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Tashkent

(152 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] The capital of modern Uzbekistan, on the western slopes of Mount Tianshan, in an oasis irrigated by the Čirčik (a tributary of the Iaxartes). The country of Juni mentioned in 2nd cent. BC Chinese sources was later identified with the area of T. The local name was presumably Čač, as also used in the Islamic period; Arabic authors used Šaš. The earliest traces of settlement date from the 6th-4th cents. BC (Šaš-Tepe). From the 5th cent. AD several towns developed, which ultimately me…

Turfan

(280 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Town and oasis region (T. basin) in eastern Uyghurstan (Xinjian) in China, to the south of the Tianshan mountains, on the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan desert, an important station on the Silk Road. There are numerous historically and archaeologically significant places there: 10 km to the west of modern T. is the Chinese fortress of Jiaohe, which from the 2nd cent. BC until the 5th cent. AD was the capital of the kingdom of Cheshi. Around 100 BC Gaochang came into being 30 …

Rhyton

(619 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
(τὸ ῥυτόν/ tò rhytón). [German version] I. Object Funnel-shaped vessel for dispensing and drinking, usually ending in the head, or protome, of an animal; the name is derived from ῥύσις/ rhýsis (‘stream’) because the liquid could run out through a small hole at the bottom as long as it was not held closed [1; 2]. Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) Bibliography 1 F. von Lorentz, s.v. Rhyton, RE Suppl. 6, 643 2 W.H. Gross, s. v. Rhyton, KlP 4, 1426 f. [German version] II. Ancient Near East The only evidence of rhyta in the Ancient Near East and Egypt before the Achaemenids is in Anatolia,…

Palace

(3,814 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] I. Terminology and Definition The modern term ‘palace’ is derived from the Palatine (Mons Palatinus), one of Rome’s seven hills, on which the residences of the Roman emperors were located. Palaces are buildings that a ruler uses as a residence and for representation. Depending on additional functions, they could have other names in Antiquity, relating to their respective use. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) II. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Structural History In the Ancient Near East and Egypt, the palace was originally a house with considerably expa…

Ziwiye

(104 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Town in northwestern Iran with Iron Age III remains (7th cent. BC). The objects made of gold, silver, bronze, ivory and ceramics, some magnificent, published as originating in Z. in numerous museums and collections are, however, all from illicit excavations of unknown location: Z. is a label created by dealers in antiquities and unchallenged by the majority of archaeologists. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography O. W. Muscarella, 'Ziwiye' and Ziwiye: The Forgery of a Provenience, in: Journ. of Field Archaeology 4, 1977, 197-219 Id., Art and Archaeology in …

Rabbath-Ammon

(318 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Dead Sea (textual finds) | Hasmonaeans | Pompeius ( Rabbath bnē Ammōn, LXX Ῥαββά/ Rhabbá; Pol. Ῥαβατάμανα/ Rhabatámana, Assyrian bīt ammāna; Philadelphia since the mid 3rd cent. BC; modern Ammān). [German version] I. Through the Persian Period Capital city of the Ammonites (Ammon [2]); the oldest traces of settlement come from the Neolithic Age (7th-6th millennium BC). The earliest important remains with rich tombs on the citadel date from the Middle Bronze Age (1st half of the 2…

Tepe

(33 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (or Tape, Tappe; Turkish 'hill'). Frequent component of the modern name of ruin sites in the region from Near to Central Asia. Synonymous with tell. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)

Persepolis

(605 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander | Hellenistic states | India, trade with (modern Taḫt-e Ǧamšīd; Greek Πέρσαι Πόλις/ Pérsai Pólis, Περσέπολις/ Persépolis (Diod. Sic. 17,70,1 et passim.; Str. 15,3,6); Latin Persepolis (Curt. 5,4,33 et passim; Amm. Marc. 23,6,42); Ancient Persian Pārsa, homophone of the name of the territory of Persis). Situated on the north eastern edge of the Marv Dašt Plain, approx. 60 km north of Šīrāz near the opening of the valley through which the road to Pasargadae an…

