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Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Zaraspadum

(33 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in modern Afghanistan, according to the context in Plin. HN 6,94 in the area of the Etymander, not precisely located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Zaraspad(r)um, RE 9 A, 2317 f.

Halycus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅλυκος; Halykos). River (84 km long) on the south-west coast of Sicily, empties into the sea north-west of Capo Bianco near Heraclea Minoa, modern Plátani. The H. was mentioned in the treaties between Dionysius I (376 or 374 BC: Stv 2, no. 261) and Timoleon (339 BC: Stv 2, no. 344) respectively and the Carthaginians as the demarcation line between the two spheres of control. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Elusa

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome Chief place (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14) of the Celtic Elusates (Caes. B Gall. 3,27,1; Plin. HN 4,108) in Aquitania, mod. Eauze (Dép. Gers). Roman colonia from the early 3rd cent. AD (CIL XIII 546), in the 4th cent. metropolis of the prov. Novempopulana (Notitia Galliarum 14). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Metrophanes

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μητροφάνης; Mētrophánēs). An official under Mithradates [6] VI. During the 1st Mithradatic War (89-85), he transported Pontic troops to Greece in 87 BC [2. 89, n. 318], at the same time as Neoptolemus [10] and Archelaus [4]. M. conquered Chalcis [1] in Euboea, and laid waste to the Magnesian coast as far as Demetrias [1], where the Roman proquaestor Braetius [1] inflicted some losses on his fleet (App. Mithr. 113, cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,20,10; [1. 140]). M. may have been one of the envoys who in 79 negotiated an agreement with Sertoriu…

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia

Xoana

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξόανα; Xóana). City in the Indian subcontinent on the left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,61), to the northeast of Patala, probably at modern Hyderabad in Pakistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X. (1), RE 9 A, 2138-2140.

Stoechades

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στοιχάδες νῆσοι/ Stoichádes nêsoi), 'row islands' (from στοῖχος/ stoîchos, row). Island group directly offshore, c. 70 km east of Massalia/Marseille (Str. 4,1,10; Mela 2,124), present-day Îles d'Hyères. Among them are the islands of Prote ('the first'), Mese ('the middle one'), as well as Pomponiana, Hypaea ('the one below'), Sturium, Phoenice, Phila, Lero and Lerina (Plin. HN 3,79). The assignment of the corresponding modern names to the various islands is a matter of debate (present-day Le L…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Pisye

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισύη/ Pisýē). Carian city, capital of a local koinón (together with Pladasa, [3. 443 no. 19]; other koiná were led by Mobolla and Idyma); occupied for a short time in 201 by Philippus [7] V, then regained by Rhodes (Syll.3 586; [2. no. 151]), belonging to the region of Rhodian Peraia subjugated on the basis of the Apameia agreement in 188 BC (Antiochus [5] III.) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., according to him also Πιτύη/ Pitýē, ethnicon Πισυήτης/ Pisyḗtēs; Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De Thematibus 14,33). Archaeology: traces of the acropolis, a theatre, site…

Zarkaion oros

(41 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαρκαῖον ὄρος; Zarkaîon óros). Craggy mountains between Chauon (modern Ḫōy in Iran) and Ecbatana (Diod. 2,13,5), and therefore a chain in the northern Zagrus mountains in Media. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z.o., RE 9 A, 2328.

Corinth, Gulf of

(399 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κορινθιακὸς κόλπος; Korinthiakòs Kólpos). According to Str. 8,2,3, the Gulf of C. (the eastern section of which is today called Gulf of C., the western section ‘Gulf of Patras’ [Πατραϊκὸς κόλπος], was held to begin at the estuary of the Achelous or the Evenus on the coast of central Greece and Araxus (today the Cape of the same name Ἄκρα Ἄραξος) on the Peloponnesian coast, at a width of 10 km and a maximum depth of 133 m. The two coastlines approach each other at Antirrhion and Rhion to within c. 2 km (ancient reckoning: 5 stadia/ 925 m, Str. loc. cit.; maximum 7 stadia/1295…

Apiolae

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in  Latium, west of   mons Albanus ; exact location unknown (near  Bovillae?). A. was destroyed by  Tarquinius Priscus (HRR Valerius Antias F 11; Str. 5,3,4: Ἀπίολα; Apíola; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,49,2; Liv. 1,35,7); with the booty from A. he undertook the construction of the Capitoline Temple, and held magnificent games. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 2, 1902, 563.

