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Theron

(366 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θήρων/ Thḗrōn). Tyrant of Acragas from the line of the Emmenids; he lived c. 540/530-472 BC. His children from his first marriage were Thrasydaeus and Demarete, the consort of Gelo [1]; from c. 485 BC T. was married a second time to a daughter of Polyzalus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 93; scholium Pind. Ol. 2,29b-d; see stemma in Deinomenids). T. gained control of Acragas in 488 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,53,1) and in 483 BC took the town of Himera by driving out Terillus (Hdt. 7,165); he entrusted the town to his son Thrasydaeus. The cry for help fro…

Pherecydes

(735 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φερεκύδης; Pherekýdēs). [German version] [1] P. of Syrus Mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC Greek mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC; according to an older tradition, he was a contemporary of Alyattes ( c. 605-560 BC; Pherecydes 7 A 2 DK; Acusilaus 9 A 1 DK), whilst according to another tradition, the acme of his career as a writer was in the 59th Olympiad (544-541 BC, so he would have been a contemporary of Cyrus [2]; Diog. Laert. 1,118 and 121; cf. Pherecydes 7 A 1 DK). According to Diog. Laert. 1,116, his book was still extant in the 3rd cent. AD; its title was probably Heptámych…

Xenomedes

(94 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενομήδης/ Xenomḗdēs) of Ceos. Logographer of the 5th cent. BC (Dion. Hal. de Thucydide 5). Author of a history of his home island (title unknown!), from which Callimachus [3] (Aetia 3, fr. 75 Pfeiffer) took the famous story of Acontius and Cydippe [1]. Other themes treated by X. are mentioned by Callimachus (fr. 75,54-77, also [1]). X. may also have been used by Aristotle [6] for his Keíōn politeía (fr. 511 Rose, cf. also 611,26-29). Logographos Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Huxley, Xenomedes of Keos, in: GRBS 6, 1965, 235-245. FGrH 442 with comm.

Duris

(851 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δοῦρις; Doûris) [German version] [1] Poet of epigrams Epigrammatic poet from Elea (in Aeolis); author of a remarkable poem on the flood that destroyed Ephesus c. 300 BC (Anth. Pal. 9,424, cf. Steph. Byz. 289,3-16), in all probability from the ‘Garland’ of Meleager. The city was rebuilt shortly afterwards by Lysimachos, who renamed it Arsinoeia after his wife: this happened before 289/8 (cf. Syll.3 368, 24), after the epigram had been written. Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography GA I,1, 97; 2, 280f. [German version] [2] Painter of Attic red-figure bowls, c. 505-465 BC One of the most p…

Sosylus

(119 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σωσύλος; Sōsýlus). Greek historian, from Laconia, like Silenus [1] in Hannibal's retinue, "as long as fate allowed"; he was also Hannibal's Greek teacher (Nep. Hann. 13,3 = FGrH 176 T 1). Author of an 'official' history of Hannibal in 7 books (Diod. 26,4 = FGrH 176 T 2): S. is sharply criticised by Polybius (3,20,5 = FGrH 176 T 3) for factual errors, but his description, preserved in one of the Würzburg papyri (PGraec. 1), of a complex nautical manoeuvre from a sea battle gives a far more favourable view of his historical writing. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 176…

Dinon

(101 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίνων; Dínōn) of Colophon, the 4th cent. BC, father of Cleitarchus, a historian of Alexander (FGrH 690 T 2), and the author of the Persiká in at least three parts ( syntáxeis) with several books each (F 3) from Semiramis (at least) to the reconquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes [3] III (343/2). The often novel-like and sensationalist representation (cf. F 10; 17; 22) was influenced by Ctesias and was used, e.g., by Pompeius Trogus and Plutarch (Artaxerxes). FGrH 690. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography O. Lendle, Einführung in die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1992, 271 H. …

Lindian Chronicle

(237 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] The Anagraphé of Lindus (on Rhodes), discovered in 1904, is an outstanding example of a local history work with a special topic. The inscription was set up upon application by Hagesitimus, the son of Timachidas, through a decision of the council at the sanctuary of Athena Lindia in 99 BC: it contains the wording of this decision (= A), an inventory of 45 votive offerings that were set up (allegedly) in the temple (= B and C), and the description of four epiphanies (‘manifestations…

