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(745 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
In Anknüpfung an Gedanken des Apostels Paulus hatte der Kirchenvater Augustinus um 400 seine Erwählungs- und Gnadenlehre ausgearbeitet: Gott qualifiziere die von ihm vor aller Zeit aus der verlorenen Sündenmenschheit Erwählten für das ewige Heil, indem er ihnen durch die kirchl. Lehre und die Sakramente seine Gnade mitteile. Dies befähige die Erwählten, sein Gesetz zu erfüllen, wozu ihr durch die Erbsünde gelähmter eigener Wille unfähig sei. Fraglich blieb dabei, wie sich in Gott die richterliche Gerechtigkeit und die schöpferische Gnade zueinander verhalte…
Date: 2019-11-19


(1,101 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. GrundlagenIm Zuge der Neuformierung des erkenntnistheoretischen Problembewusstseins in der Hochscholastik des 13. Jh.s (Thomas von Aquin, Johannes Duns Scotus) erhielt der O.-Begriff seine dauerhaften Konturen: O. (lat. revelatio) bezeichnet die Selbstkundgabe Gottes, die dem Menschen Gotteserkenntnis und Heilsteilhabe ermöglicht. O. ist demnach schon in der Schöpfung geschehen, doch wegen der Sünde vermag sie den Menschen nicht mehr hinreichend zu leiten, obwohl sich Gott jedem innerlich im Gewissen und äußerlich in den Schöp…
Date: 2019-11-19


(863 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. DefinitionM. bezeichnet den religiösen Glauben an die bzw. die metaphysische Überzeugung von der Einheit, Einzigartigkeit und Einzigkeit Gottes. Der Kunstbegriff wurde 1660 von dem anglikanischen Theologen Henry More, einem der Cambridge Platonists, geprägt. Sein Ursprungskontext war das seit der frühen Aufklärung aufkommende Bemühen um ein histor. Verständnis der Vielgestaltigkeit positiver Religion und die Einordnung des Christentums in die Religionsgeschichte.Als die histor. Kenntnisse präziser wurden, zeigte sich immer deutlicher, wie fließend di…
Date: 2019-11-19


(932 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. DefinitionMonotheism denotes the religious belief in or metaphysical conviction of the unity, uniqueness, and singularity of one god (Faith). The neologism was coined in 1660 by the Anglican theologian Henry More, one of the Cambridge Platonists. Its original context was the effort, underway from the early Enlightenment, to arrive at a historical understanding of the diversity of positive religion and to position Christianity in the history of religion.The more historical knowledge developed, the clearer it became that the boundaries between polytheism…
Date: 2020-04-06

Justification, doctrine of

(835 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
Building on the thought of the apostle Paul, c. 400 the church father Augustine developed his doctrine of election and grace: God qualifies those elected by him for eternal salvation before all time from the damned mass of sinful humanity by imparting his grace to them through the teaching of the church and the sacraments. This enables the elect to fulfill his law, something their own will, crippled by original sin, is incapable of. This left the question of how the justice of God as judge is re…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,265 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. BasicsIn the course of the restructuring of the epistemological problem in the High Scholasticism of the 13th century (Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus), the concept of revelation was given its permanent shape. According to this view, revelation (Latin  revelatio) is God’s self-communication, which enables human beings to know God and share in salvation. It took place already in creation, but as a result of sin it lost its power to guide human beings adequately, although God bears witness to himself for everyone inwardly in consc…
Date: 2021-08-02

Duperron, Jacques Davy

(158 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1556, near Bern – Sep 5, 1618, Paris). Born to a Norman Huguenot family in temporary exile, Duperron joined the court of Henry III of France. As royal professor of languages, mathematics, and philosophy, he converted to Catholicism in 1581. Henry IV nominated him bishop of Evreux; Duperron assisted in his (second) conversion to Catholicism. He subsequently …

Ramus, Petrus

(516 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Pierre de la Ramée; 1515, Cuts, Picardy – Aug 28, 1572, Paris), came from an impoverished aristocratic family; he attended the Collège de Navarre in Paris from the age of 12, and gained his M.A. in 1536. His polemics against Aristotelianism caused a sensation; in 1544 King Francis I prohibited him from teaching and publishing on philosophical subjects. Until this ban was lifted in 1547 by King Francis II, Ramus devoted himself to mathematics. From 1551 he ¶ held important administrative posts at the University of Paris. From the early 1560s he was a Protes…

