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Prinus

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρῖνος; Prînos). 1210 m high pass (διὰ Πρίνου καλουμένης: Paus. 8,6,4) leading from Argos [II 1] to Mantinea over Mount Artemisium [2], to the north of the main peak (modern Malevo). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. P., RE 22, 2314 f.  Pritchett 3, 32-46.

Prinkipos

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρίγκιπος/ Prínkipos). Δημόνησοι/ Dēmónēsoi (Hesych. s. v. Δημονήσιος χαλκός) or Πριγκίπιοι νῆσοι/ Prinkípioi nêsoi (Synaxiarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae 158,26 Delehaye) is the description by which an archipelago of nine islands in the northern Propontis is known in the Byzantine literature of Late Antiquity: (from north to south) Prota (modern Kınalı ada), Orea (modern Sivri ada), Panormus (later Antigone, modern Burgaz adası), Pita (modern Kaşık adası), Chalce (modern Heybeli adası),…

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Dahae

(242 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δάαι; Dáai, Δάοι; Dáoi; Latin: Dahae) The D. were a nomadic tribe in Persis; according to Strabo, they were originally one of the Scythian tribes in the region by the Caspian Sea (Str. 11,8,2; 11,9,2f.). Like the Mardi, Dropici and Sagartii, the D. are mentioned by Herodotus in connection with the revolt of Cyrus II against Astyages in 550 BC (Hdt. 1,125,4); in the Persepolis Inscription they are called Daha. The D. fought under Darius ─ and, after his death, under Spitamenes ─ against  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,11,3; 3,28,10; Curt. 4,12…

Pholoe

(140 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φολόη/ Pholóē). The monotonous conglomerate surface, some 11 km long and 8 km wide  to the north of the middle reaches of the Alpheius [1], up to 798 m high in the north, 640 m in the south, to the east with a steep edge merging with the Erymanthus [2] mountains, to the west with lowish ranges of marl hills (Strab. 8,3,1; 3,5; 3,32; 8,3; Paus. 6,21,5; 8,24,4 ; Ptol. 3,14,35 ; Mela 2,43; Plin. HN 4,21), modern Pholoi Oros. P. is unsettled and poor in springs, today covered with oak…

Cyllene

(244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη; Kyllénḗ). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Arcadia The northernmost mountain range in Arcadia in the border area stretching to Achaea, the second highest (Ziria, 2,374 m) of the Peloponnese, a limestone ridge that ends on all sides with the surrounding chain of mountains. The ancient authors considered C. to be the highest mountain range in the Peloponnese (Str. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). C. was sacred to  Hermes Cyllenius. He is said to have been born here in a cave and to have accomplished d…

Naro

(254 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νάρων; Nár ōn). River in Dalmatia (Dalmates; Strab. 7,5,5; 9; Mela 2,57: Nar; Tab. Peut. 6,4 without name), modern Neretva (in Hercegovina). It rises on the Dumos Planina (1879 m high), passes through the karst mountains in a deeply incised gorge, forms - after a course of 230 km - a swampy delta and flows into the Adriatic. In antiquity the N. flowed into the sea farther to the northwest than today. In its original bed the Norino, which used to join the N. after a much shorter course furthe…

Amisus

(348 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Caesar | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius (Ἀμισός; Amisós). Harbour town on the Pontic Black Sea coast, on the Kara Samsun peninsula (north-western suburb of the modern Samsun), not yet systematically excavated (prohibited military zone). Just like  Trapezus, A. was located at the northern end of an old trade route, which led, at a height of only 900m, across the northern Pontic mountains to  Amasea and on to  Cap…

Zeleia

(120 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ζέλεια; Zéleia). City in the valley of the Aesepus (Hom. Il. 2,824f.; 4,91; 4,103; 4,121; Str. 12,4,6; 12,8,11) in the territory of Cyzicus in Mysia, near modern Sarıköy. Homer (loc. cit.) describes Z. as the home city of Pandarus [1] and the latter as belonging to the Lycii; for this reason ancient commentators (cf. schol. Hom. Il. 2,826f.) assumed two regions with the name Lycia – one in the southwest of Asia Minor (Lycii, Lycia), the …

Ager Caletranus

(36 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Region around the Etruscan town of Caletra, ruins near Marsiliana d'Albegna north of Orbetello (cf. Plin. HN 3,52; Liv. 39,55). Foundation of the colonia Saturnia in 183 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Periegetes, Perihegetes