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Polyaenus

(604 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύαινος/ Polýainos). [German version] [1] Epicurean, c. 300 BC One of the four 'masters' (καθηγεμόνες; kathēgemónes) of the Epicurean School (with Epicurus, Metrodorus and Hermarchus). B. at Lampsacus (year unknown), d. at Athens in 278/7 BC. Epicurus inaugurated an annual festival in his honour in the month of Metageitnion. P. came into contact with Epicurus during the latter's sojourn at Lampsacus (311/10-307/6 BC), and thereafter devoted himself to philosophy. At first, he excelled as a mathematician; re…

Psaon

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ψάων; Psáōn) of Plataeae, author of a universal history, continuing the work of  Diyllus (Diod. 21,5). It therefore begins in 297/6 BC; its end point is unknown: Only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 78 with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Clytus

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλύτος; Klýtos) of Miletus, pupil of Aristotle [6] and author of Perí Milḗtou in at least two bks, quoted only by Athenaeus (12,540c; 14,655c). Perhaps used by Aristotle in the Milēsíōn politeía. FGrH 490 with comm. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Themistus

(98 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θέμιστος; Thémistos). Syracusan, married to Harmonia, the daughter of Gelon [2] II and granddaughter of Hieron [2] II (Liv. 24,24,2 and 6; 25,7 and 10). He was presumably a member of the regency council established by Hieron for his underage grandson Hieronymus [3] and after Hieronymus was killed took part in a coup planned by Adranodorus  (Liv. 24,24,2; 24,25). At the command of the strategoi, who had been informed of the plot, however, he was executed - as was Adranodorus - in 214 BC (Liv. 24,24,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Hieron II., 1959, 86…

Hippys

(246 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἵππυς; Híppys) of Rhegium. Since [1], a much discussed and controversial author: According to the Suda s.v. = T 1, the oldest West Greek historian, alive during the Persian Wars of 480/479 BC. He wrote the following works: Sikeliká in 5 bks., Ktísis Italías (‘Founding History of Italy’), Chroniká in 5 bks., Argoliká in 3 bks. Later, a certain Myes is claimed to have epitomized the work. Due to the fact that the fragments are mostly mysterious (e.g. F 1-3 with the comm. of Jacoby) and that later authors such as Dionysius from Hali…

Hermeias [1-2]

(260 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Laks, André
(Ἑρμείας; Hermeías) see also Hermias (Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Of Methymna, author of Sikelika, dated 4th cent. BC of Methymna. Probably 4th cent. BC. First ‘foreign’ author of Sikeliká, comprising 10 or 12 bks and covering the period up to 376/5 (Diod. Sic. 15,37,3). As only a single fragment is extant, he hardly seems to have influenced the subsequent tradition. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Fr.: FGrH 558. Bibliography: K. Meister, Die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1990, 69. [German version] [2] Of Curium, iambic poet, Hellenistic period of Curium, iambi…

Hyperochus

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑπέροχος; Hypérochos) from the Lower Italian Cyme, period unknown (according to Jacoby, commentary on H., FGrH 576) 3rd cent. BC at the earliest, 2nd cent. AD at the latest). Author of a local history of Cyme ( Kymaiká), of which only 3 fragments are extant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hypsicrates

(86 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὑψικράτης; Hypsikrátēs) of Amisus. Historian and grammarian who lived to be 92 years old ([Lucian] Macrob. 22). The few fragments of his historical work point to the period of Caesar or Augustus (end of the 1st cent. BC). He also wrote about Homer, whom he viewed as a contemporary of Hesiod, and gave etymologies of Greek and Latin words that Varro rejected. In so doing, he derived Latin vocabulary from the Greek. FGrH 190. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography R. Giomini, Ipsicrate, in: Maia 8, 1956, 49-55.

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Deinomenids

(57 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Ruling dynasty at first in Gela, later in Syracuse. Founded by  Deinomenes [1] of Gela and continued by his four sons Gelon, Hieron, Thrasybulus and Polyzalus. The marriage of Theron's daughter  Damarete to Gelon resulted in close relations of kinship between the Deinomenids and the Emmenids of Acragas (cf. fig.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Timomachus

(495 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Τιμόμαχος/ Timómachos). [German version] [1] From Thebes, commander in the Peloponnesian War commander of the Theban Aegidae, claimed to have supported the Spartans with his army in the conflict against Amyclae [1] and to have instructed them in the art of warfare. His bronze armour was displayed at the Hyacinthia (Hyacinthus) and T. himself was always highly honoured in Sparta (Aristot. fr. 532 Rose). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Nafissi, La nascita del kosmos, 1991, 324-326. [German version] [2] Athenian strategist from Acharnae, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategist …

