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Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Dymas

(251 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δύμας; Dýmas). [German version] [1] Phrygian king on the Sangarius, father of Hecuba Phrygian king on the Sangarius; father of Hecuba the wife of Priam, and of Asius (Hom. Il. 16,718; Apollod. 3,148; Hyg. Fab. 91,1; Ov. Met. 11,761). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Phaeacian A Phaeacian, whose daughter was a friend of Nausicaa (Hom. Od. 6,22). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Trojan in the Aeneid A Trojan who joined Aeneas at the fall of Troy, and was killed (Verg. Aen. 2,340; 428). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography T. Gargiulo, s.v. Dimante, EV 2, 75. …

Ariston

(821 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(Ἀρίστων; Arístōn). [German version] [1] of Athens Tragedian Son of Menealaus (possibly identical with TrGF 2-4, 1977-85, 137), father of the comic poet Alexander (FdD III 2, 48 l. 3 and 15; 49), author of Satyr plays and tragedies; in an inscription on the southern wall of the Athenian treasure house (FdD III 2, 48 17, l. 30 and 35, Syll.3 711 L) , he is honoured as an Attic delegate to the 3rd Pythaïs of the Dionysiac technites in Delphi, probably in 106/105 BC (or 97 BC according to TrGF app. crit. 145151). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 72 TrGF 146. [German version] [2] of Al…

Apollonides

(326 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀπολλωνίδης; Apollōnídēs). [German version] [1] Greek geographer of the time of Mithridates VI Greek geographer of the time of Mithridates VI (early 1st cent. BC); author of a   periplous of Europe; the few surviving fragments cover the region of the eastern Mediterranean. Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) Bibliography FHG 4, 309-310 H. Berger, s. v. A. 28, RE 2, 120. …

Dionysiades

(52 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Διονυσιάδης; Dionysiádēs). Son of Phylarchides, tragedian from Mallus (Suda δ 1169), according to Str. 14,6,759, from Tarsus, counted among the Pleias. Possibly identical with the poet named among the winners of the Dionysia (TrGF 110, see also DID A 3a, 67). …

Evandridas

(43 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Εὐανδρίδας; Euandrídas). Tragedian, son of Hestiaeus; according to an inscription from c. 200 BC (GVI 2018), found in Miletus, he lived exactly to the age of 80 [1. 185 B]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 A. Rehm, R. Harder, Didyma II, 1958 2 TrGF …

Choerilus

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Χοιρίλος; Choirílos). [German version] [1] from Samos Poet, 5th cent. BC Poet of the 5th cent. BC. Earliest known author of historically based epic poetry; died at the court of the Macedonian king Archelaus (413-399 BC) (Suda: SH 315 = PEG I, T 1). As late as 404 he is attested as participating in an agon of encomiastic poetry in honour of Lysander on Samos (Plut.: PEG I, T 3). These two dates derive from two separate and probably independent sources. The divergent chronologies in the Suda (C. as a contemporary of the epic poet Panyassis; a youth a…

Artemon

(593 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρτέμων; Artémōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian From Cassandreia. Greek  grammarian. As he m…

Anaxion

(43 words)

Archestratus

(351 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
(Ἀρχέστρατος; Archéstratos). [German version] [1] Actor and Tragedian With his tragedy Antaios, an unknown actor triumphed at the Soteria in Delphi between 267 and 219 BC (DID B 11, 5). He is probably not to be identified with the A. mentioned in Plut. Aristides 1,3 (318e). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 198 TrGF 75. [German version] [2] Author of a gastronomic poem from Gela, 4th cent. BC Citizen of Gela who lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC. 62 fragments (more than 300 verses) of his gastronomic poem, written c. AD 330, have been preserved by Athenaeus. Its …

Hieronymus

(2,779 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Et al.
(Ἱερώνυμος; Hierṓnymos). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander of the Persian fleet 395 BC, politician Athenian, one of  Conon's representatives in his command over the Persian fleet in 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4), campaigned for more expansive politics in Athens (Aristoph. Eccl. 201; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 73). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 533930. [German version] [2] Statesman in Megalopolis around 350 BC Oecist from Mainalus in Arcadia at the founding of Megalopolis ( Megale Polis) in 370 BC (Paus. 8,27,2), was one of the leading s…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Euphorion

(1,434 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Εὐφορίων; Euphoríōn). [German version] [1] Winged son of Achilles and Helena A figure invented by Ptolemy Chennus (Phot. 149a): E., a winged son of Achilles and Helena, is killed on the island of Melos by a bolt of lightning from Zeus whose love he does not reciprocate. The nymphs who bury the corpse are changed into frogs by Zeus. In Goethe's Faust (2nd Part), E. appears as the son of Faust and Helena. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography K.-H. Tomberg, Die Kaine Historia des Ptolemaios Chennos, 1967, 108. [German version] [2] of Athens Tragedian Tragedian, son of Aeschylus. He won priz…

Amymon

(39 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀμύμων; Amýmōn) from Sicyon, tragedian (CAT A 6, 5; time: prior to the end of the 3rd cent. BC), perhaps two victories in the Dionysia (cf. DID A 3a, 47). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography TrGF 123.

