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Ceto

(62 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κητώ; Kētṓ). Daughter of Pontus and Gaia. By her brother  Phorcys, she gives birth to the  Graeae, the Gorgons ( Gorgo), and  Echidna and the serpent who guards the golden apples of the  Hesperides (Hes. Theog. 238; 270-336; Apollod. 1,10; 2,37); according to a later version the  Hesperides are also her daughters (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Cychreus

(145 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κυχρεύς; Kychreús). Protective hero of the island of Salamis. Son of  Poseidon and Salamis, the daughter of Asopus (Paus. 1,35,2). He liberates the Island of  Salamis from a dreadful snake, thus making it habitable and becomes the first inhabitant and king of the island. As he has no sons, he transfers rule to  Telamon, who is fleeing from Aegina, and gives him his daughter Glauce in marriage (Apollod. 3,161; Diod. Sic. 4,72,7). C. had a shrine on the island (Plut. Solon 9) and wa…

Mycena

(96 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Μυκήνη; Mykḗnē). Achaean, daughter of Inachus [1] and Melia (Argivian nymph, Meliae), by Arestor the mother of Argus [I 2] (schol. Hom. Od. 2,120; Paus. 2,16,3f.). The suitor Antinous mentions M. together with Tyro and Alcmene in a eulogy to Penelope as an example of skilful and cunning women of the dim and distant past (Hom. Od. 2,120). Another tradition viewed her as the one who gave her name to Mycenae (Mycenae; Eust. in Hom. Il. 2,569: Laconian nymph; Nonnus, Dion. 41,267f.: ‘bright-eyed’ maiden; schol. in Nic. Alex. 103: heroine). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Ceryx

(55 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κῆρυξ; Kêryx). Progenitor of the priestly lineage of Ceryces officiating in Eleusis, according to whom he was the son of Hermes and one of the three daughters of Cecrops,  Aglaurus [2],  Herse or  Pandrosus; according to another genealogy, he was the son of Eumolpus (schol. Soph. OC 1053). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Ceisus

(108 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κεισός, Κίσσος; Keisós, Kíssos). Eldest son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argus, and the brother of  Phalces, Cerynes, Agaius (different at Apollod. 2,179) and  Hyrnetho. When the king prefers Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes over his sons as his successors, they conspire under the leadership of C. against their father and have him murdered. They, however, are forced from the throne by the army in favour of the legitimate royal couple and are banished from the land (Nicolaus…

Laodamas

(196 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Λαοδάμας; Laodámas, ‘subjugator of peoples’). [German version] [1] Son of Eteocles Son of Eteocles [1]. In his youth, Creon [1] is his guardian; as soon as L. is of legal age he succeeds his father (Paus. 1,39,2). In the Battle at Glisas, he kills the Epigone Aegialeus [1], son of Adrastus, but is himself killed by Alcmaeon (Apollod. 3,83). According to another version, he withdraws after a defeat, with some of his followers, to the Encheleans in Illyria, where his ancestor Cadmus once ruled (Hdt. 5,61; Paus. 9,5,13), another part conquers Homole in Thessaly (Paus. 9,8,6). Michel, Raphael…

Lacius

(146 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Λάκιος; Lákios, ‘the ragged one’). [German version] [1] Attic hero Attic hero, after whom the deme Laciadae was named; his heroon was on the Sacred Road to Eleusis (Paus. 1,37,2). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Rhodian from Lindus Rhodian from Lindus, mythical founder of the Lycian city of Phaselis near the border with Pamphylia. When L. went to Delphi with his brother Antiphemus, to question the oracle, he was sent east, his brother west. As a result he founded Phaselis, and his brother Gela in Sicily (Aristaenetus…

Kory(n)thos

(28 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κόρυ(ν)θος). Epithet of Apollo at Corone in Messene. He was worshipped as a healing god, following an ancient tradition (Paus. 4,34,7). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Cleoboea

(122 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Κλεόβοια; Kleóboia). [German version] [1] Virgin of the mysteries of Demeter A virgin who supposedly brought the mysteries of  Demeter from Paros to Thasos. In the famous painting of  Polygnotus in Delphi she was depicted with a cista mystica -- in iconography a symbol of keeping secrets (Paus. 10,28,3). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Wife of Phobius Wife of Phobius, king of Miletus. She fell in love with Antheus, who was staying at court as a hostage, but sought revenge because he rejected her. She chased a tame partridge into a deep we…