Souverain, Jacques

(279 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (probably died in England in 1698). Not until years after his death was Souverain identified as the author of Le Platonisme dévoilé, ou Essai touchant le verbe Platonicien, published by the Unitarian S. Crell in 1700, supposedly in Cologne but in fact in Amsterdam. Souverain, probably from Languedoc, was removed from his office as a Reformed preacher on grounds of heresy shortly before the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: I, 1), whereupon he moved to the Netherlands. When he offended the Dutch …

Gieseler, Johann Karl Ludwig

(275 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 3, 1792, Petershagen, Minden – Jul 8, 1854, Göttingen). Shaped and nurtured at Halle by A.H. Niemeyer and J.A.L. Wegscheider, Gieseler worked from 1812 to 1819, interrupted by the Wars of Liberation, in higher education; in 1819, he became professor at Bonn, in 1831 in Göttingen. He established his academic reputation with a monograph on the synoptic question (1818), proposing that all the synoptics utilized an essentially uniform oral tradition (tradition hypothesis). Active as an editor of journals ( ThStKr) since his time in Bonn, he was also intensel…

Allix, Pierre

(176 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1641, Alençon – 1717, London). After his studies Allix made his name as a scholar and preacher and in 1671 became minister in the Huguenot community (Huguenots) in Charenton (Paris). After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes he fled to London, where James II granted him the privilege of founding a French community inside the Anglican Church…

Pfaff, Christoph Matthäus

(301 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1686, Stuttgart – Nov 19, 1760, Giessen). After theological education in Württemberg and some travel, Pfaff was made professor of theology by ducal fiat in Tübingen; in 1720 he became chancellor of the university. In 1756 he was obliged to relinquish these offices, and worked in Giessen as professor, chancellor of the university, and general superintendent. An infant prodigy and a brilliant ¶ character, Pfaff was an eclectic polymath, theologically influenced by the Enlightenment and Pietism. His main areas of work were dogmatics/ethic…

Ramsay, Andreas Michael

(303 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Chevalier Ramsay; 1686, Ayr, Scotland – May 6, 1743, St. Germain en Laye, near Paris), son of a baker, Ramsay was repelled while still a youth by the controversy between presbyterianism (Presbyterians) and Episcopalianism. As a student he tended towards Deism, but also formed links with mystical and spiritualist circles, which he intensified while a private tutor in London. He was on the continent from 1710, first with P. Poiret in Rijnsburg. Then he worked as secretary to F. Fén…

Constitutionalism, Church

(379 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] The period between the Napoleonic Wars and World War I saw ongoing ¶ debate over the structure of the Evangelical Church in Germany. Those involved were primarily theologians and jurisprudents. – A group around F.D.E. Schleiermacher, combining collegialist ideas (Collegialism) with elements of the presbyterial and synodal structure (Presbyter/Presbytery) of the Reformed Church, put forward demands for a self-governing church organized on the basis of the local congregations. Vis-à-vis conceptions of the church and church polity based on mi…


(817 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (in Welsh Cymru), a hilly peninsula jutting out into the Irish Sea (together with Anglesey 20,763 km 2), is bordered on the north by Liverpool Bay and on the south by the Bristol Channel. From 1536 it formed part of the kingdom of England, but since 1998 Wales has its own regional parliament (capital Cardiff). In 2001 it had about 2.93 million inhabitants, of whom about 575,000 speak Welsh (Cymraeg), a Celtic language. In 2001, 72% of the inhabitants described themselves as Christians, 22,000 as M…

Liguori, Alfons Maria de (Saint)

(347 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1696, Marianella, near Naples – Aug 1, 1787, monastery at Nocera de' Pagani, near Salerno). Liguori, the son of a naval officer, earned his doctorate in law at the age of 16; in 1714 he began to practice law, but left the profession in 1723 after losing a case. As a priest, he conducted popular missions. On Nov 9, 1732, he founded the Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris (Redemptorists; approved in 1749 by Benedict XIV, Pope), with a ministry of preaching and pastoral care…