Amasea

(266 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Byzantium | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Patricius | Rome (Ἀμάσεια; Amáseia). City with fortress on the west bank of the  Iris (Yeşil İrmak) in  Pontus (today Amasya), residence of the Mithridatids ( Mithridates). The fortress lies where the river breaks through a part of the northern Anatolian foothills c. 250 m above the city; the city and the fortress were enclosed by a Hellenistic defensive wall (still well preserved today). Not mentioning the five monumenta…

Caenus

(62 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καῖνυς; Kaînys). The Italian foothills (modern Punta del Pezzo), from where the shortest distance between the mainland and Sicily ( Pelorias) across the  fretum Siculum was measured (Str. 6,1,5: 6 stades; Thuc. 6,1: 20 stades; Plin. HN 3,73: 12 stades; ibid. 86: 1.5 miles -- the modern measurement is about 3.2 km). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 962.

Xerxene

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξερξήνη; Xerxḗnē). Region in Greater Armenia (cf. Armenia A.) on the upper reaches of the Euphrates (Str. 11,14,5; Plin. HN 5,83: Derzene; Steph. Byz. s. v. Καμβυσήνη; s. v. Ξ.) in the plain around modern Tercan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094-2096.

Segobrigii

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic people settled around the mouth of the Rhodanus, whose king Nannus and his son Comanus appear in the founding legend of Massalia  (Iust. 43,3,4-13,  cf.  Aristot. fr. 503 R.). A connection with terms such as Segovii, Segobriga and Segovia is discussed. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 207 f.  D. Pralon, La légende de la fondation de Marseille, in: M. Bats et al. (eds.), Marseille greque et la Gaule (Études Massaliètes 3), 1992, 51-56.

Pharnaceia

(180 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαρνάκεια/ Pharnákeia, Φαρνακία/ Pharnakía, Latin Pharnacea). Port on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), founded by Pharnaces [1] I, probably after the occupation of Sinope in 183 BC while incorporating the population of Cotyora (Str. 2,5,25; 7,6,2; 11,2,18; 12,3,13-19; 28-30; 14,5,22; Ptol. 5,6,5; Plut. Lucullus 18,2; Plin. HN 6,11; 32). According to the information on distances in Xen. An. 5,3,2 (cf. also Peripl. m. Eux. 34), however, P. was not on the soil of Ce…

Theches

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θήχης; Thḗchēs). Mountain ridge in the east of the northern Anatolian peripheral mountain chain (Xen. An. 4,7,21; Diod. Sic. 14,29,3: τὸ Χήνιον ὄρος/ tò Chḗnion óros). It was from here that the 'Ten Thousand' of Xenophon's Anábasis on their retreat after the battle of Cunaxa (in the autumn of 401 BC), saw the sea again for the first time (here: the Black Sea; Pontos Euxeinos). The T. can probably be located in the area of the Zigana Pass (Zigana Geçidi, 2025 m elevation). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. B. Mitford, The Roman Frontier on the Upper Eup…

Neoclaudiopolis

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νεοκλαυδιόπολις/ Neoklaudiópolis, Latin Neoclaudiopolis). City in the Paphlagonian district of Phazemonitis to the east of the lower Halys, near the village of Phazemon (Φαζημών/ Phazēmṓn, OGIS 532, 40f.) in the territory of the neighbouring township of Andrapa (Ἄνδραπα/ A'ndrapa, Ptol. 5,4,6,4; Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,7; Nov. 28 praef.); founded by Pompey in 65 or 62 BC with the name Neapolis (Strab. 12,3,38) as part of the new province of Bithynia et Pontus [7. 33f., 38f., 71ff.], renamed N. under Claudius (IGR 3…

Grudii

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] One of the five tribes in Gallia Belgica dependent on the  Nervii (the others being the  Ceutrones [1],  Levaci,  Pleumoxii and  Geidumni: Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Their area of settlement lay in what is now Flanders. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography TIR M 31 Paris, 1975, 133 H. Boone, Ceutrones et Nervii, in: Mémoires de la Societé d'Emulation de Cambrai 73, 1926, 105-206.

Vologesocerta

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Plin. HN 6,122; Ptol. 5,20,6: Οὐλογαισία/ Ou ologaisía; Amm. Marc. 23,6,23: Vologessia; Tab. Peut. 11,4: Volocesia; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βολογεσσίας/ Bologessías). City in Babylonia, founded by the Parthian king Vologaeses I on the Naarmalcha near Seleucia [1] and in competition with it; presumably at modern Abū Ḫalafīya. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Oppenheimer, Babylonia Judaica in the Talmudic Period (TAVO Beiheft B 47), 1983, 198-207.

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Pedasum

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πήδασον; Pḗdason). Small settlement (πολίχνιον/ políchnion) in the territory of Stratoniceia in Caria (Str. 13,1,59); its precise location has yet to be established [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. Pedasa (2), RE 19, 27.

