ho Póntos, Lat.
Pontus). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Location Region on the south coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) between Paphlagonia (west), Colchis (east) and Cappadocia (south), divided into a narrow northern coastal plain with various Greek towns (cf. Amisus, Cotyora, Pharnaceia, Trapezus) and an interior south of the northern Anatolian frontier mountain range around Iris  and Lycus , still known into the 1st cent. BC as Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον/
Kappadokía hē perì tòn Eúxeinon (Pol. 5,43,1; cf. ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία/
hē pròs tôi Póntōi
Kappadokía, Str. 12,1,4; 3,2; but already known as Πόντος/
Póntos and Ποντικοί/
Pontikoí in Str. 12,1,4 and 11,8,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] II. Historical outline prior to status as Roman province P. was the heartland of a Pontic kingdom that developed from 301 BC under the dynasty of the Mithridatids: Mithridates  I probably assumed the title of king in 281 BC and gained the port of Amastris  in 279 BC (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,9,4) and with it access to the sea; his son Ariobarzanes  secured Amisus (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,16); Mithridates  II, through a dynastic union with the Seleucids, acquired part of Phrygia (Justin. 38,5,3); Mithridates  III was the first of the dynasty to mint coins with his portrait [1. 10 f. No. 1-6]; Pharnaces  I conquered Sinope in 183 BC (Pol. 23,9,2 f.; Str. 12,3,11), transferring the royal residence from Amaseia there (Str. 12,3,11; perhaps this occurred under Mithridates IV), but failed in his attempt at further expansion because of the resistance of a coalition of Asia Minor that possibly came into being under Roman auspices (the 'Pontic War', 182-179); Mithridates  VI, in three disputes with the Romans (Mithridatic Wars), expanded his rule to practically the whole of Asia Minor and Greece  in 88/7 BC, but ultimately lost control completely and was forced by his son Pharanaces  (II) to commit suicide in 63 BC (App. Mithr. 522-540; Cass. Dio 37,12 f.; Just. Epit. 37,1,9…