(265 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (περιηγήτης/ perihēg ḗtēs, guide to strangers’). The periegetes was primarily a tourist institution, an insight into whose activities is provided by Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 395a; 396c; 397d; 400d; 400f; 401e). This gave rise to the antiquarian genre of peri(h)ḗgēsis, particularly popular during the Hellenistic period, in which the guiding of strangers by a periegetes took on a literary form in prose or verse; closely related to this was the travel story, i.e. the account of an actual journey, which could be used by others as a travel guide (e.g. Pe…

Cerasus

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Patricius (Κερασοῦς; Kerasoûs). Harbour town on the river of the same name on the south coast of the Black Sea ( Pontus Euxinus), a colony of Sinope, to be located three days' march west of Trapezus (Xen. An. 5,3,2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,5) and east of Vakfıkebir; to be differentiated from the C. west of Sinope (Scylax 89: Karaköy on the Karasu?), and also from the town which under Pharnaces I (185-160/54 BC) was joined in a synoikismós with Cotyora and renamed Pharnacaea…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Chabakta

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάβακτα; Chábakta on coins, HN 498; Χάβακα; Chábaka Str. 12,3,16). Pontic fortress, whose name appears on pseudo-autonomous coins of  Mithridates VI; likely fortress structures identified near Kaleköy/Ünye on the coast of northern Turkey (tomb and two staircases cut into the rock). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 120 W. H. Waddington, E. Babelon, Th. Reinach, Recueil général des monnaies grecques d'Asie Mineure 1,1, 21925, 104f.

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Noarus

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νόαρος/ Nóaros). River flowing north into the Ister [2] (Danube) in the territory of the Scordisci (and navigable there) (Str. 7,5,2). Between the N. and the Margus [1] (Str. 7,5,12) was the land of the ‘Great Scordisci’. On the discussion of the identification of the N. (Drina, Korana, Mur, Raab, lower reaches of the Sava) cf. [1; 2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s.v. Noaros, RE 17, 783-785 2 J. Fitz, s.v. Noaros, KlP 4, 142.

Hieron oros

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἱερὸν ὄρος; Hieròn óros). [German version] [1] Holy mountain Holy mountain, name of a mountain range on the  Propontis, modern Tegirdağ. Religious centre of the  Thraci (Str. 7, fr. 55). The fortress of the Odrysae bearing the same name (Xen. An. 7,1,14) was situated there. Cotys I entrenched himself there in 362 BC at the time of the revolt of Miltocythes (Dem. Or. 23,104). Philip II conquered H. in 346 (Dem. Or. 9,15; Aeschin. Leg. 2,82f.; 3,73f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 122f. [German version] [2] Foothills on the south …

Cithaeron

(139 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κιθαιρών; Kithairṓn, Latin Cithaeron). A mountain range that is still forested (1407 m, Hagios Elias) to the north of the  Isthmus of Corinth and separating Boeotia on the north from the Megaris in the south-west and Attica in the south-east; the Pastra mountains (1025 m), the Skurta plateau (between 540 and 570 m) and the Parnes adjoin the C. in the east. Important connecting routes from and to Boeotia led over passes that were secured by fortifications and watch-towers (Hdt. 9,38f…

Strongyle

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στρογγύλη/ Strongýlē). Volcanic island in the north east of the Aeoliae Insulae (12,6 km2, 924 m high; Ptol. 3,4,16; Mela 2,120), present-day Stromboli. The island was named (S.: 'the round') after the form of the volcano, which has been active from Antiquity (Str. 6,2,11; cf. Thuc. 3,88,2; Diod. Sic. 5,7,1; App. B Civ. 5,105). The island has been settled from c. 3000 BC. In mythology, it was considered to be the seat of Aeolus [2] (Plin. HN 3,94) or Hephaestus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,761). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e pol…

Lysimeleia

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λυσιμέλεια λίμνη; Lysiméleia límē). According to Thucydides (6,101,1ff.; 7,53,2), L. refers to the southern part of the swamp area in the alluvial plain of Syracusae between the necropolis of Fusco, the Anapus and the north-western edge of the Great Harbour in the confluence region of minor watercourses (modern Canale Regina and Canale Pisimotta); cf. Theoc. 16,84, (Syracusae as ‘great city on the waters of the L.’). Identification of the L. with the swamp of Syrako is nevertheless contentious [1. 1f. and n. 10f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Drögemüller, Hans-P…

Narona

(519 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Town (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 21,40; Itin. Anton. 338,4; Tab. Peut. 6,4) on the Naro (Norino) atop a flat hill in the midst of swampy land in the lower Naro valley near modern Vid, northwest of Metković/Croatia. A prehistoric settlement is assumed; the population and place name were Illyrian. In the 5th/4th cent. BC, Greek settlers joined and founded a trading station near N. ( empórion, Scyl. 24; cf. Theopompus FGrH 115 F 129). In the 2nd/1st cent., settlers from Italy followed. Aft…

Interamnium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Road station in the Sybaris valley in Lucania (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,34). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 918.

