[German version] Used in the strictest sense, C. is the Greek, or respectively, Latin name for the extreme south of Mesopotamia and also the region around the Persian Gulf (also Χαλδαῖα χώρα;
Chaldaîa chṓra, ‘Chaldaean land’); its extent -- at least partially -- coincides with the coastal land mentioned in early old oriental sources. The name is derived from the Semitic tribal group of the Chaldaeans -- probably to be distinguished from the Arameans -- who have been evident in the south of Mesopotamia from the early 1st millennium BC. Accad.
māt Kaldi was used by Assyrians and Babylonians, but never as a name for their own tribe by the Chaldaeans themselves; Hebrew [
Kaśdı̄m; the biblical Aramaic
Kaśdaja is used in the OT as a synonym for ‘Babylonian’, ‘Babylonians’ (transmutation of sound from
s). In ancient authors, C. is practically not encountered as a political entity. A strict differentiation between C. and Babylonia is only partially supported by traditional sources. On the one hand, C. is seen as a region of Babylonia (Str. 16,739; Ptol. Geogr. 5,20), and…