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Liturgy/Dramaturgy

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
1. The term ‘liturgy’ derives from the Greek leitourgia, which denotes the execution of an act by or for the people—a “public service.” The technical concept was coined in a context of sacred devotion, with the specific meaning of a ritual, publicly performed, service to a deity. In the Church, it is generally understood that the Eucharist (→ Lord's Supper/Eucharist) will be at the center of a liturgy. The world over, liturgical celebrations are closely linked to temporal cycles and calendars, and, in their constant recurrence, receive their own resp…

Rasa

(280 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
[German Version] (lit. “taste, essence”) is primarily a term from Indian aesthetics and poetics that includes archetypal moods, the essence of what can be experienced, and of human feelings as such. The oldest written source is thought to be the Nāṭyaśāstra, a dance and theater manual, dated to the 2nd century (Kūtiyāṭṭam, Indian ¶ dance). It already lists eight of the nine moods current today: śṛṇgāra, “erotic mood”; hāsya, “comic”; karuṇa, “compassion”; raudra, “terrifying”; vīra, “heroic”; bhayānaka, “terrible”; bībhatsa, “revolting,” and adbhuta, “wonderful”; the l…

Rāga

(177 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
[German Version] (lit. “dye, passion, red”) denotes in both North and South Indian music the musical mode. The definition of a rāga covers the fixed base tone, the central tones, and the group of permitted tones that make possible the improvised development of a theme or the composition of multi-part art songs (South India), as long as specific rules and stylistic features (ornamentations and melisma) are observed. Moreover, the emotional mood plays an important part: in North Indian music it is related to times of …

Rāga

(171 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
[English Version] Rāga, wörtl. »Färben, Leidenschaft, Rot«, bez. in der nord- wie in der südindischen Musik den musikalischen Modus. Die Definition eines R. beinhaltet den festen Grundton, die Zentraltöne und die Gruppe von erlaubten Tönen, welche unter Beachtung bestimmter Regeln und stilistischer Merkmale (Verzierungen und Melismen) die improvisatorische Entwicklung eines Themas bzw. das Komponieren mehrteiliger Kunstlieder (Südindien) ermöglichen. Des weiteren spielt die emotionale Stimmung ein…

Rasa

(265 words)

Author(s): Moser, Heike
[English Version] Rasa, wörtl. »Geschmack, Essenz«, ist vornehmlich ein Begriff aus der indischen Ästhetik und Poetik, welcher archetypische Stimmungen, die Essenz des Erlebbaren, der menschlichen Gefühle an sich umfaßt. Als älteste schriftliche Quelle gilt das Nāṭyaśāstra, eine Abh. über Tanz und Theater, welche ins 2.Jh. datiert wird (Kūṭiyāṭṭam, indischer Tanz). Hier werden bereits acht der heute gängigen neun Stimmungen aufgelistet: śṛn˙gāra, »erotische Gestimmtheit«, hāsya, »Komisches«, …