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Menaechmus

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέναιχμος/ Ménaichmos). [German version] [1] M. of Sicyon Greek historian and antiquary, 4th cent. BC Greek historian and antiquary of the 4th cent. BC. Author of a Pythian history ( Pythikós), which was superseded by a list of victors of the Pythian Games at Delphi composed by Aristotle (T 3) and therefore must have existed in the early 330s (cf. Syll.3 275). A history of Alexander, ( Historía hē katá ton Makedóna Aléxandron) is entirely lost (T 1), while only fragments remain of a local history of Sicyon ( Sikyōniká). Fragments of a treatise ‘On Artists ( Perí technítōn, F 3-6; 9) deal pr…

Hellenica Oxyrhynchia

(604 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Two series of papyrus fragments, both 2nd cent. AD.: P Oxy. 842 = PLond., year of discovery 1906, ed. by Grenfell and Hunt (who called the anonymous author P. = Papyrus) and PSI 1304 = PFlor., year of discovery 1942, belonging to one and the same work of history from the first half of the 4th cent. BC and comprising a total of c. 20 pages of Greek history (with gaps!). There is also possibly another new fragment, cf. [1]. Contents: events in the Ionian-Decelean war ( Decelea), particularly the naval battle of Notium in 407/6 (= PFlor.). Political atmosphere…

Adranodorus

(116 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀδρανόδωρος; Adranódōros). Son-in-law of Hieron II of Syracuse. In 215 BC (with others) made guardian of Hieronymus, the 15-year-old grandson and successor of Hieron II, he was responsible for the radical turning of Syracusian politics to the Carthaginians. After the death of Hieronymus in 214, he secured Ortygia and received the office of   strategos . His plan to attain leadership of Syracuse, which was supported by his wife Demarete, led in the same year to his murder in the city hall of Syracuse (Pol. 7,2,1; 5,4 f.; Liv. 24,4,3 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliogra…

Dieuchidas

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Διευχίδας; Dieuchídas). Son of Praxion of Megara, 4th cent. BC. Author of the Megariká in at least five vols. with broad treatment of the early period. The terminal date is uncertain, as is the chronological relationship with  Ephorus. In accounts of the temple of Delphi, a D. appears in the college of the naopoioí (‘temple builders’) in 338-329 (Syll.3 241 C 141; 250 I 21). He is usually identified with this D. contrary to [1. 13ff.]. Only 11 fragments preserved. FGrH 485 (with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 L. Piccirilli, Megarika, 1975.

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Aristomache

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριστομάχη; Aristomáchē). Older sister of Dion, after 397 BC a spouse of  Dionysius I (Diod. Sic. 14,44,8). Arete, a daughter from this marriage, later married Dionysius. After his assassination in 354, A. and Arete were imprisoned. They were freed in the following year, but died on the sea voyage to the Peloponnese (Plut. Dion 57 f.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Leandr(i)us

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Λεάνδρ(ι)ος; Leándr(i)os). L. of Miletus, author of Milesiaká in at least 2 books that were repeatedly used by Callimachus [3]. Often, the name Leandr(i)us is considered a corruption and equated to Maeandrius of Miletus (also attested in inscriptions: Syll.3 599 and IPriene 37ff.), the author of the Historíai. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography Editions: FGrH 491 and 492 with commentary

Archagathus

(345 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀρχάγαθος; Archágathos). [German version] [1] Son of Agathocles [2] (end of the 4th cent. BC) Before his return to Sicily in 308/7 BC  Agathocles [2] gave the command of the African troops to his eldest son A. despite his poor military ability. Since the latter fragmented the invasion army, the Carthaginians soon achieved significant successes and encircled A. in Tunes (Diod. Sic. 20,57-61). Even Agathocles could not reverse the situation in Africa after his return and fled to Sicily while abandoning the army. Therefore, embittered soldiers killed A. (Diod. Sic. 20,68). Meister, Klau…

Philistus

(658 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φίλιστος; Phílistos). [German version] A. Life P. of Syracuse, c. 430-356 BC, confidant, advisor, officer and historian of Dionysius I and II. P. helped Dionysius [1] I seize power in 406/5 (FGrH 556 T 3), commanded the tyrant's fortress on Ortygia for many years (T 5 c) and was entrusted with building the Adriatic colonial empire (T 5 a). Around 386, he was banished for personal reasons, probably only returning under Dionysius [2] II, whereupon he became the latter's most trusted advisor. P. was a stau…