Höyük

(42 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] also Hüyük. Turkish for hill, mostly used for old settlement sites that have been built up in a mound-like manner and, similar to Arabic  tell, a component in the name of many ruin sites. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Stucco, Pargetting

(533 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Mouldable, quickly hardening material of gypsum, lime, sand and water, occasionally with stone powder, which was used in many places (in Egypt from the Old Kingdom onwards, c. 2700-2190 BC) to smooth walls and as a base for painting. Figurines, vases and moulds for casting metal were also made from stucco. From the Parthian period onwards (1st cent. BC), figured or geometric stucco reliefs covering long walls are attested. They were modelled by hand or using templates; in the Sassanid and early Islamic periods they were also carved. Nissen, Hans Jörg…

Tayma

(165 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Taimā). Oasis in northwestern Arabia on the Incense Road, which led along the western side of the Arabian peninsula. The earliest traces of settlement point to the late 2nd millennium BC. T. is mentioned among the Arabian tribes defeated by the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III in 733 BC (cf. OT Jes 21,14). The last ruler of the neo-Babylonian Empire, Nabonid, stayed in T. from 552 until 542 BC (cult city of the moon goddess (Moon deities)). After the Achaemenid period T. - its…

Sanbulus

(110 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] According to Tac. Ann. 12,13,3 the place where Gotarzes II defeated Mithridates [15], his anti-king sent by Rome; it is also mentioned that the last battle between Alexander [4] the Great and Darius [3] III was fought in the same place. Reference is made to a fortress near Nineveh (Ninus [2]). S. is a mountain on which Gotarzes sacrificed to Hercules and is presumably close to the field of battle. S. has to date not been identified. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography P. Bernard, Heracles, les grottes de Karafto et le sanctuaire du Mont Sambulos en Ira…

Ziggurat

(350 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Akkadian ziqqurratu, 'temple tower', from zaqāru, 'build high'). Tower of block-shaped stages, each smaller than the one below, used as the base for a temple. Although no remains of the uppermost part of a ziggurat are extant, it is definite from descriptions that this upper part existed. The term ziggurat is sometimes also used loosely in modern scholarly terminology for the architectural construction of a 'temple on terraces'. Apart from their stepped terraces, the characteristic feature of a ziggurat is its access via a free-standing flight of…

Throne

(613 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Ceremonially decorated piece of furniture for gods and rulers to sit on, with a high back and often with arm-rests. The sides were often shaped as animals or animal protomae; the legs were often worked in the shape of animal legs. Apart from a few fragments in stone, most thrones were probably made of wood and hence in the area of the Near East have not been preserved, but are known from numerous depictions. Thrones were presumably usually provided with metal (gold) or ivory embellishments (cf. the numerous surviving examples from Egypt). Nissen, H…

Grain

(4,159 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Sallares, Robert (Manchester)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient The various species of hulled and naked wheat ( triticum = t.) and barley ( hordeum) are among the earliest domesticated plants of the Middle East (Q. Ǧarmu; Çatal H.;  Faiyum). Besides  emmer ( t. dicoccum) and einkorn ( t. monococcum), both hulled, the common or bread wheat (naked; t. aestivum) are also species of wheat. The fact that the hulled sorts, which require more work (removal of the hull through roasting), also predominated in later millennia is ascribed to their better storability [1. 35]. The species o…

Pyrgos Lithinos

(119 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Πύργος Λίθινος: Ptol. 1,12,8 M.; 6,13,2 N.; literally 'stone tower'). Important station on the Pamir on the Silk Road leading to China from the west via Antioch [7] and Bactra. Despite the favourable situation with regard to sources - Ptolemy uses the itinerary of Marinus [1] of Tyre as his basis, the latter the notes of the silk trader Maēs Titianus - no one has yet succeeded in a full identification; the town is however marked on the map [2. 6 D2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empir…

Sippar

(193 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mesopotamia full name S.-Yaẖrurum [1; 2], modern Abū Ḥabba. One of the most significant cities of northern Babylonia, counted among the cities 'before the flood' in the Sumerian kings' lists. Main cultic site of the sun god Šamaš. With origins going back to the 4th millennium BC; it reached its zenith in the 2nd and 1st millennia. The nearby twin city of S.-Amnānum (modern Tall al-Dair) can also be designated S. Supplementing the results of 19th…

