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Northern America

(6,395 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[ Note: In current U.N. usage “Northern America” comprises the United States and Canada, plus the island dependencies of Bermuda (U.K.), Greenland (Den.), and St. Pierre and Miquelon (Fr.). The U.N.’s “Latin America and the Caribbean,” then, includes Mexico and all of Central America, the West Indies, and South America. In its discussion here of the United States and Canada, with brief reference also to Mexico, this article uses throughout the more common phrase “North America.”] 1. United States-Canada-Mexico Spiritual as well as geographic orientation for the histo…

Spencer

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Spencer, Herbert (27.4.1820 Derby, England – 8.12.1903 Brighton, ebd.), Sozialwissenschaftler und Schriftsteller, arbeitete zunächst als Eisenbahningenieur und polit. Journalist. Mit seinem »System of Synthetic Philosophy« (1862–1896) begründete er seinen Ruf als früher Sozialwissenschaftler und umfassender Denker bzgl. Gesellschaft, Erziehung, Ethik und Politik. Auf all diesen Gebieten brachte er allg. Evolutionsideen zur Anwendung. Evolution erkläre auch die Religionsgesch., die…

Union Theological Seminary

(142 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] (UTS), Amerikas erstes interkonfessionelles theol. Seminar, wurde 1836 von »New School«- Presbyterianern gegründet. Von 1870–1892 diente es der Northern Presbyterian Church, wurde jedoch wieder unabhängig, als Ch.A. Briggs, Prof. für bibl. Wiss., von der Glaubensgemeinschaft ausgeschlossen wurde, weil er kritischere Betrachtungen der Bibel unterstützte. Namhafte Dozenten im 19.Jh. waren u.a. der Theologe Henry Boynton Smith und Ph. Schaff. Bis ins 20.Jh. hinein bestanden enge Ver…

Prohibition

(250 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] . Bewegung in den USA, die das Verbot alkoholischer Getränke inklusive Bier und Wein propagierte. Sie nahm ihren Anfang im frühen 19.Jh. mit Bestrebungen zu Enthaltsamkeitsreformen im Zusammenhang mit dem Second Great Awakening (Erweckung/Erweckungsbewegung: II.). Neal Dow, Triebfeder des ersten bundesstaatl. Prohibitionsgesetzes (Maine, 1846), bez. Abstinenz (Askese) als das »Werk Christi«, für das »jeder wahre Soldat des Kreuzes« kämpfen solle. Zur Zeit der Industrialisierung im späten 19.Jh. sank der Pro-Kopf-…

Nordamerika, Theologie in

(2,060 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] In keinem Bereich ist der Status Amerikas als intellektuelle Kolonie Europas so offensichtlich wie in seiner offiziellen christl. Theol. Mit nur wenigen Ausnahmen waren die röm.-kath. Theologen in Amerika zufrieden damit, der Führung von Europäern zu folgen, was sich in der amer. Förderung des Neothomismus von etwa 1870 bis 1960 als wichtigstem Beispiel zeigt. Eine ähnliche Situation zeigt sich in der orth. Theol. – mit dem Unterschied, daß der eur. Einfluß in Gestalt russ. Flüch…

Tindley

(182 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Tindley, Charles Albert (7.7.1856 Berlin, MD – 29.7.1933 Philadelphia, PA), berühmter Prediger und Vf. von Gospel-Liedern (Gospel-Musik), wurde als Sohn ehem. Sklaven geboren; schon in jungen Jahren faßte er den Entschluß, methodistischer Pfarrer zu werden. 1900 wurde er Pfarrer an der Bainbridge Street Methodist Church in Philadelphia, die schon bald zu einem Zentrum des rel. Lebens für die schwarze Bevölkerung der Stadt wurde. Ab 1901 erschienen seine »Songs of Paradise«, kirchl.…

Society for Ethical Culture

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Society for Ethical Culture, 1876 in New York von F. Adler gegründet. Der Reformjude (Reformjudentum) Adler lehnte den traditionellen Monotheismus ab, betrachtete aber weiter die HB und die Person Jesu als Quellen der Inspiration. Unter dem Motto »deed, not creed« (Tat, nicht Glaubensbekenntnis) warb er für das Bemühen des einzelnen anstatt für Institutionen und ritualisierte Traditionen. Die S. mit ihren sonntäglichen Gottesdiensten und humanistischen Ansprachen Adlers wurde zum…

