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3.3.1. Religion: Central and western Mediterranean

(5,706 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
A. Introduction [German source] Italy, Sicily,  Malta and Tunisia form a central chain through the Mediterranean that, rather than dividing it, has served it as a bridge at various phases. The Alpine arc to the north was permeable in many respects, channelling rather than hindering cultural and economic exchange. The narrow Adriatic did not render lasting contact between Italy and the Balkans impossible in the 3rd and 2nd millennia [66181]; [63]; [2], but it must be said that the eastern coast of Italy was less than attractive in terms of harbours and coastal navigation [75173].The main …
Date: 2018-08-16

3.3.1. Religion: Zentraler und westlicher Mittelmeerraum

(5,374 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
A.AllgemeinItalien, Sizilien und Malta bilden mit Tunesien eine zentrale Kette durch das Mittelmeer, die dieses weniger teilt als vielmehr zu unterschiedlichen Zeiten als Brücke diente. Der Alpenbogen im N war vielfach durchlässig und kanalisierte kulturellen und ökonomischen Austausch eher als ihn zu behindern. Die schmale Adria machte länger anhaltende Kontakte zwischen Italien und der Balkanhalbinsel im 3./2. Jt. nicht unmöglich [66181]; [63]; [2]. Gleichzeitig ist festzuhalten, dass sich Italiens Ostküste im Hinblick auf Häfen und Küstenseefahrt als w…
Date: 2017-08-01

Pantheon

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg | Hitzl, Konrad
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. The Pantheon in Rome I. Religious Studies In classical usage, attested since the Hellenistic period, a pantheon (Gk pántheion) was a shrine dedicated to “all the gods” ( hoi theoí pántes). In modern scholarship, the term has come to be used in describing polytheistic (Monotheism and Polytheism) systems, in particular the 12 Olympian gods of Greece. This example also illustrates the problem presented by pantheons: what modern presentations treat as a closed system appears in the sources as…

Philocalian Calendar

(98 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[German Version] In 354 ce, the calligrapher Furius Dionysius Philocalus made a codex (extant only in copies) that contained the Roman calendar (Fasti; the only known 4th-cent. example), in addition to chronographical works, lists of consuls, bishops, and martyrs. The codex was a gift for the Roman Christian aristocrat Valentinus. The calendar contains a presumably current compilation of the emperor’s festivals, and dates for the cults of Cybele and Isis, but nothing from the calendar of Christian festivals. Jörg Rüpke Bibliography T. Mommsen, Chronographus Anni CCCLIV, MGH.AA 9…

Wissowa, Georg

(330 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[German Version] (Jun 17, 1859, Breslau [Wrocław] – May 11, 1931, Halle an der Saale), Latinist and historian of religion. Wissowa was an associate professor at Marburg from 1886 to 1890 and a full professor from 1890 to 1895. From 1895 to 1923 he was a professor at Halle. Two strokes in June of 1923 ended his scholarly career and marked the beginning of a long mental and physical decline. Wissowa’s influence rests primarily on his studies of Roman religion. His compendium Religion und Kultus der Römer (1902, 21912) constituted the foundation for the study of Roman religion through…

City Cult

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Rüpke, Jörg | Frevel, Christian
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. History – III. Archaeology I. Terminology The term “city cult” can be understood as a concretization of the veneration of “local gods” (cf. Stolz). There is evidence from the earliest times of municipal settlements with their complex social forms, rites, and feasts concentrated on the local deities' protection and promotion of community (cf. the gods of Sumerian and Babylonian cities described as “king of the city” or “lord/lady of…” or …

War

(3,738 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard | Rüpke, Jörg | Rosenberger, Veit | Otto, Eckart | Holmberg, Bengt
[German Version] I. Social Sciences 1. Concept. War is conflict between large groups, peoples, nations, and states conducted by force of arms. The more precise definition of the term and its differentiation from peace are disputed. Behavioral science tends toward a broad definition: war is a specifically human form of intergroup aggression, functional in the context of competition for scarce resources; in it the use of weapons decreases our instinctive inhibition against killing. The theory that war is…

Economy

(6,870 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Rüpke, Jörg | Schneider, Helmuth | Otto, Eckart | Penslar, Derek | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Economic Systems and their Theories – III. Economy and Religion I. The Concept The term economy encompasses the totality of all individual actions and social interactions that serve to produce goods (commodities or services [Service sector]) for the purpose of satisfying human needs (Consumption). As a rule, the “production” of commodities means that human labor and …

Norden, Eduard

(309 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1868, Emden – Jul 13, 1941, Zürich), Latinist. Norden was professor of classical philology in Greifswald from 1895 to 1899, in Breslau from 1899 to 1906, and in Berlin from 1906 to his retirement in 1935. Because of his Jewish background, he was removed from the board of directors of the German Archaeological Institute, and in 1938 he was forced to resign from the Prussian Academy of Sciences. In 1939 he emigrated to Switzerland. Although all Norden’s extensive oeuvre was…

Secular Games

(375 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg
[German Version] The interpretation of Rome’s history and present role during the Augustan period found expression in the ludi saeculares. In a mixture of conceptions of time that is no longer perspicuous (including the Etruscan theory of a defined series of saecula; discussed at length by Censorinus, De die natali, 17), the beginning of a new, golden age was celebrated in the year 17 bce, conceived as the fifth recurrence of the centennials of the city of Rome. Whether earlier celebrations of the ludi Tarentini (named for their location on the Campus Martius), for example in 249 bce, had t…

Anniversaries

(310 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg | Drehsen, Volker
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Annually recurring (anniversary is derived from annus and verto) feasts play a central role in the chronological organization of a society: they govern the social perception of the time unit “year”; weekly or monthly rhythms can influence the precise scheduling (Calendar; Roman birthday …