Müller, Karl

(304 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 3, 1852, Langenburg, Württemberg – Feb 10, 1940, Tübingen). After theological training in Württemberg, Müller developed into a historian, making his mark as a medievalist with works on Louis the Bavarian, the Franciscans and the Waldenses. He gained his habilitation In Berlin in 1890, became an assistant professor there in 1882 and in 1884 in Halle, in 1886 full professor in Gießen, in 1891 in Breslau, and in 1903 in Tübingen. From his time in Gießen, Müller's life work was i…

Abbadie, Jacques

(128 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1656, Nay, Béarn – Nov 25, 1727, London). Educated in Huguenot academies (Huguenots), Abbadie was an important leader of the refugee community in Berlin from 1680 to 1689. As a field chaplain, he participated in the Ireland campaign of William III of England, and lived thereafter on benefices of the Anglican Church (beginning in 1699, he was …

Fifth Monarchists

(228 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Quintomonarchists, Fifth Monarchy Men). In republican England (III, 1.d; 1649–1653), the Fifth Monarchists did not form a constituted ecclesiastical organization of their own. Rather, the term refers to the exponents of a radically chiliastic (Millenarianism/Chiliasm) trend operative within various other groups (Congregationalists [Congregationalism], Independents, Particular Baptists [Baptists: II]; see also Dissenters). The return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) to rule for 1000 yea…

Lehnin Prophecy

(161 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] These 100 rhymed Latin hexameters were first attested in 1693 and became better known in the early 18th century. They were attributed to the Cistercian monk Hermann von Lehnin in Brandenburg (c. 1300). The verses describe suggestively the Brandenburg rulers beginning with the house of Askanier; the last figures with identifiable traits are Prince Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and his successor. The Reformation, with the abolition of the monastery, marks the turn for the worse. Until…

Metternich, Wolf de

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Chursdorf near Küstrin [Kostrzyn]) – Dec 17, 1731, Rudolstadt). The last in the line of Reformed Metternichs from Chursdorf, Wolf de Metternich probably studied law; he began his career in the service of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth (delegate to the imperial diet), which he left in 1726 to enter the service of the duke of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Known as an alchemist, he also published theological texts under pseudonyms (Aletophilus, Hilarius Theom…

Pordage, John

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1607, London – Dec 11, 1681, London), son of a grocer. Pordage studied medicine and theology at Oxford, while pursuing interests in alchemy and astrology. In 1644 he was ordained in the Anglican Church, but retired to London in 1670. Under Cromwell (England: III, 1.d), Pordage was charged with heresy. Not until the Restoration was he restored to his living (1660). Inspired by the works of J. Böhme (ET: 1642–1662) and his own visions, he developed a theosophical system (Theosophy)…


(2,422 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Scotland, the northern portion of the main island of Great Britain, together with the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, and the Shetland Islands (78,764 km2), comprises the northern Highlands and the southern Lowlands. Only some 20% of its area is arable farmland. The name recalls the Celtic Scotti, who came from Ireland and formed tribal alliances with Picts, Britons (Britain), and Angles (see also Anglo-Saxons) as they expanded southwards. Scotland’s capital is Edinburgh. Since 1707 Scotland has been part…


(831 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] This polemical neologism means “fighter against (absolute) monarchy,” and was defined by William Barclay in his De regno et regali potestate (1600). The terrorism that reached its peak in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre raised among French Protestants (Huguenots) the question of the limits of the duty of obedience and the right of resistance (Resistance, Right of) in relation to tyrannical monarchs. François Hotman, T. Beza, L. Danaeu, and Stephanus Junius Brutus (probably a pseudonym for P. du Pl…


(283 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] The term ἐξομολογεῖσϑαι/ exhomologeísthai and its derivatives, adopted from the LXX and early Judaism, formed part of the earliest Christian vocabulary with the double meaning of a praising confession to God or Christ and a confession of sin (characteristic passages include Phil. 2:11 and Rom. 14:11, both of which draw from Isa. 45:23 LXX; cf. also 1 Clem. 51:3 with 52:1f. and Herm. Sim. IX, 23.4f.). The word field soon also began referring to a liturgically fixed confession of sin within the eucharistic worship service ( Did. 4.14; 14.1). In Tertullian ( De paenitentia, …