Otterbein

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Otterbein, Philipp Wilhelm (2.6.1726 Dillenburg, Preußen – 17.11.1813 Baltimore, MD, USA), dt. ref. Theologe und Mitbegründer der Kirche der Vereinigten Brüder in den USA. O. ging 1752 auf Einladung des ref. Pietisten Michael Schlatter (1718–1790) in die USA. O. hatte die calvinistische und pietistische Lehre an der Ref. Universität von Herborn (Reformierte Hohe Schulen in Deutschland) studiert. In Amerika engagierte er sich mit der Organisation von Gebetsversammlungen, rekrutierte…

Stoddard

(77 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Stoddard, Solomon (1.10.1643 Boston, MA – 11.2.1729 Northampton, MA), kongregationalistischer Geistlicher, 1672 Pfarrer der Northampton Congregational Church. Gegen die anderen Geistlichen Bostons Befürworter des Zugangs zum Abendmahl für alle ehrbaren Personen, das er als »Einrichtung zur Bekehrung« verstand. Zwei Jahre vor seinem Tod präsidierte er bei der Einführung seines Enkels J. Edwards als Nachfolger. Mark A. Noll Bibliography P.J. Tracy, (American National Biography, hg. von J.A. Garratyu.a., Bd.20, 1999, 822f.).

Seton

(110 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Seton, Elizabeth Ann Bailey (28.8.1774 New York – 4.1.1821 Emmitsburg, MD), Ordensgründerin. S. kam während einer Italienreise 1803 mit der röm.-kath. Kirche in Kontakt. Nach Tod ihres Mannes und Rückkehr in die USA 1804 trat sie am 14.3.1805 in die kath. Kirche ein. 1808 zog sie nach Maryland, eröffnete eine Mädchenschule und trat den Sisters of Charity of Saint Joseph bei, deren erste amer. Oberin sie wurde. 1863 gab es bereits 11 000 Sisters of Charity in den USA. 1975 wurde sie als erste in den USA geborene amer. Staatsbürgerin heiliggesprochen. Mark A. Noll Biblio…

Reconstructionism

(253 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[English Version] Reconstructionism, christlich. R., auch als Theonomie oder Herrschaftstheol. bekannt, entstand in den frühen 70er Jahren innerhalb konservativer Kreise des amer. Presbyterianismus (Presbyterianer). Die Grundsätze wurden erstmals 1973 von Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) in den »Institutes of Biblical Law« publiziert. Weitere Führungsgestalten waren Greg L. Bahnsen (1948–1995), der 1977 »Theonomy in Christian Ethics« veröff., und Gary North, Gründer des Institute for Christian Eco…

Davies, Robertson

(151 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1913, Thamesville, Ontario – Feb 12, 1995, Orangeville, Ontario), Canada's leading 20th-century novelist. In his works Davies regularly employed religious symbols, disputes, traditions, and hagiography. After working in the theater and as an editor of the Examiner, published in Peterborough, ¶ Ontario, he became Master of Massey College, University of Toronto, in 1963, where he served until retirement. Davies's novels included three trilogies: …

Orange Order

(268 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organization founded in 1795 in the north of Ireland and dedicated to the victory of the English Protestant king William (from Orange in Holland) over the ¶ Roman Catholic James I at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 (Ireland: II). The order arose at a time of particular tension in County Armagh when both Catholic agitation and Enlightenment thinking threatened the social and political dominance of Protestantism. It developed through the construction of lodges, the for…

Sheen, Fulton John

(188 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (May 8, 1895, El Paso, IL – Dec 1, 1979, NY), the leading public voice for American Roman Catholicism for much of the 20th century. He was ordained a priest in 1919 and then did doctoral study at Louvain, Rome, and Washington, DC. From 1926 to 1950 he lectured in philosophy at the Catholic University of America, and from 1966 to 1969 he served as bishop of Rochester, New York. Sheen’s public renown began in 1930 as the featured speaker on “Catholic Hour Broadcasts” for NBC radio. …