Thospitis Limne

(146 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θωσπῖτις λίμνη/ Thōspîtis límnē). Lake in Armenia. Str. 11,14,8 regards the TL and the Arsenḗ límnē (modern Lake Erçek) to the east as a unit (cf. also Dionys. Per. 988). Separate lakes are recognized there by Ptol. 5,13,7 ( Ársissa límnē) and Plin. HN 6,128 ( lacus Thospites, lacus Aretissa); the modern Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, a basin without outflow, 1648 m above sea-level with a water surface area of approximately 3574 km2 and a maximum depth of 451 m. Ancient authors knew that the water had an extremely high soda content and only a single s…

Namnetae

(163 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] ( Namnetes, Plin. HN 4,107). A Celtic people on the right bank of the lower Liger (modern Loire), which separated them from the Pictones (Str. 4,2,1). Their territory was between the Liger, Vilaine and Semnon (Ille-et-Vilaine). Their capital was Condevincum, in whose modern name of Nantes the name of the N. survives (Ptol. 2,8,9: Κονδιούϊγκον/ Kondioúïnkon; 2,8,6 erroneously Σαμνῖται/ Samnîtai), and their chief port was Portus Nemetum (Tab. Peut 2,2; cf. CIL XIII 3105). At the time of Caesar they were allied with the Veneti (Caes. Gall. 3,9,10).…

Selenes oros

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σελήνης ὄρος; Selḗnēs óros). "Mountains of the Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive melt water" (Ptol. 4,9,3) - according to the coordinate data in Ptol. l.c. probably modern Kilimanjaro (5895 m elevation) in northeastern Tanzania. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Orneae

(183 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρνε(ι)αί/ Orne(i)aí). Small city c. 120 stadia to the northwest of Argos [II 1], surrounded by the Lirkion, Durmiza and Megalovouni mountain ranges, probably not at Kastro, 3 km to the south of Jimnon on the eastern slopes of the Durmiza mountains (traces of a Mycaenaean town, tower from the Classical period), but rather on a hill (550 m) in the upper valley of the Inachus [2], 2·5 km west of Sterna (remains of a ring wall; [2. 188f.]). O. was an independent polis (cf. Hom. Il. 2,571; Paus. 10,18,5), but from the 5th cent. BC a dependency of Argos as a períoikoi

Ietae

(174 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰεταί; Ietaí). Sicilian town near San Giuseppe Iato and San Cipirello on Monte Iato (852 m), 30 km south-west of Palermo ( Sicily with map). The site was settled from the 8th cent. BC by the  Elymi or  Sicani; about 550 BC, construction of a temple to Aphrodite which was renovated in the 4th cent., and destroyed in AD 50. In the Hellenistic era, among other things, a theatre, an agora with stoa, bouleuterion, podium temple, and living quarters (mosaics, paintings) were built; only…

Mossynoeci

(166 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μοσσύνοικοι; Mossýnoikoi). People in the Paryadres mountains to the south of the Black Sea coast between Cerasus and Trapezus (Hekat. FGrH 1 F 204f.; Xen. An. 5,4,2; 5,1; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1016ff.; Diod. 14,30,5-7) to the east of the Tibareni and Chalybes, from time to time with a large sphere of influence (to the south: Strab. 11,14,5; to the west: Xen. An. 5,5,1). Under Darius I and Xerxes, the M. belonged to the 19th satrapy (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78), in Xenophon's time they were independ…

Solus

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Punic Wars (Σολοῦς/ Soloûs, Σολόεις/ Solóeis, Latin Soluntum). City on the northern coast of Sicilia at Cannita near modern Santa Flavia about 20 km to the west of Palermo (burial finds from the 6th cent. BC). Like Motye and Panormus S. was one of the bases to which the Phoenicians, under pressure from Greek colonists, retreated at the turn from the 8th cent. BC to the 7th (Thuc. 6,2,6). Dionysius [1] I captured the city in 397 BC, and after a…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph in Corinth, equated by some authors with the daughter of the local king  Creon, who otherwise is called  Creus…