Planck, Gottlieb Jakob

(524 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1751, Nürtingen – Aug 31, 1833, Göttingen). After going through the normal course of theological education in Württemberg, Planck began teaching at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart in 1781. Appointed to a chair at Göttingen in 1784, he remained there as professor of theology and holder of other high academic and ecclesiastical offices until his ¶ death. He set out to design a new theological system reduced to the essential content of Scripture ( Einleitung in die theologischen Wissenschaften, 1794–1795); he understood this program as an attempt to combi…


(209 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] (Fifth Monarchists, Fifth Monarchy Men). Die Q. bildeten im republikanischen England (: III.,1., d; 1649–1653) keine eigene verfaßte kirchl. Organisation. Vielmehr bez. der Begriff die Exponenten einer innerhalb unterschiedlicher anderer Gruppen (Congregationalists [ Kongregationalismus], Independents, Particular Baptists [ Baptisten: II.,1.]; s.a. Dissenters) wirksamen radikal chiliastischen (Chiliasmus) Strömung: Die Wiederkunft Jesu Christi (Parusie) zu seiner tausendjährigen …

Maimbourg, Louis

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1610, Nancy – Aug 13, 1686, Paris). In 1626 Maimbourg entered the Societas Jesu (Jesuits) and worked as a preacher and teacher. After anti-Jansenist (C.O. Jansen, Jansenism) polemics, from 1673 he published historical writings which championed the authority of the Catholic Church and glorified Louis XIV. After works on Arianism (Arius), the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), the Crusades and the fall of the empire, in 1680 and 1682 he published general accounts of Lutheranism (answered by V.L. v. Seckendorf, Commentarius de Lutheranismo,…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Barclay, John

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1582, Pont à Mousson, Lorraine, where his father, a lawyer from Scotland, taught at the university – Aug 15, 1621, Rome) lived from 1606 until 1616 in London during the reign of James I. A roman à clef criticized celebrities of the time, but also the Puritans, the papacy, and the Jesuits ( Euphormio, 1605–1607, with indexes; Apologia, 1611). Icon Animorum (1614) reproduced national stereotypes. As a Catholic, Barclay was unable to obtain an influential position and went to Rome in 1617, where he established himself by a Paraenesis ad Sectarios (1617). In 1621, h…


(2,084 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Schottland, der nördliche Teil der brit. Hauptinsel samt den Hebriden, den Orkney- und den Shetlandinseln (78764 km 2) gliedert sich in die nördlichen Highlands und die südlichen Lowlands. Nur ca.20% der Fläche sind fruchtbares Ackerland. Der Name erinnert an die keltischen Skoten, die aus Irland kamen und mit Pikten, Briten (Britannien) und Angeln (s.a. Angelsachsen) Stämmebünde bildeten, die nach Süden ausgriffen. Hauptstadt ist Edinburgh. Seit 1707 ist Sch. Teil des Vereinigten Königreichs v…


(164 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Pordage, John (1607 London – 11.12.1681 ebd.). Der Kaufmannssohn studierte Medizin und Theol. in Oxford und verfolgte alchimistische und astrologische Interessen. Seit 1644 Geistlicher der anglik. Kirche; seit 1670 ohne Amt in London. In der Cromwell-Ära (England: III.,1., d) wurde gegen P. wegen Häresie ermittelt; erst im Zuge der Restauration (1660) wurde er wieder in sein Amt eingesetzt. Durch die Schriften J. Böhmes (engl. Übers. 1642–1662) und eigene Visionen seit 1649 zur Au…


(464 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Ramus, Petrus (Pierre de la Ramée; 1515 Cuts, Picardie – 26.8.1572 Paris). Der Sohn eines verarmten Adelsgeschlechts bezog zwölfjährig das Collège de Navarre in Paris und promovierte 1536 zum M.A. Aufsehen erregte seine Polemik gegen den Aristotelismus; 1544 erging seitens König Franz I. ein Lehr- und Publikationsverbot zu philos. Themen. Bis zu dessen Aufhebung 1547 durch König Franz II. verlegte sich R. auf die Mathematik. Seit 1551 nahm er bedeutende Leitungsstellen an der Univ…