Biotus

(43 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Βίοτος; Bíotos). Tragedian, from whose Medea a fragment has been preserved. Possibly identical with the comedian  Biottus, who is mentioned in 167 and 155 BC in the Didaskalíai [1. 80]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, KS 4, 1962 2 TrGF 205.

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Caerius

(30 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Καίριος; Kaírios). Tragedian who, according to DID A 3b, 55, won once at the Lenaea, probably in 351 BC. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 183 TrGF 82.

Aminias

(59 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀμινίας; Aminías) from Thebes. Satyr play poet, son of Democles, had the victory in the Charitesia in Orchomenus in the 1st cent. BC. (DID A 10 a); he won with an epic encomium shortly after 86 BC at the Amphiaria in Oropus (IG VII 419, 14 and 16). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 55 TrGF 164.

Evaretus

(52 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Εὐάρετος; Euáretos). Tragedian, who came second in the Dionysia of 341 BC with Teûkros, Achilleús, and a further unknown play (DID A 2a,7), and third in the Dionysia of 340 with Alkméōn and a further unknown play (DID A 2a, 26). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 91f. TrGF 85.

Aristarchus

(2,018 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀρίσταρχος; Arístarchos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian politician, in 411 BC the most embittered opponent of the demos among the 400 Oligarchs in Athens (Thuc. 8,90,1). A. participated in the fortification of  Eetioneia when he was strategos (Xen. Hell. 2,3,46). After the regime was toppled, he betrayed the border fortification Oenoe to the Boeotians (Thuc. 8,98), for which he was executed in 406 (?) (Lycurg. Leocr. 115; PA, 1663; Traill PAA, 164155). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] of Tegea Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedi…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Isagoras

(246 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἰσαγόρας; Isagóras). [German version] [1] Son of Teisander, Cleisthenes' competitor after the fall of the tyrants Son of Teisander, he fought  Cleisthenes for supreme power in Athens after the fall of the tyrants. The conflict was initially between their hetairiai ( Hetairia). It was only when I. was elected archon for the year 508/507 BC, that Cleisthenes was successful in winning the support of the dḗmos. I. too had to mobilize additional sources of power and in traditional aristocratic manner had his guest  Cleomenes I of Sparta intervene in Attica and e…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Gorgippus

(122 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Γόργιππος; Górgippos). [German version] [1] Eponym of  Gorgippia, regent of the Sindian region after his father  Satyrus I 's war against the Maeotae (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,55). High government official at the time of his uncle  Paerisades. A statue was erected for him in Athens (Din. in Demosthenem 43).  Maiotae,  Sindi von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gaidukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 72; 43; 232. [German version] [2] Author of satyr plays Son of Pythippos, author of satyr plays. His victory at the Soteria in Acraephia in the 1st…

Artavasdes

(727 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀρταουάσδης; Artaouásdēs). [German version] [1] I. King of Armenia between 160 and 120 BC King of Armenia between 160 and 120 BC. He was the son of Artaxias I and father (not brother) of Tigranes I. Toward the end of his rule, he was attacked by the Arsacid  Mithridates II (Just. Epit. 42,2,6), which led to the handing over of his grandson Tigranes II to the Parthians as a hostage. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] II. King of Armenia between (55-34 BC) (also called Artabazes, Ἀρταβάζης; Artabázēs) as son and successor to Tigranes II. Began his rule as king of Arm…

Datis

(41 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Δάτις; Dátis). Tragedian from Thoricus, son of Carcinus (Aristoph. Pax 289ff. with schol. R V; see also TrGF 21); D. is perhaps a nickname for Xenocles (TrGF 33), see also [1. 283-285]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 Davies 2 TrGF 34.

Aeantides

(57 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Αἰαντίδης; Aiantídēs, CAT A 5 b, 4) or Aiantiades (CAT A 5a, 5). Tragedian regarded as belonging to the pleias of tragic writers under Ptolemy Philadelphus (282-46 BC); he is perhaps the same writer as the one named in DID A 3a, 64 (cf. TrGF 107). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 163 TrGF 102.