Yazılıkaya

(171 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Hittite rock sanctuary (dated to c. 1260 BC), about 2 km to the northeast of the capital Ḫattusa. In a limestone layer – accessible from the outside by means of a cleft – there are two naturally formed main chambers and two side chambers, whose vertical rock walls are covered in reliefs. In front of the opening there were several buildings, serving as an entrance area for the sanctuary proper in the upwardly open rock chambers. In the centre of the depiction on the northern wall of Cha…

Town planning

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Town planning is the designing of urban settlements (Town, city) on an organizational basis, with the central and particular functions of the town, e.g. as a port or a political centre, having an effect on its external and internal form. Most towns and cities in the Middle East and Egypt arose in the earliest times (in the Middle East from the 5th millennium onwards) at economically or strategically important points (trade routes, river crossings, anchorages). Towns and c…

Salt

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Germer, Renate (Hamburg) | Giovannini, Adalberto (Geneva) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Salt (Sumerian mun; Akkadian ṭabtu; Hittite puti; Hebrew mælaḥ; Egyptian sm.t) played an important role in all ancient Near Eastern cultures and in Egypt. In often high temperatures, the supply of salt was essential to life: salt was therefore part of workers' ordinary rations in Mesopotamia and Egypt (Rations). It was esp. used to season foods and to preserve meat and fish. In medicine, too, salt was used internally and externally. Salt was an important ingredient…

Sogdiana

(304 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Σογδιανή; Sogdianḗ). Region of the Achaemenid Empire between Oxus (Araxes [2]) and Iaxartes, part of the Sixteenth Satrapy; The inhabitants were called Sogdianoí or Sógdoi, Old Persian Sug(u)da, Avestan Su γδ a, Sogdian Sughdh. The capital was Maracanda (modern Samarkand), the Achaemenid base for ruling eastern Iran. In Darius [2] II's building report on his palace in Susa S. is mentioned as the supplier of lapis lazuli and cornelian. S. played an important part in trade with the peoples of the Steppes and the …

Orthostat

(201 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten In der Vorderasiatischen Archäologie werden als O. die aufrecht stehenden Steinplatten bezeichnet, mit denen urspr. im anatolischen Bereich die Füße der Mauern vor Spritzwasser geschützt wurden. Vom 9. Jh. an dienten sie bes. in den neuassyrischen Palästen der Anbringung statischer und erzählender Reliefs. Berühmt sind die Reliefzyklen in den Palästen der Herrscher Assurnaṣirpal II. in Kalḫu, Sanherib und Assurbanipal in Ninive (Ninos [2]). Aus dem gleichze…

Mühle

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten In den vorderasiat.-äg. Kulturen waren lediglich Reibe-M. in Gebrauch, die aus einem länglichen Reibstein und einem darauf hin- und her bewegten steinernen Läufer bestanden. Rund-M., deren oberer Stein sich um eine Achse drehte, erschienen erst unter röm. Einfluß. Die Reibsteine waren meist aus Basalt, der wenn nötig über weite Strecken importiert wurde. Die Termini für Reibstein bzw. Läufer sind sumerisch NA4.ARÀ, akkadisch erûm und narkabum, äg. bnwt. M. waren in jedem Haushalt zu finden, waren aber auch als Großbetriebe…

Seleucia

(1,530 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Brandt, Hartwin (Chemnitz)
(Σελεύκεια/ Seleúkeia, Latin Seleucia). [German version] [1] S. on the Tigris This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | India, trade with (Σελεύκεια ἡ ἐπὶ τῷ Τίγρει/ Seleúkeia hē epì tôi Tígrei: Str. 16,738; 743; 750 et passim; Latin Seleucia Magna: Plin. HN 6,43, cuneiform Selukuja [1], modern Tall Umar). On the right bank of the Tigris, c. 60 km north-east of Babylon and 35 km south of Baghdad, at the mouth of the Nahr Malkā (connecting canal between the Tigris and Euphrates) and thus very favourably located …

