4,6) with whom he appeared in gladiator games (SHA Comm. 15,2; Cass. Dio 72,19,4). In 193, together with the praetorian prefect Aemilius Laetus and Marcia, the concubina of Commodus, he instigated the murder of the Emperor (Hdn. 1,17,6; 2,1…

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Gesimund

(87 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Hunimund the Elder, first Gothic king under Hunnish rule. In AD 376 he helped the Hunnish king Balamber to victory over the Amalian Vinitharius (Iord. Get. 248). Perhaps identical to Gensimund, who, although the kingship was offered to him as Amalian magister militum, declined in favour of the legitimate successors (Cassiod. Var. 8,9). PLRE 2,510 and [1. 26f.] consider the two to be identical; contrary [2. 254f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489, 1991 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990.

Eutharicus, Eutharic

(142 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of Berimund of the Amal dynasty, called to Italy by Theoderic the Great in AD 515 and married to  Amalasuntha in order to secure the succession (Iord. Get. 298). He was later adopted by Justin as his son-at-arms, received Roman citizenship; at the assumption of his consulate in 519 ─ on the occasion of which Cassiodorus had written a speech (MGH AA 12,465ff.) and probably also compiled his chronicle ─, he was called Flavius E. Cillica (CIL VI 32003). When he responded rig…

Anaxidamus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀναξίδαμος; Anaxídamos). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,7,6 and 4,15,3 Spartan king, Eurypontid, whose reign together with the Agiad Anaxander fell in the time of the second Messenian War. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Achaean, subcommander in 207 BC Achaean, subcommander of  Philopoemen in 207 BC at Mantinea against  Machanidas (Pol. 11,18,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Achaean (middle of 2nd cent. BC) A. from Megalopolis, Achaean envoy to Rome in 164 and 155/4 (Po…

Androcles

(281 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Ἀνδροκλῆς; Androklês). [German version] [1] Messenian king shortly before the outbreak of the first Messenian War Son of Phintas, according to ancient tradition together with his brother Antiochus Messenian king shortly before the outbreak of the first Messenian War (Paus. 4,4,4). A. was supposed to have conducted, after the differences between Sparta and Messenia had already come to a crisis due to the murder of the Spartan king  Teleclus, in a new conflict with Sparta a moderate politics aimed at peaceful eq…
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