(248 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Souverain, Jacques (gest. wohl 1698 England). Erst Jahre nach seinem Tode wurde S. als Autor des 1700 vorgeblich in Köln, tatsächlich jedoch in Amsterdam erschienenen Buches »Le Platonisme devoilé, ou Essai touchant le Verbe Platonicien« identifiziert; als Hg. hatte der Unitarier S. Crell fungiert. Der wohl aus dem Languedoc stammende S. wurde kurz vor der Aufhebung des Edikts von Nantes (Hugenotten: I.,1.) wegen Irrlehre seines Amtes als ref. Prediger entsetzt und wandte sich in …


(710 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] (walisisch Cymru), eine gebirgige, in die Irische See ragende Halbinsel (mit Anglesey 20 763 km 2), wird im Norden von der Liverpool-Bucht und im Süden vom Bristol-Kanal begrenzt. Seit 1536 in das Königreich England eingegliedert, hat W. (Hauptstadt: Cardiff) seit 1998 ein eigenes Regionalparlament. Von den ca.2,93 Mio. Einwohnern (2001) sprechen ca.575 000 Walisisch (Cymraeg), eine keltische Sprache. 72% der Einwohner bezeichneten sich 2001 als Christen, 22 000 als Muslime, über 4000 als Hi…

Saint Andrews, Universität

(151 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] . Weil Schottland während des großen abendländischen Schismas bis zuletzt an Benedikt XIII. (Avignon) festhielt, wurde den Schotten das Studium auf dem Kontinent unmöglich. 1410 wurde vom Bischof in St. A. die älteste schottische U. gegründet (Theol., Kanonisches Recht, Artes). Nachfolgende Bischöfe fügten weitere Colleges hinzu. Das St. Leonard's-College war ein Einfallstor reformatorischer Theol. in Schottland, aber erst 1559 schlossen sich führende Repräsentanten der U. der Re…


(247 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Pfaff, Christoph Matthäus (25.12.1686 Stuttgart – 19.11.1760 Gießen). Nach württembergischer Theologenausbildung und einigen Reisen seit 1717 durch herzoglichen Oktroi Prof. der Theol. in Tübingen, 1720 Kanzler der Universität. 1756 mußte P. aus diesen Ämtern scheiden und wirkte als Prof., Universitätskanzler und Generalsuperintendent in Gießen. Als Wunderkind und schillernder Charakter war P. theol. von Aufklärung und Pietismus beeinflußter eklektischer Polyhistor mit den Hauptarb…


(264 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Ramsay, Andreas Michael (Chevalier R.; 1686 Ayr, Schottland – 6.5.1743 St. Germain en Laye bei Paris). Der Bäckerssohn wurde schon als Jugendlicher vom Streit zw. Presbyterianismus (Presbyterianer) und Episkopalismus abgestoßen. Als Student tendierte er zum Deismus, fand aber auch Anschluß an myst.-spiritualistische Kreise, den er als Hauslehrer in London intensivierte. Auf dem Kontinent seit 1710, weilte er zunächst bei P. Poiret in Rijnsburg. Dann diente er F. Fénelon in Cambrai …

Dominis, Marcantonio de

(164 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1560, Rab, Dalmatia – Sep 9, 1624, Rome), initially a Jesuit; from 1597/1600, ¶ bishop of Senj; and in 1602, archbishop of Spalato. In conflicts between suffragists and the curia, Dominis proposed in his major work ( De Republica Ecclesiastica, 1617–1622) an episcopal ecclesiology that denied the clergy all worldly authority. In 1616, Dominis fled to England, where he worked for the reunificiation of the church and against the Roman See. In 1622, …

Mirbt, Carl

(206 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jun 21, 1860, Gnadenfrei, Silesia – Sep 27, 1929, Göttingen). From a Brethren background (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren), Mirbt gained ¶ his Habilitation in 1888 in Göttingen as a student of H. Reuter and obtained a non-tenured professorship in church history in Marburg in 1889, a tenured position in 1890, followed by a professorship in Göttingen in 1911, where he attained emeritus status in 1928. He achieved initial prominence with studies on the Investiture Controversy ( Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII. of 1894 is the standard work on the topic), …