Mind-Cure Movements

(266 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Mind-cure movements, which arose in several places in the United States throughout the 19th century, shared a common commitment to metaphysical idealism and a belief in the ability of the mind to overcome physical illness. They were anticipated by aspects of animal magnetism supported by F.A. Mesmer and the spiritual biblical hermeneutics of E. Swedenborg. An earlier proponent was W.F. Evans (1817–1887), author of The Primitive Mind Cure (1885). Even more important was P.P. Quimby (1802–1866), who viewed God as a personified First Cause and perso…

Lightfoot, John

(155 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 29, 1602, Stoke-upon-Trent, England – Dec 6, 1675, Ely) was a noted Hebraist, educated at Cambridge. He later became influenced by Sir Rowland Cotton, a lay student of Hebrew, and began studying Semitic languages. From 1629 onwards he published a series of works using his extensive knowledge of the Talmud to elucidate the Christian scriptures. From 1643 until his death he served both as rector of Much Munden, Hertfordshire, and as master of Catherine Hall, Cambridge. During t…

North America, Theology in

(2,153 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Nowhere has America’s status as an intellectual colony of Europe been more evident than in its formal Christian theology. With only a few exceptions, Roman Catholic theologians in America have been mostly content to follow the guidance of Europeans. American promotion of Neo-Thomism from roughly 1870 to 1960 is the most important example of that dependence. Much the same situation has prevailed among the Orthodox, with the major difference that European influence has taken the sha…

Southcott, Johanna

(177 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (April 1750 [baptized Jun 6, 1750, Devonshire] – Dec 27, 1814, London), a self-described prophet, gathered a considerable following in the early 19th century. Coming from a farming family, in 1792 she joined the Methodists, but two years later broke with them after she began to issue prophecies. Her first tract, “The Strange Effects of Faith” (1801), described her expectation of a speedy end of the age and her own role in the Last Days, influenced by Richard Brothers (1757–1824), …

Union Theological Seminary

(153 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (UTS). America’s first interdenominational theological seminary was founded in 1836 by “New School” Presbyterians. From 1870 to 1892 it served the Northern Presbyterian Church, but became independent once again when C.A. Briggs was expelled from the denomination for promoting higher critical views of Scripture. Notable faculty in the 19th century included the theologian Henry Boynton Smith and P. Schaff. Ties with Germany remained strong into the 20th century, especially with the …

Congregational Christian Churches

(521 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] When Congregationalists merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Church to form a new denomination, the United Church of Christ, in 1957, they were the major representatives in the USA of historic Anglo-American Congregationalism. These churches were descendents of separatist movements that had begun among English Protestants during the 2nd half of the 16th century. A pamphlet published in 1582 by R. Browne, A Treatise of Reformation without Tarrying for Any, proclaimed principles that would define the movement: Christ is the sole head of th…

Weld, Theodore Dwight

(140 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 23, 1803, Hampton, CT – Feb 3, 1895, Hyde Park, MA) was a leading opponent of slavery (Abolitionism); he was converted in 1826 under the preaching of C.G. Finney. In 1834 he led a group of students out of Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, in order to found Oberlin College, the nation’s first institution of higher learning to welcome women. From the mid-1830s Weld was one of America’s best-known abolitionist orators; he made converts but also generated mob opposition. Worn out by his…

Otterbein, Philipp Wilhelm

(170 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] ( Jun 2, 1726, Dillenburg, Prussia – Nov 17, 1813, Baltimore, MD), German Reformed minister who became a founder of the United Brethren in Christ. Otterbein went to the United States in 1752 at the invitation of the German Reformed Pietist, Michael Schlatter (1718–1790). Otterbein had been educated in Calvinist and Pietist teachings at the Reformed University of Herborn (Reformed Colleges in Germany). In America, Otterbein energetically encouraged prayer meetings, recruited lay le…

Brébeuf, Jean de (Saint)

(169 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Mar 25, 1593, Condé-sur-Vire, France – Mar 16, 1649, Saint-Ignace, New France, Canada), Jesuit missionary. Brébeuf came to New France in 1625 and almost immediately attempted to evangelize among the Huron Indians. At this time the Huron society was profoundly shaken by disease, contact with Europeans, and warfare with Iroquoian native America…

Rockefeller, John Davison Sr.