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Teuthrania

(163 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τευθρανία; Teuthranía). Region or its capital in the Mysian valley of the lower Caicus [1]. The name is derived from Teuthras, who reportedly took in Auge [2] and her son Telephus [1] as guests when they were washed ashore in Mysia. The region is generally located from the Aeolian coast between Atarneus and Cisthene (at modern Gömeç) inland about as far up as the upper Macestus. The site of the city (Str. 13,1,69; Plin. HN 5,126) has been located (though without certainty) near mo…

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Niphates

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νιφάτης/ Niphátēs). Mountain range on the Thospitis Limne (Van Gölü) in Armenia, belonging to the eastern Taurus massif (Doğu Toros Dağları) (Str. 11,12,4; 11,13,3; 14,2; 8; Plin. HN 5,27; Mela 1,15,81; Plut. Alexandros 31,10; Ptol. 5,13,4; 6,1,1; Amm. Marc. 23,6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. N.; cf. Hor. Carm. 2,9,20; Verg. G. 3,30; Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,4) - in a narrower sense probably İhtiyarşahap Dağları with Mevzi Dağı (3446 m) in the south of Van Gölü or Ala Dağları with Tendürek Dağı (3533 m) in the north-east of Van Gölü. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Sy…

Stadiasmos

(188 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (σταδιασμός/ stadiasmós) is the term for distance in stádia (Str. 1,3,2; 4,6; 2,1,17; 4,7; Stadion [1]) analogous to which miliasmós is the term for distance in milia 'miles' (Str. 6,2,1; cf. Eust. ad Hom. Od. 2,133,2: miliasmoû ... ḕ stadiasmoû). Consequently the stadiasmôn epidromḗ (Marcianus, Epit. peripli Menippi 3 = GGM 1,566,23), was an abridgment, made by Timosthenes of Rhodes of his own 10-volume description of harbours (mid-3rd cent. BC), a 'compilation of distance data in stádia' from harbour to harbour. It was not until the 2nd cent. AD that stadiasmos was a…

Polemonium

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολεμώνιον/ Polemṓnion). Port city on the south shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Ptol. 5,6,4; Peripl. m. Eux. 30-33; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; Plin. HN 6,11; Tab. Peut. 10,3; Hierocles, Synekdemos 37) at the modern Bolaman, 10 km west of Fatsa, where the Sidenus (Str. 1,3,7; 2,5,25; 3,3,14-16; modern Bolaman Irmağı) flows into a broad bay. Named after Polemon [4] I (37-7 BC: EM s. v. Πολεμώνιος). The town was probably built on the site of Side, a settlement which was abandoned by Strabo's (12,3,16) time (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,16, who emphasizes the Greek tradition of P.). O…

Mare Germanicum

(573 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (North Sea). This shelf sea, a marginal sea of the Atlantic ( Oceanus), assumed its present form in the Jura. In the west, it is separated from the Atlantic by the Straits of Dover, in the north-west, by the line of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the east, the Skagerrak separates it from the Baltic Sea ( Mare Suebicum). There are few bordering archipelagos north-west and south-east. The Mare Germanicum (MG) extends over an area of 0.58 million km2, it contains 0.054 km3 of water, its medium depth is around 94 m, its greatest depth is 725 m near Arendal in th…

Fluß

(214 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] Erdrelief und Klima bestimmen Größe und Richtung von Flußläufen. Die größeren Flußtäler der Oikumene bestimmten ihrerseits Handel und Wandel der Gesellschaften, deren Gebiete sie durchzogen; denn sie boten diesen sowohl infrastrukturelle als auch wirtschaftliche Vorteile. Selten stellten sie für den Verkehr unüberwindliche Hindernisse dar, sie lenkten vielmehr die Verkehrsströme in verschiedener Stärke in bestimmten Bahnen (Furten, Brücken). Die wirtschaftliche Nutzbarkeit von Fl…

Elaver

(38 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] Fluß in Aquitania, h. Allier, entspringt in 1430 m Höhe am Mont Lozère und mündet nach einem Lauf von 375 km unterhalb von Noviodunum von links in den Liger (Caes. Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Mare Germanicum

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] (Nordsee). Dieses Schelf-Meer, ein Randmeer des Atlantik (Okeanos), besitzt seine h. Gestalt seit dem Jura; im Westen ist es gegen den Atlantik durch die Meerenge von Dover, im NW durch die Linie der Orkney- und Shetland-Inseln, gegen die Ostsee ( mare Suebicum ) im Osten durch das Skagerrak abgeschlossen, wenige begrenzende Inselgruppen befinden sich in NW und SO. Das m.G. hat h. eine Fläche von 0,58 Mio km2, eine Wassermenge von 0,054 km3, die mittlere Tiefe liegt bei 94 m, die größte Tiefe 725 m bei Arendal in der Norwegischen Rinne. Es liegt im…
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