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Sahagún, Bernardino de Ribeira

(583 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (born Ribeira, B. de; Dec 1499?, Sahagún, León – Oct 1590?, Mexico City), Spanish Franciscan, pioneer of ethnography in America and cultural anthropology. Almost nothing is known of his childhood and youth. He probably studied at Salamanca, where he joined the Franciscans; in 1529 he was in Mexico, conquered only shortly before by H. Cortés. He stayed in Mexico until the end of his life, serving as a missionary, teacher, and researcher, and sometimes holding high office in his ord…

Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de

(233 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1600, Fitero, Navarre – Oct 1, 1659, El Burgo de Osma, Soria), Spanish Catholic theologian and politician. Following studies in Salamanca and his ordination to the priesthood in ¶ 1629, he was appointed crown attorney of the counsels of war and of the Indies (Consejo de Indias). He spent the years 1640–1649 in New Spain, where he briefly held the highest offices: viceroy, inspector general, and archbishop of Mexico in 1642, and bishop of Puebla de los Angeles from 1640 to 1655. He attempted to implemen…

Tlatelolco

(109 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] A Chichimec settlement (13th cent.?) that developed into an important marketplace and trading hub, it was conquered by the Aztecs in 1473 and incorporated into Tenochtitlán (Aztec religion: I). Destroyed by the Spaniards in 1521, the ruins of Tlatelolco, the 16th/17th-century church of Santiago de Tlatelolco with the ancient Franciscan monastery, and the 16th-century college of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco along with modern buildings constitute the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Mexico City. Richard Nebel Bibliography A. Eggebrecht, ed., Glanz und Untergang des Al…

Landa, Diego de

(194 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Nov 12, 1524, Cifuentes, Spain – Apr 29, 1579, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico), OFM. De Landa, of an aristocratic family, entered the monastery of San Juan de los Reyes in Toldeo. Ordained to the priesthood in 1549, he went to Yucatán, which had just been conquered by Francisco de Montejo. In 1552 he was appointed guardian of the Mission San Antonio de Izamal and in 1561 provincial for San José de Yucatán and Guatemala. On Aug 12, 1562, De Landa carried out an auto-da-fé in Maní during which Mayan illuminated manuscripts were burned. Accused of rigid inquisitorial me…

Mendieta, Gerónimo de

(196 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jerónimo; 1525, Vitoria, Alava, Spain – May 9, 1604, México D.F.), OFM, came to México in 1554 and was active as a missionary especially among the Nahua. In 1562, he stayed in Toluca, in 1567 in Tlalmanalco, and from 1570 to 1573 he travelled to Spain. Afterwards, he was guardian in the monasteries of Xochimilco, México, Tepeaca, Huejotzingo, and in other places. In the late 16th century, he wrote “the first Mexican church history.” In this survey of the evangelization of some of…

Montezuma

(196 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Montezuma; in Aztec Motecuhzoma etc., “angry lord”), Aztec rulers: 1. Montezuma I, Ilhuicamina (?–1469, Tenochtitlán), fifth ruler of Tenochtitlán, following his uncle Itzcoatl, 1440–1469; co-founder of the state system instituted by the Mexica; he promoted culture (botanical gardens, medicine). ¶ 2. Montezuma II, Xocoyotzin (1467, Tenochtitlán – Jun 30, 1520, Tenochtitlán), ninth ruler of Tenochtitlán, great-grandson of 1.; succeeded his uncle Ahuítzotl in office. Expansion and far-reaching trade created the condition…

Durán, Diego

(194 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (c. 1537, Seville – 1588, Mexico), a Dominican (1556) from a family of converted Jews (?); in New Spain c. 1542; worked in Texcoco and for shorter periods in Oaxaca, Chimalhuacan Atenco, Hueyapan and Mexico. Durán published a Historia (1581) of the Aztecs and their religion ( Libro de los Ritos, 1570; Calendario Antiguo, 1579), an authentically Mexican history with a Spanish physiognomy (first published in 1867–1889); alongside the works of Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc and the Códice Ramírez, it is one of the most successful accounts…

Motolinía, Toribio de

(245 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Toribio de Benavente; Paredes; 1490?, Benavente, Zamora, Spain – Aug 9, 1569?, Mexico), OFM, one of the “12 apostles” who went to Mexico in 1524 under the leadership of M. de Valencia in order to establish “the true church of Christ” in the spirit of mystical millenarianism. He advocated and practiced the Franciscan ideal of poverty; the Nahuatl called him “the poor man” (in Náhuatl: Motolinea). In 1531 he co-founded the town of Puebla de los Angeles, and became guardian of the convents in México, Texcoco, Huejotzingo, Tlaxcala, and elsewhere;…

Guadalupe

(276 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Mexico). The veneration of Our Lady of Guadalupe that arose during the Reconquista in the Spanish Extremadura also spread in the era of European expansion to the viceroyalty of New Spain, where, according to B. de Sahagún OFM, it was already initiated after the conquest of Aztec Tenochtitlán by H. Cortés (1521) in place of an earlier sanctuary to the goddess Tonantzin Cihuacóatl (Our Beloved Mother, Lady Serpent) on the hill of Tepeyac (modern Mexico City) and developed into the …

Tlatelolco

(96 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] . Chichimekensiedlung (13.Jh.?), die sich zu einem bedeutenden Markt- und Handelszentrum entwickelte, das 1473 von den Azteken erobert und Tenochtitlán (Aztekische Religion: I.) eingegliedert wurde. 1521 von den Spaniern zerstört, bilden Reste von T., die Kirche Santiago (16./17.Jh.) mit dem alten Franziskanerkloster und Kolleg Santa Cruz de T. (16.Jh.) sowie moderne Gebäude den »Platz der drei Kulturen« in Mexiko-Stadt. Richard Nebel Bibliography A. Eggebrecht (Hg.), Glanz und Untergang des Alten Mexiko, 1986 R. Nebel, Schulbildung für Kazikensöhn…

