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Gradual

(485 words)

Author(s): Mitchell, Nathan D.
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Historically, the gradual ( graduale) was responsive singing using a psalm text, which followed after the first Scripture reading (Epistle) in the liturgy of the Roman mass. This was followed by a second chant, the Alleluia, sung directly before the Gospel reading. On certain ¶ penitential days and during Lent, the Alleluia was replaced by the singing of a psalm text known as the tract. The word gradual referred to the steps (Lat. gradus) of the ambo (Lectern) where the singer stood. In the 1970 Roman Missal the gradual bec…

Cult/Worship

(8,783 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Dorothea | Xella, Paolo | Ego, Beate | Niebuhr, Karl-Wilhelm | Lehmkühler, Karsten | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Scholarship – III. Ancient Near East – IV. Old Testament and Early Judaism – V. New Testament – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. Christianity – VIII. Liturgical Practice – IX. Ethics I. Religious Studies 1. Concept The word “cult” comes from Lat. cultus. Cicero ( De senectute 56) uses the phrase cultus deorum in the sense of “worship of the gods.” It invariably refers to acts of “care and tending”; in secular contexts the word denotes agrarian work (cf. agriculture). There are analogous words in other ancient languages…

Exorcism

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Figge, Horst H. | Kollmann, Bernd | Streib, Heinz | Mitchell, Nathan D. | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. New Testament – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgy – V. Missiology I. Comparative Religion Exorcism, latinized from the Greek ἐξορκίζεῖν/ exorkízein, literally “to conjure out,” consists of procedures aimed at removing psychic, social, or material disruptions that are attributed to the presence of undesirable spirits. Exorcism is accordingly practiced worldwide and …

Worship

(19,016 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Lauber, Hans-Christoph | Mitchell, Nathan D. | Senn, Frank C. | Galadza, Peter | White, James F. | Et al.
1. NT and Early Church 1.1. Term and Usage The term “worship” (from “worth-ship”) has established itself as a general word for the service that is rendered to God in praise, prayer, proclamation and hearing of the Word, and administration of the sacraments. An older term is “divine service” (cf. the German Gottesdienst, which M. Luther used as a technical term for gatherings for worship), though along with its specific use this term has a broader reference to Christian life and diakonia. A common phrase today for gatherings for worship is “worshi…