(128 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jul 8, 1839, Richford, NY – May 23, 1937, Ormond Beach, FL), business magnate and philanthropist, established himself by the 1870s as a leader for the new oil industry. His Standard Oil Company became the source of great personal wealth. Through his mother, Eliza Davison, Rockefeller received a strong Baptist upbringing. Throughout his life he contributed regularly to many churches and voluntary societies. Although leaders of the Social Gospel like W. Gladden urged church groups …

Briand, Jean Olivier

(167 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 23, 1715, Plévin – Jun 25, 1794, Quebec), seventh Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec. Briand arrived in Canada from France in 1741 and soon became an influential diocesan leader as well as an important diplomat. After the defeat of the French by the British on the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City in 1759, Briand quickly accommodated himself …

Coughlin, Charles Edwards

(138 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ontario – Oct 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, MI), pioneer radio broadcaster, was ordained a Catholic priest in 1916. In order to raise money for his new aasignment at the parish in Royal Oak, MI, he took to the airwaves (Radio and television). His programs were at first strictly religious, but after the stock market crash of 1929 he added political commentary. In 1936 he organized the National Union for Social Justice and so…

Scougal, Henry

(94 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jun 1650, Leuchars, Scotland – Jun 13, 1678, Aberdeen, Scotland), was appointed professor of divinity at King’s College, Aberdeen, in 1673. His The Life of God in the Soul of Man, or, The Nature and Excellency of the Christian Religion (1677) stressed the necessity for “true Christianity” in contrast to ecclesiastical formalism. He had great influence on the Wesley brothers and other leading figures of the 18th-century evangelical movement. Mark A. Noll Bibliography The Works of the Rev. Henry Scougal, 1818 D. Butler, Henry Scougal and the Oxford Methodists, 1899.

Mountain, Jacob

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 1, 1749, Thwaite All Souls, Suffolk, England – Jun 16, 1825, Quebec, Canada), founder of the Anglican Church in what is now Quebec and Ontario, Canada. After education at Cambridge and service in several Anglican posts, Mountain was appointed on Jun 28, 1793, as the first Anglican bishop of Quebec. Although Quebec was inhabited mostly by French-speaking Roman Catholics, whom Britain had conquered in the French and Indian War ¶ (1754–1763), the British were eager to see a strong Protestant church develop. Mountain, whose huge see stretched also i…

Reconstructionism

(654 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] I. Judaism Reconstructionist Judaism is the most recent major school of modern Judaism (III) and the only one born ¶ in America. It was founded by the rabbi M.M. Kaplan, who defined Judaism as a “civilization” embracing not just religion but also areas of life like art and music. The movement began as an intellectual tendency in the progressive wing of Conservative Judaism. Only gradually was it able to establish an autonomous organizational structure and independent institutions. The opening of the…

Prohibition, Alcohol

(270 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] Prohibition, Alcohol, a movement in the United States to ban alcoholic beverages, including beer and wine, began in the early 19th century with efforts at temperance reform associated with the revivals of the Second Great Awakening (Revival/Revival movements: II). Neal Dow, who spearheaded the drive for the first state prohibition law (Maine, 1846), called temperance (Asceticism) “Christ’s work,” which “every true soldier of the Cross” should fight. In the industrial era of the la…

Swift, Jonathan

(134 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1667, Dublin – Oct 19, 1745, Dublin), Anglo-Irish satirist, poet, and patriot, studied at Trinity College (Dublin) before receiving his degree at Oxford (1692) and being ordained an Anglican clergyman (1695). From 1713 on, he served as dean of St. Patrick’s in Dublin. His graphic, forceful publications attacked Deism, dissenting Protestantism (Dissenters), scientific naturalism, and political corruption. His greatest satire, The Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver (2 vols., 1726), used fanciful descriptions of i…

Spencer, Herbert

(165 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 27, 1820, Derby, England – Dec 8, 1903, Brighton, England), social scientist and popular writer, worked as a railway engineer and political journalist. His System of Synthetic Philosophy (1862–1896) established his reputation as a comprehensive thinker about society, education, ethics, and politics. To each of these domains he applied general evolutionary ideas. Evolution also explained the history of religions, which mirrored the social systems in which they existed, reinforced the practices of existin…