Sheep

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Jameson, Michael (Stanford) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] I. The Near East and Egypt (Sumerian udu, sheep, u8, ewe, udu.nita, fat-tailed sheep; Akkadian immeru (culture word) [4]; Egyptian zr ( wp.t). The Near East lies in the natural range of the Asiatic mouflon ( Ovis orientalis), which was apparently used in various locations for the breeding of wool sheep; the earliest examples for this important step [8] come from the area of south-eastern Asia Minor/northern Levant/northern Mesopotamia in the 7th millennium BC [7. 73]. From the 7th/6th millennia BC on, the sheep play…

Thumna

(102 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Θούμνα/ Thoúmna Ptol. 6,7,31; Τάμνα/ Támna Str. 16,4,2-4 and Steph. Byz.; Thomna Plin. HN 6,153 and 12,64; inscriptions Tumna, cf. Biblical Timna Gn 36:12, 1 Chr 1:51; modern Ḥaǧar Kuḥlān). On the Incense Road between Sabbatha and Mariaba in modern Yemen, once the capital of the kingdom of the Qatabān ( Kattabaneís). Besides houses, excavations have revealed a gate building, a temple and graves. The dating is still uncertain: between 685/430 BC and 100/200 AD. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography G. W. van Beek, s. v. Timna, The Oxford Encyclopedia of…

Timna

(113 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Right-hand side valley of the Wādī al-Araba, about 30 km to the north of the Gulf of Aqaba. There were rich copper deposits there, which were mined from the 4th millennium BC until the Islamic period by means of galleries, up to 35 m long, cut into the rock. Smelting sites are evidence of smelting in situ. An Egyptian temple from the time of Sethos [1] I (1290-1279) and Ramses [2] II (1279-1213) particularly deserves mention. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography W. G. Dever, s. v. Timna, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, vol. …

Tochari

(161 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Τόχαροι/ Tócharoi  Str. 11,8,2; Latin Tochari:  Just. Epit. 42,2,2; Thocari: Plin.  HN 6,55; Τάχοροι/ Táchoroi: Ptol. 6,16,4; Athagurae: Amm.  Marc. 23,6,66; Θαγούροι/ Thagoúroi: Ptol. 6,16,2). Group of Inner Asian tribes, after which an Indo-European language is named Tocharian. It is mentioned in the context of the westward migration of the Yuezhi after their defeat in 176 or 174 BC by the Xiongnu (presumed Central-Asiatic antecedents of the Hunni). According to the Geography of Ptolemaeus [65], and in Strabo and Justin (see above) located in Gans…

Luristan

(75 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] Mountain province of central Iranian Zagrus settled from the 6th millennium. L. is especially well known because of the large number of bronze weapons and artefacts from extensive (plundered) cemeteries, particularly from the 1st millennium BC, now in numerous museums. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography F. Hole (ed.), The Archaeology of Western Iran, 1987 L. Vanden Berghe, La nécropole de Mir Khair au Pusht-i Kuh, L., in: Iranica Antiqua 14, 1979, 1-37.

Shipbuilding

(1,703 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Briese, Christoph (Randers) | Konen, Heinrich (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Due to the lack of original finds from most regions of the ancient Orient, little can be said about shipbuilding, except for Egypt. The fact that many Syrians were employed in Egyptian shipyards and that a ship (from around 1300 BC) found at Ulu Burun, Turkey was built in the same technique as Egyptian ships indicates that a uniform shipbuilding technique was used throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Here, wooden planks were placed in the desired position w…

Mesopotamia

(7,071 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
I. General [German version] A. Name The name M., i.e. ‘[land] between the rivers [ Euphrates [2] and Tigris]’, first appears in Arrian (Arr. Anab. 3,7,3; 7,7,3) as a designation for the area of what is now eastern Syria and northern Iraq, probably corresponding to the Aramaic beyn nahrīn and the Akkadian māt birīt nārim (both ‘between the rivers’). However, this expression designated only the region between the bend of the Euphrates and Baliḫ/Ḫabur [1; 2]. Later, M. could also refer to the entire region of the two rivers (Plin. HN 5,86). In modern,…