Lampetus

(60 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Λάμπετος; Lámpetos). Hero of Lesbos. In the epic Λέσβου κτίσις/ Lésbou ktísis (‘The Founding of Lesbos’), preserved in fragments, Achilles devastates the island, slaying L. and the other heroes in the siege of Methymna (Anonymus FGrH 479 F 1; Parthenius 21). In later times a tomb is attributed to L. (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτειον). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Occasio

(95 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] Female personification of 'opportunity' or the 'favourable moment'. O. is the Roman equivalent of Greek Kairos, although there is far less literary evidence for it. O. is represented with winged shoes and a small wheel, as symbols of its unstable and fleeting nature, whereas its face is hidden by a forelock and the back of the head is bold, a symbol of the difficulty of recognizing and grasping the right moment (Dicta Catonis, Disticha 2,26; Auson. epigrammata 33 Prete). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography H. Rüdiger, Göttin Gelegenheit, in: Arcadia 1, 1966, 121-166.

Leukos

(50 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Λευκός/ Leukós, ‘the white’). Boeotian epithet of Hermes. The cult of Hermes L. was established due to an oracle which held that the Tanagraeans must sacrifice a boy and a girl in order to persist in the war against the Eretrians (schol. Lycoph. 680). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Callidice

(111 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Καλλιδίκη; Kallidíkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus and Metaneira The most beautiful daughter of the Eleusinian king  Celeus and his wife  Metaneira. Along with her sisters Cleisidice, Demo, and Callithoe, she meets  Demeter who is mourning her daughter  Persephone and invites her home in the name of her sisters (H. Hom. 2.110; 146). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Wife of Odysseus Queen of Thesprotia in Epirus. In the Cyclic epic  Telegonia, she becomes the wife of  Odysseus once his journey comes to an end. After her death, Odysse…

Clymenus

(322 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Κλύμενος; Klýmenos, ‘the famous’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Hades-Pluto Epithet of  Hades-Pluto, in the Argive  Hermion(e). The Demeter temple there is said to have been erected by C. and his sister Chthonia: When  Demeter arrives in Argolis, she is ignored by their father Phoroneus, and Chthonia disapproves of her father's behaviour. As punishment the father is burned, together with the house, but she is brought to Hermione to erect a sanctuary to Demeter. Thus, C. (Ov. Fast. 6,757) and Chthonia …

Cinadus

(68 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κίναδος, Kínados, ‘Fox’). One of the helmsmen of  Menelaus. His tomb is said to have existed on the Laconian foothills of the Onugnathus (‘Donkey chin’) opposite the island of  Cythera, not far from a shrine to Athena, supposedly built by Agamemnon (Paus. 3,22,10). In the ‘Odyssey (Hom. Od. 3,282) he is called  Phrontis; however, this person was buried on Cape Sunium. Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Cleisonymus

(54 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Κλεισώνυμος; Kleisṓnymos, ‘Noted with Praise’; also Cleitonymus: Apollod. 3,176). Son of  Amphidamas [2] from Opus in Locria. He was accidentally slain by the young  Patroclus in a dispute during an  astragalos game, whereupon Patroclus was taken to safety with Peleus (Hom. Il. 23,84-90; Schol. Hom. Il. 12,1). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Laocoosa

(61 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
[German version] (Λαοκόωσα; Laokóōsa). Daughter of Oebalus and wife to her own half-brother Aphareus [1]; mother of Idas, Lynceus (Theoc. 22.206) and Peisos (Apollod. 3.117). According to Apollodorus and Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 127), her name was Arene (eponym of the homonymous Messenian town: Paus. 2,4,2), according to Peisander (FGrH 16 F 2) she was Polydora. Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Laerces

(62 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Λαέρκης/ Laérkēs, ‘where there is protection for warriors’). [German version] [1] Myrmidon A Myrmidon, son of Haemon, father of Alcimedon [2] (Hom. Il. 16,197; 17,467). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Goldsmith from Pylos A goldsmith from Pylos; he had to gild the horns of an ox that was destined to be sacrificed to Athena (Hom. Od. 3,425). Michel, Raphael (Basle)