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Archenomus

(39 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀρχένομος; Archénomos) from Rhodus, son of Hermias, victory in the mid 2nd cent. BC in the Heraea on Samos with a new satyr play (DID A 11 a). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography Mette, 50 TrGF 143.

Democrates

(130 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Δημοκράτης; Dēmokrátēs). [German version] [1] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC from Aphidna, probably an older contemporary of Demosthenes [2] (about 338 BC he is called γέρων ( gérōn; old man), cf. Stob. Floril. 3,22,43). As the descendant of  Harmodius or  Aristogeiton, he had a claim to free provisions in the Prytaneion (Hyp. 4,3). He belonged to the Pro-Macedonian party (Hyp. 4,2). He is also mentioned in Aeschin. Leg. 2,17 and Isaeus 6,22. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2. [German version] [2] Tragedian of Sic…

Empedocles

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Bollack, Jean (Paris) | Primavesi, Oliver (Munich) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; Empedoklês). [German version] [1] from Agrigentum Pre-Socratic Pre-Socratic (c. 490-430 BC). His most important works: the Nature poem ‘On the origins of the world’ (so-called Περὶ φύσεως, Perì phýseōs) and the ‘Purifications’ (Καθαρμοί, Katharmoí), both in epic hexameters. The following presentation distinguishes between the two works. [1; 2] argue for unity. Bollack, Jean (Paris) [German version] A. Sources A large part of our knowledge about E. depends on the quotations and comments in Plutarch's Moralia; his monograph is unfortunately lost. For the mos…

Astydamas

(196 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀστυδάμας; Astydámas). [German version] [1] The Elder Tragedian Tragedian from Athens; according to Suda α 4265 son of Morsimus and grandson of Philocles; according to Diod. Sic. 14,43,5 his first production was in 398 BC. Even in antiquity he was confused with his son [2]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography TrGF 59. [German version] [2] The Younger Tragedian Tragedian from Athens, son of A. [1]. His first victory at the Dionysia came in 372 BC (DID A 3a,44 und D 1), further successes in 347 (DID A 1, 271), in 341 with Achilles, Athamas and Antigone (DID A 1, 292 and A 2, 1) and in 340 with P…

Aristocrates

(485 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (2nd half 7th cent. BC) Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 334; according to Paus. 4,17,2; 8,5,13 king of Trapezus) at the time of the Second Messenian War (2nd half of the 7th cent. BC); according to Diog. Laert. 1,94, he ruled, together with his son, over almost all of Arcadia. As leader of the Arcadians, on several occasions A. supposedly betrayed his Messenian allies under the leadership of  Aristomenes to Sparta (Paus. 4,17,2-8; 22,1-6), and he was finally stoned …

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Antiphon

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris)
(Ἀντιφῶν; Antiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian, who towards the end of the Peloponnesian War equipped two triremes. He was executed 404/403 BC by the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,3,40; Traill PAA, 138325). He is probably identical with an A., for whose daughter  Lysias gave an oration (Traill PAA, 138320; cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 120 = Plut. Mor. 833A-B). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian (middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, was removed from the list of citizens. Thereafter he allegedly promised  Philippu…

Apolinarius

(94 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀπολινάριος; Apolinários) from Laodicea; spelling: Suda and Sozomenus, otherwise Apollinarius (e.g. RE) or Apollinaris [e.g. 2]; see also  Apollinarius [3]. One of the most influential church writers of the 4th cent. According to Sozom. Hist.eccl. 5, 18 (cf. Suda α 3397) he created a body of Christian literature: a history of the Hebrews up to Saul, based on Homer, comedies in the style of Menander, tragedies in the style of Euripides and Pindaric lyrics. (Identical with Apollinarius [3] of Laodicea.) Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 TrGF 197 2 J. H. Wa…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Dorillus

(52 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Δόριλλος; Dórillos). Tragedian; mocked in the Lémniai of Aristophanes (PCG III 2,382, c. 413-05 BC) as doríallon (‘female private parts’ [1. 130ff., especially 146 and 148]); possibly the same as Dorilaus, a contemporary of Euripides (see DID C 18). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 J. Henderson, The Maculate Muse, 1975. TrGF 41.