Navigation

(2,434 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In Egypt and southern Mesopotamia navigation played a major role, especially in inland traffic but also in communication across the sea. In both countries, rivers and canals were the major traffic arteries that were even used by the gods on their mutual visits and by rulers on their tours. Beyond their ordinary significance as a means of transportation for people and goods, ships also had a religious connotation. In Egypt the vocabulary of navigation entered daily life. In both countries, boats sailed or were towed, but in southern M…

Column

(3,015 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Egypt and the Ancient Orient As a statically significant building element, whether in wood or modelled from stone or brick, the column played different roles in Egypt and the Ancient Orient. In Egypt columns were a component of almost every form of architecture, from roof-bearing wooden posts in family residences to extravagantly shaped stone columns in temples and palaces. Having bases and capitals, the latter, too, betrayed the evolution from wooden columns. Columns frequently took on the shape of plants; they were probably always painted. Columns were used sp…

Marathus

(164 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Phoenicians, Poeni Modern Amrīt, important town in northern Phoenicia south of Aradus [1], which controlled it in 333/2 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,13,8; 14,1; 15,6; Curt. 4,1,6) and in 218 (Pol. 5,68,7). Around the middle of the 2nd cent. M. was independent and was able to defend itself against the Aradians (Diod. Sic. 33,5f.). According to Str. 16,2,12, M. was destroyed and its land divided among settlers from Aradus, but the city must…

Getreide

(3,928 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Sallares, Robert (Manchester)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Die verschiedenen bespelzten und nackten Weizen- ( triticum = t.) und Gerstearten ( hordeum) zählen zu den frühesten domestizierten Pflanzen des Vorderen Orients (Q. Ǧarmu; Çatal H.; Fajum). Zu den Weizenarten gehört außer dem Emmer ( t. dicoccum) und dem Einkorn ( t. monococcum), beide bespelzt, auch der gewöhnliche oder Brotweizen (nackt; t. aestivum). Die Tatsache, daß die größeren Arbeitsaufwand erfordernden bespelzten Arten (Entfernung der Spelzen durch Rösten) auch in späteren Jt. noch überwogen, wird mit der bes…

Nekropolen

(6,163 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[English version] I. Einleitung Das griech. Wort νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, “Totenstadt”, ist ant. nur bei Strabon (17,1,10,14) als Name eines Vorortes von Alexandreia [1] (Nekropolis) belegt. Die mod. Forsch. überträgt den Begriff N. auf Friedhöfe verschiedener Kulturen und Zeitstellungen. Allgemeinverbindliche Definitionen zu Ausgestaltung und Größe bestehen somit nicht. Als N. sollen hier nur Anlagen verstanden werden, die über eine gewisse Größe verfügen und in der Regel außerhalb der eigentlichen Sied…

Palast

(3,499 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[English version] I. Terminologie und Definition Der mod. Begriff “Palast” leitet sich ab vom Palatin (Mons Palatinus), dem Hügel Roms, auf dem die Residenzen der röm. Kaiser standen. Als P. werden Bauanlagen bezeichnet, die einem Herrscher als Wohn- und Repräsentationssitz dienten. Je nach weiteren, dazukommenden Funktionen konnte er im Alt. verschiedene, von der jeweiligen Funktion abhängige Bezeichnungen haben. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) II. Alter Orient [English version] A. Baugeschichte Im Alten Orient und Äg. war ein P. von den Ursprüngen her ein Wohnhaus mit…

Rabbath Ammon

(291 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Hasmonäer | Pompeius | Syrien | Theater | Totes Meer (Textfunde) ( Rabbath bnē Ammōn, LXX Ῥαββά; Pol. Ῥαβατάμανα; assyrisch bīt ammāna; seit der Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr. Philadelpheia; h. Ammān). [English version] I. Bis zur Perserzeit Hauptstadt der Ammoniter (Ammon [2]); älteste Siedlungsspuren stammen aus dem Neolithikum (7./6. Jt. v. Chr.). Früheste bedeutende Reste mit reichen Gräbern auf der Zitadelle datieren in die mittlere Brz. (1. H. des 2. Jt. v. Chr.); seitdem durchgängig besie…