Leonteus

(206 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεοντεύς; Leonteús, ‘lion’). [German version] [1] Leader of the Lapiths' contingent at Troy Son of Coronus. With Polypoetes he leads the contingent of the Lapithae at Troy. Together, they also defend the Greek camp and participate in the funerary games for Patroclus (Hom. Il. 2,745ff.; 12,128ff.; 23,837ff.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography H. W. Stoll, s.v. L., Roscher 2, 1944-1945. [German version] [2] Of Lampsacus, student of Epicurus L. of Lampsacus, one of the most important students of Epicurus. L. and his wife Themista got to know Epicurus during …

Callithoe

(162 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus and Metaneira (Καλλιθόη, Kallithóe, ‘excelling in speed’). Oldest daughter of  Celeus, King of Eleusis, and of  Metaneira. C. and her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Demo invited  Demeter, who was grieving for her daughter Persephone, to their home (H. Hom. 2,110). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography N. J. Richardson, The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, 1974, 183-185. [German version] [2] First priestess of Hera First priestess of Hera Argia's sanctuary in Argos or in Tiryns [1]. She was the first to decorate a column with w…

Leuconoe

(234 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Phosphorus (Λευκονόη; Leukonóē). Daughter of Phosphoros. With Apollo the father, she is the mother of Philammon (Hyg. Fab. 161) whose mother is otherwise said to be Chione [2] or Philonis (Hyg. Fab. 200; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 120; Conon FGrH 26 F 1,7). Michel, Raphael (Basle) Bibliography M. C. van der Kolf, s.v. Philonis, RE 20, 74-75. [German version] [2] Attic asty deme (Λευκονόη, Phot. s.v.). Records of the name: Suda s.v. Λευκόνιον, Harpocr. s.v. Λευκόνοιον/[ἐγ Λ]ευκονοίο (500/480 BC) [3]. The demotica in the 4th cent. BC alwa…

Caucones

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle)
(Καύκωνες; Kaúkōnes). [German version] [1] Tribe on the Peloponnese Hom. Od. 3,366 prompted logographers and exegetes of Homer to place the settlement area of this tribe on the Peloponnese. The results of these investigations are recorded by Strabo (7,7,1f.; 8,3,11; 8,3,16f.). Accordingly, the C. settled chiefly in Triphylia (grave of Caucon in  Lepreum), but also penetrated into Arcadia and Messenia. Antimachus even referred to the western Achaean  Dyme [1] as Cauconian (schol. Lycoph. 571), probably af…

Messene

(776 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Triopas of Argos Daughter of Triopas of Argos (Paus. 4,1,1; other genealogy: schol. Eur. Or. 932). She married Polycaon, son of the Laconian king Lelex, and incited him to conquer the country that was later named after her, Messenia ( Messana [2]) (Paus. 4,1,2). There, they founded Andania, among other cities, and built a palace. It is believed that through Caucon, M. established the Eleusinian Mysteries ( Mysteria) in Andania (Paus. 4,1,5; 1,9). In his…

Caranus

(99 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κάρανος; Káranos). [German version] [1] Founded the Macedonian royal house Founded the Macedonian royal house according to Diod. Sic. 7. 15-17 as a descendant of the Heraclid Temenus (Theopompus FGrH 115 F 393) after immigrating from Argus. He replaces  Perdiccas, named as progenitor of the Macedons in Hdt. 8. 137-139. Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Alleged son of Philippus II Alleged son of  Philippus II, killed by  Alexander [4] the Great after Philippus' death (Just. Epit. 11. 2. 3). Since  Satyrus in Athenaeus (12.557) does not name him, his existence is doubtful. Bad…

Cleitus

(556 words)

Author(s): Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Κλειτός, Κλεῖτος, Κλῖτος; Kleitós, Kleîtos, Klîtos, ‘The Famous One’). [German version] [1] Nephew of the seer Melampus Nephew of the famous seer  Melampus, son of Mantius, father of Coeranus. He was abducted by Eos because of his beauty (Hom. Od. 15,249f.; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 115a). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [2] Great nephew of C. [1] Great nephew of C. [1], son of Polyidus and Eurydameia. He and his brother Euchenor marched with the Epigones ( Epigoni [2]) against Thebes and then joined Agamemnon (Pherecydes ibid.). Michel, Raphael (Basle) [German version] [3] Son of…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…
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