Ruscino

(192 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in the Pyrenees River with its source in the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]) which flows past R. [2] into the Mediterranean (Str. 4,1,6: Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn; Pol. apud Ath. 8,332a: Ῥόσκυνος/ Rhóskynos; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ῥουσκίων/ Rhouskíōn; Avien. Ora maritima 567: Roschinus). Plin. HN 3,32 calls the river Tetum (Mela 2,84: Telis); modern Têt. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Celtic oppidum (Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn). Celtic oppidum in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages (Ptol. 2,10,9: Ῥουσκινόν/ Rhouskinón) on the R. […

Sipylus

(102 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σίπυλος/ Sípylos). Mountain range in Lydia (modern Manisa Dağı), extending between the Hermus [2] and Smyrna and about 30 km inland. Lake Saloe, in which the city of S. and its predecessor Tantalis are supposed to have been submerged, are presumed to be on the mountain range of S. (Plin. HN. 2,205; 5,117; Paus. 7,24,13; Tantalus). At the S. some 100 m above the Hermus valley, near two Hittite graffiti there is a rock sculpture the interpretation of which has been discussed since Antiquity [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 B. André-Salvini, M. Salvini…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Caenus

(62 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καῖνυς; Kaînys). The Italian foothills (modern Punta del Pezzo), from where the shortest distance between the mainland and Sicily ( Pelorias) across the  fretum Siculum was measured (Str. 6,1,5: 6 stades; Thuc. 6,1: 20 stades; Plin. HN 3,73: 12 stades; ibid. 86: 1.5 miles -- the modern measurement is about 3.2 km). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen, vol. 2, 962.

Xerxene

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξερξήνη; Xerxḗnē). Region in Greater Armenia (cf. Armenia A.) on the upper reaches of the Euphrates (Str. 11,14,5; Plin. HN 5,83: Derzene; Steph. Byz. s. v. Καμβυσήνη; s. v. Ξ.) in the plain around modern Tercan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094-2096.

Clarus

(162 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | de la Genière, Juliette (Nevilly-sur-Seine)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Κλᾶρος; Klâros). Ionian sanctuary of  Apollo Klarios (since the protogeometric period, 10th cent. BC) with oracle (flowering 2nd cent. AD) in the territory of  Colophon, on the coastal plain of Ahmetbeyli. Well attested in literature and epigraphy (cf. h. Hom. ad Apollinem 1,40; h. Hom. ad Dianam 5; Thuc. 3,33; Str. 14,1,27; Paus. 7,3; Iambl. Myst. 3,11; Aristid. 3,317 Jebb; Tac. Ann. 2,54,2f.: Germanicus in C. in AD 18). Archaeological …

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Segobrigii

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic people settled around the mouth of the Rhodanus, whose king Nannus and his son Comanus appear in the founding legend of Massalia  (Iust. 43,3,4-13,  cf.  Aristot. fr. 503 R.). A connection with terms such as Segovii, Segobriga and Segovia is discussed. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 207 f.  D. Pralon, La légende de la fondation de Marseille, in: M. Bats et al. (eds.), Marseille greque et la Gaule (Études Massaliètes 3), 1992, 51-56.

Pharnaceia

(180 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φαρνάκεια/ Pharnákeia, Φαρνακία/ Pharnakía, Latin Pharnacea). Port on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), founded by Pharnaces [1] I, probably after the occupation of Sinope in 183 BC while incorporating the population of Cotyora (Str. 2,5,25; 7,6,2; 11,2,18; 12,3,13-19; 28-30; 14,5,22; Ptol. 5,6,5; Plut. Lucullus 18,2; Plin. HN 6,11; 32). According to the information on distances in Xen. An. 5,3,2 (cf. also Peripl. m. Eux. 34), however, P. was not on the soil of Ce…

Theches

(105 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θήχης; Thḗchēs). Mountain ridge in the east of the northern Anatolian peripheral mountain chain (Xen. An. 4,7,21; Diod. Sic. 14,29,3: τὸ Χήνιον ὄρος/ tò Chḗnion óros). It was from here that the 'Ten Thousand' of Xenophon's Anábasis on their retreat after the battle of Cunaxa (in the autumn of 401 BC), saw the sea again for the first time (here: the Black Sea; Pontos Euxeinos). The T. can probably be located in the area of the Zigana Pass (Zigana Geçidi, 2025 m elevation). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. B. Mitford, The Roman Frontier on the Upper Eup…

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between…
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