(463 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Planck, Gottlieb Jakob (15.11.1751 Nürtingen – 31.8.1833 Göttingen). P. absolvierte die üblichen Stationen der württembergischen Theologenausbildung und lehrte seit 1781 an der Stuttgarter Karlsschule. 1784 nach Göttingen berufen, blieb er dort bis zu seinem Tode als Prof. der Theol. und Inhaber anderer hoher akademischer und kirchl. Ämter. Sein Programm eines auf die wesentlichen Schriftinhalte reduzierten neuen theol. Systems (Einleitung in die theol. Wiss., 1794f.) verstand P. a…

Economic History

(2,672 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Wolfram | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. General – II. Church I. General Economic history, simply speaking, is concerned with how over the centuries people have earned their livelihood, have obtained for themselves food, clothing, and shelter, have communicated with each other sometimes across rivers, mountains, and oceans, have met, bartered (Exchange), traded (Trade), developed m…


(1,315 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin | Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] I. History – II. Modern Catholicism I. History Indulgences ( indulgentia as a fixed technical term since the early 13th cent.; previously also remissio, relaxatio, or absolutio generalis) are rooted in the early medieval system of scheduled penances (Repentance: IV), which allowed fixed forms of satisfaction to be replaced by other acts (“commutation”) or payment of a monetary sum (“redemption”), all meant to be equivalent. The new element in indulgences was the discontinuation of this required equivalenc…


(2,322 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Ivanov, Vladimir
1. Definition und BedeutungDie B. (von mhdt. bigiht, zusammengezogen bīht[e]: Aussage, Bekenntnis; Übersetzung von lat. confessio) ist die vom frühen MA bis teilweise in die Gegenwart gebräuchlichste Form des kirchlichen Bußverfahrens. Der Streit um die Frage, ob der B. der Charakter eines Sakraments zuzuerkennen und wie ihre kirchenamtliche Regulierung und ihre Ausübung in der Religionspraxis zu gestalten sei, ist zu einem wesentlichen Differenzierungsfaktor zwischen den drei großen christl. Konfessionen gewo…
Date: 2020-11-18


(2,565 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Ivanov, Vladimir
1. Definition and meaningConfession (from Latin  confessio) has been the most common form of the church’s penitential discipline from the early Middle Ages until (to some extent) the present. The German equivalent is  Beichte, from MHG  bigiht, contracted  bīht[e]: “declaration, avowal”. The debate over whether it should be recognized as a sacrament and how it should be formally regulated and practiced by the church became a major bone of contention among the three main Christian religious groups. These differences have had not only…
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,105 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Hermann | Schäfer-Lichtenberger, Christa | Pearson, Birger A. | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Biblical – III. Church History I. Comparative Religion The terminology and conception of banishment develop primarily in the context of legal language. Commandments and prohibitions require sanctioning, must become authoritative, and are thus connected with magical incantations (Magi). In popular culture, the verbs “to ban” and “to arrest” …

Freedom of Religion

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Philisophy – V. History – VI. Mission I. Dogmatics Freedom of religion, as generally understood, combines freedom of belief, of conscience, and creed, as well as freedom to practice one's religion (cf. German Basic Law, art. 4, §§1, 2), in one fundamental right. Dogmatics needs to clarify the relationship between religious certainty and freedom. A statement consonant with Reformation belief would run as follows: If Christian certainty, as certainty about the …

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…


(3,276 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[English Version] I. Dogmatisch Unter R. werden nach herrschender Auslegung Glaubens-, Gewissens- und Bekenntnisfreiheit sowie die Freiheit der Religionsausübung (Art.4 Abs.1 und 2 GG) zu einem Grundrecht zusammengezogen. Der somit dogmatisch zu klärende Zusammenhang von rel. Gewißheit und Freiheit stellt sich nach reformatorischer Überzeugung folgendermaßen dar: Wird christl. Gewißheit als Gewißheit der Wahrheit des Evangeliums von Jesus Christus durch die freie, geistgewirkte Selbstvergegenwärtig…


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Author(s): Gerlitz, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Sattler, Dorothea | Root, Michael | Ivanov, Vladimir | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Religious Studies Confession and absolution, expressive of the substantiality of guilt (I) and the impact of the spoken word with its magico-ritual power, are among the “most widespread means of structured confrontation of the ego with itself” (Hahn & Knapp, 7). They appear already in tribal societies (Kikuyu, Nuer, Acholi in East Africa) as part of purificati…
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