Callixeinus

(115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Καλλίξεινος; Kallíxeinos) of Rhodes, probably 2nd cent. BC. Wrote ‘On Alexandria’ in at least four bks. Two longer quotes are preserved in Athenaeus (5,196a-206c): F 2 on a splendid procession ( pompḗ) of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (279/78? BC), the other F 1 on the grand shipbuilding of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-204). The work was neither a local history nor a perihegesis ( Periegetes) of Alexandria, but rather a collection of reports on special events ordered according to content. FGrH 627. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography G. Grimm, Alexandreia. Die erste K…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Acestorides

(51 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀκεστορίδης; Akestorídēs). From Corinth. Chosen as stratēgos c. 323/2 BC by the Syracusians. In order to reconcile oligarchs and (moderate) democrats with one another, he supposedly tried to remove  Agathocles [2] who was suspected of tyranny (Diod. Sic. 19,5,1). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography K. Meister, CAH 7.1, 21984, 387 f.

Archonides

(99 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀρχωνίδης; Archōnídēs). [German version] [1] King of Herbita on Sicily (2nd half 5th cent. BC) King of Herbita and other Sicilian communities. Participated in the founding of  Cale Acte by Ducetius about 446/5 BC (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2) and died around 414 as a friend of the Athenians (Thuc. 7,1,4). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of Herbita on Sicily (End of 5th cent. BC) King of Herbita and a friend of the Athenians (IG II2 32). Concluded in 403/2 a peace with  Dionysius I and founded the town Halaesa Archonideius (Diod. Sic. 14,16). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Ducetius

(344 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] One of the few Sicels known by name, mentioned only by Diodorus (11,76-12,30, drawing on Timaeus) in an overly dramatic account (see [1. 50ff.] and [2. 99ff.]). In 466-461 BC, supported by the Sicels, D. attempted to use the chaotic conditions after the fall of the tyrants to establish a power base in Sicily (cf. Diod. Sic. 11,72,3-73; 76,4-6; 86,2-87). In 461/0 he moved with Syracuse against  Aitne [2] and expelled the mercenaries of the tyrant Hieron. Two years later he founded …

Damarete

(218 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμαρέτη; Damarétē). [German version] [1] Wife of Gelon of Syracuse Daughter of Theron of Acragas and wife of Gelon of Syracuse, after his death wife of Polyzalus. Diod. Sic. (11,26,3) and the schol. 15 (29) to Pindar (Ol. 2) report that after the battle of Himera in 480 BC, D. spoke out in favour of making peace with the Carthaginians and treating them humanely. From the proceeds of the golden wreath weighing 100 talents which she received from them for her actions, she had so-called damareteia minted ─ commemorative coins ─ that each had a value of 10 Attic drachmas or 50 litrai (17 specimens…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Theotimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεότιμος; Theótimos). Greek historian of the Hellenistic period. Author of various works of local history: On Cyrene (FGrH 470 F 1 and 2), Italiká (FGrH 834 F 1), Against Aeelurus (FGrH 470 F 3-5), a Rhodean specialist author of unknown period (Aieluros FGrH 528). FGrH 470 and 834. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., the ‘father of history’ (Cic. Leg. 1,1,5), c. 485-424 BC (fundamental for all of the following: [1]) are, apart from the information he provided himself in particular, the Suda s.v. H. or s.v. Panyassis. H. came from Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in the south-west of Asia Minor. The names of his father, Lyxes, and his uncle, Panyassis, a famou…

Hieron

(898 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱέρων; Hiérōn). [German version] [1] H. I. Tyrant of Syracuse around 500 BC from Gela,  Deinomenid, brother of Gelon [1], born c. 540/530 BC. Married first a daughter of Nicocles of Syracuse (before 485), then of Anaxilaus of Rhegium ( c. 480) and finally of Xenocrates, a brother of Theron of Acragas ( c. 475). He was many times a victor in horse and chariot races in Delphi (482, 478, 470) and Olympia (476, 472, 468) [1. 208ff.]. Entrusted with the rulership of Gela by Gelon in 485, he succeeded the latter in 478 as tyrant of Syracuse. H. operat…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Marmor Parium

(369 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Hellenistic chronicle on marble from Paros; two extensive parts have survived: In the year 1627, fragment A (lines 1-93) from Smyrna came into the possession of Earl Thomas Howard of Arundel, but lines 1-45 were lost during the turmoil under Charles I. and are only known from the editio princeps by J. Selden [1]. Lines 46-93 have been in Oxford since 1667. In 1897, fragment B (lines 101-132, FHG 1, 542-555) was discovered on Paros; today, it is kept at the local museum there. The Marmor Parium represents a Greek universal chronicle with the purpose of educating a…
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