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2.6.13. Phoenicians in Asia Minor

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
[German source] Phoenician presence and activity in Asia Minor are well attested [12]; [19]; [14]; [29]; [20109–143]; [1025–88] (Luwian cultural sphere 2.6.10.), particularly in inscriptions (on their range, cf. the map at [26913 f.]). An 11th-century vase found in Cyprus, originally from Cilicia, may establish the date at which they began [20110–113]. Other Phoenician inscriptions from Asia Minor date to the 9th–7th centuries. The earliest are the inscription of King  Kulamuwa of  Samʾal/Zincirli (KAI 24; ca. 820) and a shield with bucranium and inscription from Samʾal [13]; [7]…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.5. Israel

(2,034 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Name and geography [German source] The name Israel (Egyptian ysrʾr, Moabite yšrʾl, Assyrian Sir-ʾi-la-a-a [51200]; Hebrew Yiśrȧ’ẹl) is first attested in an inscription of Pharaoh  Merneptah (1224–1205/1213–1204/03) on his  ‘Israel Stela’ (1209) [52168–171], and it serves here as an ethnonym (although it may at the same time also be a geographical term referring to Mount Ephraim) [1758 f.]; [137–43]. There is no agreement on the meaning of the name [51200]. This evidence puts Israel in Mount Ephraim between the Jezreel Valley in the north and the highlands of …
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.15. Cyprus

(3,451 words)

Author(s): Matthäus, Hartmut | Niehr, Herbert
A. Names, significance, chronology [German source] Three factors determined the history of Cyprus (indigenous and Greek name: Kýpros; Neo-Assyrian  Jad(a)nana; Hebrew  aeraeṣ kittim, ‘isles of Kittim’; Egyptian probably  iw, on the stela of  Amasis at Elephantine) in the LBA and IA. The first was the rich reserves of  copper ore on the edge of the Troödos Mountains [20]. Copper ore was a rare material in the Mediterranean, and smelting and exporting it guaranteed economic prosperity (on copper from  Tamassus, cf. Hom. Od. 1,183–185). Such activities are confirmed by archa…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.1. Overview: Syria and Palaestina

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Terminological and geographical definition [German source] There is a variety of competing names and concepts for the Levant in the scholarly literature. Ancient sources, for instance, use the term  Amurru (‘land of the west’) to refer to the regions between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean (without defining a northern or southern boundary) from the 3rd millennium on (Canaan 2.7.4.) [4224–48]; [211–15]; [134–38]. At the time of the Assyrian king Sanherib (705–681), Phoenicia, the land of the Philistines and the kingdoms of eastern Jordan were also considered part of Amurru [215…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.4. Canaan

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Name, geography and history [German source] The province of Canaan (Phoenician  knʿn, Hebrew kenaʿan, Akkadian kinaʿanu/kinaḫḫu/kinaḫnu; Greek  Kanaán; [29352]; etymology uncertain [29352]) stretched from the environs of its main city,  Gaza, in the southwest, to north of  Beirut, where it met its northern neighbour  Amurru (capital  Ṣumur). It was bordered on the east by the province of  Upe, with its capital at  Kumidi in the  Beqaʿ Valley, and the Dead Sea [14555–557]. The territory of  Ammonitis (Ammon 2.7.8.) did not belong to Canaan [10162 f.].The earliest evidence of …
Date: 2018-08-16

3.3.2. Religion: Eastern Mediterranean

(7,430 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert | Wittke, Anne-Maria | Kubisch, Sabine | Matthäus, Hartmut
A. General principles [German source] Scholars often treat the religions of the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean world 2.7.) in the context of the ‘Fertile Crescent’. This concept, however, brings together the religions of Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Egypt as dominant, while tending to neglect those of the Aramaeans (2.7.2.), the Phoenician cities 2.7.3., Israel (2.7.5.) and Judah (2.7.6.). Lumping cultures like Egypt and Mesopotamia together also has the effect of glossing over differences between them. …
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.2. Aramaeans and Aramaic kingdoms

(4,284 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Definition, origins and settlement [German source] The Aramaeans’ settlement region extended from central and upper Mesopotamia through northern Syria and southern Anatolia to central and southern Syria and Palaestina. This geographical range gave rise to ethnic, political, military, economic and cultural contacts with Babylonia, Assyria, Anatolia (Luwian cultural sphere 2.6.10.), the Phoenician cities (2.7.3.), Israel (2.7.5.) and Judah (2.7.6.), Ammon (2.7.8.), Egypt (Lower Egypt 2.8.2.) and north…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.7.6. Judah

(2,098 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
A. Name, geography and history [German source] The etymology and meaning of the name Judah (Hebrew Yǝhudȧ) are obscure [48200]. The territory of Judah originally covered the mountainous country between  Jerusalem in the north and  Hebron in the south, bordering on the Philistines in the west, Israel (2.7.5.) in the north, the Dead Sea to the east and the Negev Desert to the south (BNP Atlas 45).The first and decisive unification of the territory occurred in the reign of  David, whose dynasty remained on the throne until the conquest of Jerusalem by  Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 [855–57]. This…
Date: 2018-08-16

2.5.14. Phoenicians on Crete and in the Aegean

(445 words)

Author(s): Niehr, Herbert
[German source] There is evidence of a  Phoenician presence on  Crete (2.5.12.) at  Kommos on the island’s southern coast, beginning in the late 9th century. There may have been a Phoenician port of call here for trade and ship repair. Apart from Phoenician pottery, the evidence consists of a sacellum in Sanctuary B, dating from around 800–760. Three freestanding cult stelae were found here on a pedestal; they have been interpreted as  baityloi for unnamed Phoenician deities. There was an site for offerings in front of these stelae, and a bronze shi…
Date: 2018-08-16