Marathos

(153 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Diadochen und Epigonen | Phönizier, Punier h. Amrīt; bed. Stadt im nördl. Phönizien südl. von Arados [1], dem sie im J. 333/2 v.Chr. (Arr. an. 2,13,8; 14,1; 15,6; Curt. 4,1,6) wie auch 218 (Pol. 5,68,7) unterstand. Um die Mitte des 2. Jh. war M. unabhängig und konnte sich gegen die Aradier wehren (Diod. 33,5f.). Nach Strab. 16,2,12 war M. zerstört und sein Land an Siedler aus Arados aufgeteilt, doch muß die Stadt noch weiter existiert haben (M…

Salz

(1,399 words)

Author(s): Germer, Renate (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Giovannini, Adalberto (Genf) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[English version] I. Alter Orient und Ägypten S. (sumerisch mun; akkadisch ṭabtu; hethitisch puti; hebräisch mælaḥ; äg. sm.t) spielte in allen altoriental. Kulturen und in Äg. eine wichtige Rolle. Bei den teilweise hohen Temperaturen war S.-Zufuhr lebensnotwendig; so war S. ein Teil der normalen Arbeiterrationen in Mesopot. und Äg. (Ration). Es diente v. a. zum Würzen von Speisen wie auch zum Konservieren von Fleisch und Fisch. Auch in der Medizin wurde S. innerlich und äußerlich verwendet. S. war ein wichtiger…

Militärtechnik

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Gniers, Andrea Maria (Los Angeles) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Über Militärorganisation und M. sind wir für Mesopotamien wie überhaupt für den Vorderen Orient sowohl von schriftlicher als auch von arch. Seite her schlecht unterrichtet. Das Einzelbeispiel “Geierstele” (um 2500 v.Chr. aus Tello, Südbabylonien; [1. Taf. 91]) deutet auf Unterschiede zwischen Schwer- und Leichtbewaffneten. Die dort und auf der “Ur-Standarte” (etwas älter, aus Ur; [1. Taf. VIII]) abgebildeten Kampfwagen hatten wegen ihrer Schwerfälligkeit, v.a. aber w…

Ptolemaïs

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basel) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς). [English version] [1] Tochter Ptolemaios' [1] I. und der Eurydike [4] Tochter Ptolemaios' [1] I. und der Eurydike [4]; verm. mit einem Nachkommen des Pharao Nektanebos [2] verheiratet; seit 298 v. Chr. verlobt, ab 287 Gattin des Demetrios [2] Poliorketes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Histor. Beitr. zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hell. Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [English version] [2] P. aus Kyrene Musikgelehrte, 1. Jh. Die einzige bekannte weiblic…

Mesopotamien

(6,248 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
I. Allgemein [English version] A. Name Die Bezeichnung M., d.h. “[Land] zwischen den Strömen [Euphrates [2] und Tigris]” erscheint erstmals bei Arrian (Arr. an. 3,7,3; 7,7,3) als Bezeichnung für die Gebiete des h. östl. Syrien und nördl. Iraq, vermutlich als Entsprechung zum aram. beyn nahrīn und zum akkad. māt birīt nārim (beides “zwischen den Flüssen”), womit allerdings nur die Region zw. Euphratbogen und Baliḫ/Ḫabur gemeint war [1; 2]. Später kann M. auch die ganze Region der beiden Flüsse bezeichnen (Plin. nat. 5,86). Im mod., ungenauen Spr…