Zumárraga

(185 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] Zumárraga, Juan de (1468? Durango, Biscaya – 3.6.1548 Mexiko-Stadt), span. Franziskaner, Erzbf. und Inquisitor in Mexiko. Superior, Definitor und Provinzial seines Ordens in Spanien; Guardian im Kloster Abrojo bei Valladolid; 1527 Inquisitor von Navarra und als erster Bf. von Mexiko vorgeschlagen. 1528 als »Protektor der Indios« in Mexiko; Konfrontation mit der ersten Audiencia, daher erst am 27.4.1533 in Valladolid zum Bf. geweiht. 1534 wieder in Mexiko; 1533–1543 Apostolischer In…

Veracruz

(183 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] (Vera Cruz), Alonso (Gutiérrez) de la (1505? Caspueñas, Guadalajara – México 1584), span. Augustiner und Wegbereiter der Lehre der eur. Philos. in Mexiko. Studium in Salamanca und Alcalá, u.a. bei F. de  Vitoria. V. lehrte Philos. in Salamanca. 1536 [?] in Neuspanien (Mexiko), wurde V. Augustiner, erlernte die Purépecha-Sprache, lehrte u.a. am Kolleg von Tiripetío in Michoacán, wo er eine der ersten Bibliotheken der Neuen Welt einrichtete. Initiator einer Bodenreform in Mexiko. 1548–1…

Valencia

(162 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] Valencia, Martín de (1474? Valencia de Don Juan, León, Spanien – 31.3.1534? bei Amecameca, Mexiko), span. Franziskaner und »Begründer der mexikanischen Kirche«. Noviziat im Konvent von Mayorga, ließ das Kloster Nuestra Señora del Berrogal bei Belvís erbauen und wurde Mitbegründer der Kustodie San Gabriel in der Extremadura und deren erster Provinzial. Er kam 1524 als Leiter der als »Zwölf Apostel Mexikos« bez. Franziskaner zur Christianisierung der indigenen Bevölkerung nach Zentra…

Palafox y Mendoza

(174 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de (24.6.1600 Fitero, Navarra – 1.10.1659 El Burgo de Osma, Soria), span. kath. Theologe und Politiker. Studium in Salamanca, 1629 Priesterweihe, Kronanwalt des Kriegsrats und Indienrats. 1640–1649 in Neuspanien, wo er kurzzeitig die höchsten Ämter innehatte: 1642 Vizekönig, Generalinspekteur, Erzbf. von Mexiko und 1640–1655 Bf. von Puebla de los Angeles. Er versuchte, die Beschlüsse des Tridentinums durchzusetzen, förderte Kunst, Kultur und Kirchenbau und grü…

Sahagún

(533 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[English Version] Sahagún, Bernardino de (eigentlich: Ribeira, B. de; Dezember 1499? Sahagún, León – Oktober 1590? Mexiko), span. Franziskaner, Begründer der Ethnographie in Amerika und Pionier der Kulturanthropologie. Über Kindheit und Jugendzeit ist kaum etwas bekannt. Vermutlich Studium in Salamanca, dort Eintritt in den Franziskanerorden, seit 1529 in dem kurz zuvor durch H. Cortés eroberten Mexiko, wo er bis zum Lebensende als Missionar, Lehrer und Forscher tätig war und zeitweise hohe Ämter se…

Valencia, Martín de

(183 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (1474? Valencia de Don Juan, León, Spain – Mar 31, 1534?, near Amecameca, Mexico), Spanish Franciscan and “founder of the Mexican church.” After a novitiate at the convent of Mayorga, he saw to the building of the monastery of Nuestra Señora de Berrogal, near Belvís; he was a co-founder of the custody of San Gabriel in Extremadura and its first provincial. He traveled to central Mexico in 1524 as leader of the “12 apostles of Mexico,” a group of Franciscans sent to Christianize th…

Cortés, Hernán

(226 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Jul 1485?, Medellín, Badajoz, Spain – Dec 2, 1547, Castilleja de la Cuesta, Seville), a Spanish conquistador in Mexico. He was from the lesser nobility; he did not finish his studies in Salamanca; in 1504, he was in Santo Domingo, and in 1511 in Cuba. Allied with Tlaxcalteks, he destroyed the Aztec empire (1519–1521). He conquered Tenochtitlán (now Mexico City) on Aug 13, 1521; in 1522, he became general captain and (until 1528) governor of “New…

Veracruz, Alonso de la

(226 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (Vera Cruz; 1505?, Caspueñas, Guadalajara – 1584, México), Spanish Augustinian who pioneered the teaching of European philosophy in Mexico. He studied in Salamanca and Alcalá; one of his teachers was F. de Vitoria. He taught philosophy in Salamanca. In 1536 (?) he entered the Augustinian order in New Spain (Mexico); there he learned the Purépecha language and taught at the college of Tiripetío in Michoacán, where he established one of the first libraries in the New World. He was a…

Zumárraga, Juan de

(227 words)

Author(s): Nebel, Richard
[German Version] (1468?, Durango, Biscay – Jun 3, 1548, Mexico City), Spanish Franciscan, archbishop, and inquisitor in Mexico. He served as ¶ superior, definitor, and provincial of his order in Spain and as guardian of the Abrojo friary near Valladolid. In 1527 he was appointed inquisitor of Navarre and recommended as the first bishop of Mexico. He arrived in Mexico in 1528 as “Protector of the Indians,” but had a confrontation with the first Audiencia; as a result, he was not consecrated to the episcopate until Apr…