Wieman, Henry Nelson

(111 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1884, Rich Hill, MO – Jun 19, 1975, Grinell, IA), an early process theologian (Process theology) in liberal American Protestantism. After training for the Presbyterian ministry and study in Germany, Wieman was greatly influenced by W.E. Hocking and Ralph Barton Perry at Harvard where he received his Ph.D. in 1917. In teaching at Occidental College and at the University of Chicago, Wieman advocated a naturalistic theism as, for example, in his books The Wrestle of Religion with Truth (1927) and The Source of Human Good (1946), also opposing theological pers…

Stiles, Ezra

(104 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1727, North Haven, CT – May 12, 1795, New Haven, CT), Congregationalist minister and college president, entering the ministry (1755) as pastor of the Second Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island. There he opposed the slave trade and engaged in a variety of scientific and literary ¶ pursuits. He became president of Yale in 1778. His life-long support of liberty led him to oppose schemes to send an Anglican bishop to the colonies. He prophesied a great future for the independent United States. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E.S. Morgan, The Gentle Puritan: A …

Society for Ethical Culture

(166 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] was founded in New York in 1876 by F. Adler. Raised a Reform Jew (Reform Judaism), Adler came to reject traditional notions of monotheism, though he continued to look at the Hebrew Scriptures and the person of Jesus for inspiration. Adhering to the slogan, “deed not creed,” Adler encouraged the efforts of individuals rather than formal institutions and ritualized traditions. The Society for Ethical Culture with its regular Sunday services and Adler’s humanistic addresses became th…

Worthington, John

(108 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Feb, 1617, Manchester – buried Nov 30, 1671, Hackney), earned his M.A. from Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632. From 1650 to 1660 he served as master of Jesus College, Cambridge, but then was replaced at the Restoration of the English monarchy. His liberal Christian spirit led him to stress the experience of practical godliness. He edited the works of the leading Cambridge Platonist, J. Mede, provided the first widely used English translation of Thomas à Kempis’s Imitation of Christ, and published several books, including The Great Duty of Self-resignation to …

Coffin, Henry Sloane

(178 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jan 5, 1877, New York – Nov 25, 1954, Lakeville, CT) was a leading Protestant educator and ecumenicist in the USA during the first half of the 20th century. After an education at Yale, Edinburgh, Marburg, and at Union Theological Seminary (NY), Coffin became a Presbyterian minister in New York. Soon he added duties as a professor at Union, where he became the president in 1926 (until 1945). Coffin was an early advocate of the Social Gospe…

Plymouth Colony

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] was a settlement of English Puritans in the southeast corner of Massachusetts. Under the leadership of pastor J. Robinson, English separates migrated first in 1603 from Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, to Holland. Despite freedom found there, they soon became worried about the education of their children. In September 1620, 41 settlers boarded the ship Mayflower, along with 61 others, for Virginia. Blown off course to the north, they landed on Cape Cod in November. Before disembarking, t…

Dorsey, Thomas Andrew

(168 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Jul 1, 1899, Villa Rica, GA – Jan 23, 1993, Chicago, IL) was the pioneer of African-American “gospel” music, raised by a Baptist minister father and a piano-playing mother. He began playing the blues in Atlanta in 1910 and continued after moving to Chicago in 1916. In the early 1920s he experienced a religious conversion, after which he turned to writing gospel songs, but while retaining features of the Blues. Traditionalists resisted this combination, and Dorsey was forced to peddle his own music. Soon his ¶ songs became popular. Memorable titles include “Preciou…

Slessor, Mary

(158 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1848, Aberdeen, Scotland – Jan 13, 1915, Use, Nigeria), pioneer Scottish missionary to West Africa. Born into a working-class family, from an early age she participated in church work and youth outreach. After petitioning mission agencies, she was finally appointed a teacher to Calabar, Nigeria, by the United Presbyterian Church Mission Committee. In 1888 she was dispatched to live among the Okoyong, where she went barefoot, dressed in nearly native garb, and maintained a …

Common Sense Realism

(764 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] has two histories. The first concerns the effort by Thomas Reid (1710–1796) to refute the skeptical conclusions that D. Hume had drawn from the sensationalist epistemology of J. Locke. Reid's main argument was that sense perceptions, operating under normal conditions disclose the material world as it is.They are not, as Locke had suggested, merely “ideas.” Reid suggested rather that the human mind is structured in such a way that it is impossible to act…