Marsyas

(872 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Ziegler, Konrat † (Göttingen) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μαρσύας). [English version] [1] phryg. Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai Phrygischer Flußgott und Schutzgottheit von Kelainai, dargestellt als Satyr oder Silen. Der Name ist aus einem im kleinasiatisch-syr. Raum mehrfach vorkommenden Toponym abgeleitet; auch der Fluß, an dessen Quelle Kelainai liegt, trägt diesen Namen (M. [5]). M. galt als Entdecker des Flötenspiels ( aulós), Erfinder der Binde, die beim Flötespielen verwendet wurde ( phorbeiá) und von Liedern zur Verehrung der Göttin Kybele. Dem Mythos zufolge ist die Möglichkeit, mit einer Flöte …

Obsidian

(241 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[English version] ( obsianus lapis, “Stein des Opsius”; obsidianus ist falsche Lesart) ist ein dunkles, glasartiges (Plin. nat. 36,196: in genere vitri = Isid. orig. 16,16,5) Vulkangestein, das ein gewisser Obsius aus Äthiopien nach Rom eingeführt haben soll. O. wurde in Vorderasien seit dem 8. Jt., in Äg. seit dem 4. Jt. vor allem wegen der scharfen Schneidekanten aus Klingen hergestellter Werkzeuge, aber auch wegen seiner halbtransparenten Eigenschaft als Schmuckstein geschätzt (akkadisch ṣurru; äg. mnw). Ab dem 2. Jt. wurde O. vor allem für Siegel (in Mesopot.: R…

Persepolis

(526 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaimenidai | Alexandros | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel (h. Taḫt-e Ǧamšīd; griech. Πέρσαι Πόλις/ Pérsai Pólis, Περσέπολις/ Persépolis (Diod. 17,70,1 u.ö.; Strab. 15,3,6); lat. Persepolis (Curt. 5,4,33 u.ö.; Amm. 23,6,42); altpersisch Pārsa, gleichlautend mit dem Namen der Landschaft Persis). Am NO-Rand der Marv Dašt-Ebene, ca. 60 km nördl. von Šīrāz nahe dem Ausgang des Tales gelegen, durch das im Alt. und h. die Straße nach Pasargadai und Iṣfahān verläuf…

Relief

(2,791 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rom)
I. Ägypten und Alter Orient [English version] A. Ägypten Die zweidimensionale Wiedergabe von Einzelszenen und größeren Kompositionen hat in Äg. eine lange Trad., zunächst als Gefäßmalerei, dann als Wandmalerei und R. (z. B. Narmer-Palette, protodyn. Zeit, um 3100 v. Chr.). Spätestens seit dem AR traten steinerne Stelen hinzu, errichtet im Zusammenhang mit dem Totenkult, und in längeren Szenen wurden die Taten der Herrscher auf Wänden von Großbauten und Gräbern abgebildet. Im Bestreben, den Gesamtkontext …

Pyrgos Lithinos

(105 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] (Πύργος Λίθινος: Ptol. 1,12,8 M.; 6,13,2 N.; wörtl. “steinerner Turm”). Wichtige Station im Pamir an der von Westen über Antiocheia [7] und Baktra nach China führenden Seidenstraße. Trotz guter Quellenlage - Ptol. basiert auf dem Itinerar des Marinos [1] von Tyros, dieser auf den Aufzeichnungen des Seidenhändlers Maēs Titianus - ist die Identifizierung noch nicht völlig gelungen; der Ort ist jedoch auf der Karte [2. 6 D2] eingetragen. Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empire,…

Rind

(2,724 words)

Author(s): Raepsaet, Georges (Brüssel) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jameson, Michael (Stanford)
[English version] I. Allgemein Das R. ( Bos taurus) gehört zu den bovidae und stammt von dem eurasischen, großhornigen Ur ( Bos primigenius) ab. Die Domestikation von langhornigen Wildrindern erfolgte in Zentralasien wahrscheinlich 10000 bis 8000 v. Chr. und im Vorderen Orient gegen 7000-6000 v. Chr. Im 3. Jt. v. Chr. verbreiteten sich in Europa verschiedene Rassen des Hausrindes. Bestände von Wildrindern existierten noch in Waldregionen des östlichen Mittelmeerraumes, so in Dardania und Thrakien (Varro rust. 2,1,5) sowie in Mitteleuropa (Caes. Gall. 6,28). In der Ant. wurden…
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