Evetes

(124 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐέτης; Euétēs). [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian, whose plays were performed in Athens at the time of  Epicharmus (486/5 or 485/4 BC; cf. Suda ε 2766; see also [1.34]). A victory at the Dionysia soon after 484 is transmitted (DID A 3a, 12). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 H. Hoffmann, Chronologie der att. Tragödie, 1951. TrGF 6. [German version] [2] Comedian Comic poet; his only transmitted play title Epíklēros (‘The Heiress’) can hardly be made to fit in chronologically with the observation in the Suda (ε 2766) that a playwright named E.…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Homerus

(4,933 words)

Author(s): Latacz, Joachim (Basle) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] The poet Homer Homer (Ὅμηρος/ Hómēros, Lat. Homērus, French Homère, German Homer). Latacz, Joachim (Basle) [German version] I. Short definition Homer is the first poet of the European cultural area of whom works of a major scope are completely extant (around 28,000 hexametric lines in the Greek language), which have been received continuously in all parts of the world influenced by European culture since they were composed c. 2,700 years ago and which have exerted evident as well as covert influence on cultural development until the present time [11; 39; 17. 274]. La…

Acestor

(266 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀκέστωρ; Akéstōr), ‘Healer’, literary epithet of Apollo (Eur. Androm. 900), but also anthronym (unknown Athenian: Aristoph. vesp. 1221). [German version] [1] Figure from Greek myth; Son of Ephippos of Tanagra Son of Ephippos of Tanagra, killed by Achilles (Plut. qu. Gr. 37, 299c, following a local epic). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Hero in the genealogy of the Philaedians Hero in the genealogy of the Philaedians, namely great-grandson of  Philaeus (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 2; Markell. v. Thuc. 3). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Athenian Athenian, alleg…

Aphareus

(338 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἀφαρεύς; Aphareús). [German version] [1] Son of Perieres and Gorgophone Son of  Perieres and Gorgophone, daughter of Perseus. As king of the Messenians he founded Arene at Pylos, which he named after his wife, the daughter of Oebalus and his half-sister. He took in Neleus and gave him Pylos, and was initiated into the cult of the ‘Great Gods’ of Andania by Lycus, son of Pandium (Paus. 4,2,4-6); Athenian propaganda is reflected here. He also took in Tyndareos (Paus. 3,1,4). His sons Idas and Lynceus (Paus…

Achaeus

(368 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀχαιός; Achaiós). [German version] [1] Son of Xuthus and Creusa Son of Xuthus and Creusa, grandson of Helen, brother of Ion (Hes. fr. 10a 20-24; Apollod. 1,49 f.). He settled in Achaea (Eur. Ion 1592-4; Philochor. FGrH 328 F 13) or in Thessaly (Paus. 7,1,2), from whence his sons Archander and Architeles set off for Argus (Paus. 7,1,6). The myths reflect attempts to establish a special position of the Achaeans in the Peloponnese. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography M. L. West, The Hesiodic Catalogue of Women, 1985, 57 f. [German version] [2] of Eritrea Tragedian, 5th cent. BC Tragedi…

Chaeremon

(358 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Χαιρήμων; Chairḗmōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, middle of the 4th cent. BC Tragedian; mentioned by the comedy writers Eubulus (Ath. 2,43c) and Ephippus (Juv. fr. 9 Kock in Ath. 11,482b), which locates him in the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Performed again 276-19 at the Naïa in Dodona (DID B 11,13); titles: Alphesiboea, ‘Achilles killer of Thersites (Apulian vase, Boston 03.804 [1. 166]), Dionysus, Thyestes, Io, The Centaur, The Minyae, Odysseus, Oeneus and more than 40 fragments. Aristot. Rhet. 3,12,1413b8) counts him among those writers whose plays are full…

Hippothoon

(163 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἱπποθόων; Hippothóōn). [German version] [1] King in Eleusis Second son of  Poseidon and  Alope (Hyg. Fab. 187; 252). As an infant abandoned by his grandfather  Cercyon and taken in by  Theseus; later king, probably in Eleusis (Hes. fr. 215 M-W; H. Hom. 2,153). This is further supported by the fact that H. was venerated there as a cult hero and phyle hero, as suggested by the Hippothoontion's location near Eleusis on the river Cephissus (Paus. 1,38,4). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) Bibliography U. Kron, s.v. H., LIMC 5.1, 468-475. [German version] [2] Author of sententious …

Aristias

(150 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Sculptor from Aphrodisias, early 2nd cent. AD (Aristeas). Sculptor from  Aphrodisias [1], who worked in the early 2nd cent. AD. Together with Papias, he signed the dark marble statues of an old and of a young centaur, copies of Hellenistic bronze sculptures, from Hadrian's villa near Tivoli. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography H. von Steuben, in: Helbig II, no. 1398 J. Raeder, Die statuarische Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli, 1983, 236-238 M. Squarciapino, La Scuola di Afrodisia, 1943, 32-34. [German version] [2] of Phlius Tragedian Tragic poet…
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