Yale University

(292 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] was founded as the Collegiate School of Connecticut in 1701. It relocated permanently to New Haven in 1717 and, in 1718, took its name from Elihu Yale, a British philanthropist. J. Edwards was an early graduate (1720) and then tutor. Under the moderate E. Stiles (president 1778–1795) and the energetic T. Dwight (1795–1817), Yale became a leading center of broadly evangelical Christianity in the United States. A divinity school was added in 1822 under N.W. Taylor, which rapidly bec…

Douglass, Frederick

(171 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (c. 1818, Talbot County, MD – Feb 20, 1895, Washington DC), African-American abolitionist (Slavery), was born Frederick Bailey of a slave mother and an unknown white father. After a childhood of cruel neglect, he was taken to Baltimore, where he learned to read and write. On Sep 2, 1838 he escaped from slavery, soon changed his name to Dou…

Tindley, Charles Albert

(176 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] ( Jul 7, 1856, Berlin, MD – Jul 29, 1933, Philadelphia, PA), prominent preacher and author of gospel hymns (Gospel music), was born to former slave parents and began early to prepare for the Methodist ministry. In 1900 he became the pastor of Bainbridge Street Methodist Church in Philadelphia, which soon became a center of the city’s black religious life. In 1901 Tindley began publishing “Songs of Paradise,” gospel hymns marked by clear melodies, simply harmony, and the chorus-ref…

Jefferson, Thomas

(199 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Apr 13, 1743, Albemarle County, VA – Jul 4, 1826, Monticello, VA), was the third president of the United States and played an important role in American religious history. He was the author of Virginia's landmark “Statute for Freedom of Religion” of 1786, which set the pattern that the whole United States would follow in guaranteeing nearly complete religious liberty. Jefferson's beliefs became the subject of political controversy when his opponents in the presidential campaign o…

Consultation on Church Union

(189 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Consultation on Church Union emerged from a proposal in December 1960 by the American Presbyterian Eugene Carson Blake for an organic union of churches “truly catholic, truly evangelical, and truly reformed.” The Consultation was established in 1962 by representatives of four mainline Protestant denominations. After mergers and the addition of new bodies, nine churches have continued as full members: African Methodist Episcopal Church, Afric…

Evangelical Union, The

(143 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] The Evangelical Union was formed in Scotland in May 1843 by James Morison and several other theological Arminians who had been excluded from the United Secession Church for promoting a theology of universal atonement, human free will, Congregational polity, and the Bible alone without ¶ creeds. The Union was influenced in many of its views by the American revivalist Charles G. Finney. It enjoyed particular success in urban ministry, where it was known for a firm stand against t…

Stoddard, Solomon

(85 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1643, Boston, MA – Feb 11, 1729, Northampton, MA), Congregationalist minister, in 1672 called as the second pastor of Northampton Congregational Church. Against Boston’s ministers he favored opening the Lord’s Supper to all respectable persons as a “converting ordinance.” Two years before his death he presided over the installation of his grandson, J. Edwards, as his successor in the Northampton pulpit. Mark A. Noll Bibliography P.J. Tracy, American National Biography, ed. J.A. Garraty et al., vol. XX, 1999, 822f.

Rowlands, Daniel

(102 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (1713, Pantybeudy, Wales – Oct 16, 1790, Llangeitho, Wales), revival preacher. He was ordained a priest in the Church of Wales in 1735 but was then converted in 1736 under the influence of Griffith Jones on Llanddowror. Immediately Rowland’s preaching, as curate of Llangeitho, attracted large crowds. By 1737 he was also establishing local societies in the Methodist pattern. In connection with fellow revivalist H. Harris, Rowland laid the groundwork for what became in the 19th century the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Connexion. Mark A. Noll Bibliography E. Evans, Danie…

Seton, Elizabeth Ann Bailey (Saint)

(137 words)

Author(s): Noll, Mark A.
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1774, New York – Jan 4, 1821, Emmitsburg, MD), founder of a religious community. Seton traveled to Italy in 1803, where she was introduced to the Roman Catholic Church. Following her husband’s death and her return to the United States in 1804, she continued to study the Catholic faith and on Mar 14, 1805, entered the church. After moving to Maryland in 1808, she opened a school for girls and then joined the Sisters of Charity of Saint Joseph, whose first American director…
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