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Raymond of Toledo

(166 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (died Aug 20, 1152, Toledo), originally from Gascony; he was appointed to the chapter of Toledo. Raymond became bishop of (Burgo de) Osma in 1109, and in 1124/1125 archbishop of Toledo an…

Levita, Elijah

(207 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Elias; 1469/1470, Ipsheim an der Aisch – Jan 5, 1549, Venice). The Jewish scholar in Hebraic studies and author Elijah Bokher Levita spent most of his life in Italy. From 1515 to 1527, he lived in Rome under the patronage of Aegidius (Giles) of Viterbo (general of the Augustinian order and cardinal), and worked with P. Fagius in Isny in 1540/1541. He is the author of lexicographical, grammatical, text-critical, exegetical and novelistic-poetic works written in Hebrew, some of which soon appeared in Latin translation. In his Masoret ha-Masore…

Trubar, Primož

(325 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Primus Truber; Jun 9, 1508, Raščica, near Ljubljana – Jun 28, 1586, Derendingen, near Tübingen), Slovenian Reformer. Trubar was a student of Pietro Bonomo, bishop of Trieste, who was favorable toward the Reformation. He became a pastor in Laško in 1530 and a canon in Ljubljana in 1542. He was influenced by both the Swiss (H. Bullinger, ¶ K. Pellikan) and the Lutheran Reformation. In 1548 he sought refuge in Nuremberg; through the good offices of V. Dietrich, he came to Rothernburg ob de…

Sixtus of Siena

(107 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (1520, Siena – Sep 28, 1569, Genoa), possibly a convert from Judaism, initially a Franciscan, condemned to death as a heretic, then persuaded to recant and enter the Dominican order. He dedicated his principal work to Pius V:

Crotus Rubeanus

(210 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Johann Jäger; 1480, Dornheim near Arnstadt, Thüringen – c. 1545, Halberstadt), German humanist. He enrolled at the University of Erfurt in 1498, where he joined the circle of humanists around Mutianus Rufus, and lived in the same students' hostel as Luther. He became the mentor of U. v. Hutten around 1503, and earned his M.A. in 1507. He was the principal author of the first section of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum , which was written in Fulda in 1515. In 1517, he completed his Dr. theol. in Bologna, where he became a partisan of Luther. Having become rector of the University of E…

Ramón Martí

(170 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Eng.: Raymond martini, c. 1215/1220, Subirats, Catalonia – c. 1292, Barcelona), Dominican. In 1263 Ramón was present at a Christian-Jewish disputation (I) in Barcelona, and preached in Murcia to Jews and Muslims. In 1269 he was expelled from Tunis after a short stay. He maintained relations with the court of St. Louis IX in Paris, and with Thomas Aquinas. He spent his last years in Barcelona. His polemical magnum opus, Pugio fidei, written in 1278, is based on …

Reuchlin, Johannes

(569 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Capnion; Feb 22, 1455, Pforzheim – Jun 30, 1522, Stuttgart), eminent Humanist (Humanism: III), studied in Paris in 1473 and from 1474 to 1477 at Basel, where he explored the philosophy of Nicholas of Cusa, earned his M.A., and wrote his Vocabularius breviloquus (1478), a Latin dictionary. In 1477 he studied Greek in Paris with Georgios Hermonymus. He began studying ius civile in 1479 in Orléans and finished in Poitiers in 1481 as a licentiate. Appointed to the council of Count Eberhard the Bearded of Württemberg and a member of the manoria…

Pagninus, Santes

(110 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Santi Pagnini; Oct 18, 1470, Lucca – Aug 24, 1541, Lyon), Dominican friar who taught oriental languages in Rome; he was in Avignon from 1521 to 1524, and then in Lyon. He translated the Bible from the original languages into Latin (Lyon, 1527), with a strictly literal rendering of the Old Testament. He also wrote a Hebrew dictionary (Lyon, 1529) as well as extensive works on the OT. He followed ¶ Augustine in his emphasis on the mystical sense of Scripture. Siegfried Raeder Bibliography T.M. Centi, “L’attività letteraria di Santi Pagnini nel campo delle scienze bibliche,” AFP 15, 1945, 5–51 F. Domínguez, LThK 3 VII, 1998, 1271f.

Beck, Johann Tobias

(790 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1804, Balingen – Dec 28, 1878, Tübingen), son of a soap-boiler who was influenced by the Enlightenment and of a pietistic mother, Beck attended the Urach seminary from 1818 to 1822, studied theology at Tübingen (1822–1827), married Luise Fischer from Balingen, became a minister at Waldthann near Crailsheim in 1827, became town parson in 1829, and at the same time principal of the Gymnasium in Mergentheim, where he wrote his first academic publications for the TZTh after 1831. Supported by the Tübingen professors J.C.F. …

Bengel, Ernst Gottlieb

(159 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (von) (Nov 3, 1769, Zavelstein – Mar 23, 1826, Tübingen) was the grandson of J.A. Bengel. In 1806, he became professor of theology in Tübingen, in 1810 full professor, in 1820 prelate. He was the student of J.C. Storr. Bengel devoted himself especially to biblical studies and historical theology. His studies on Soci…

Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jacques

(407 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Faber, Jacob Stapulensis; c. 1455/1460, Étaples – 1536, Nérac). Lefèvre d'Étaples, a humanist and Reform theologian, is credited with having rediscovered Aristotle, whom he considered to be divinely inspired and whose texts he edited in newer translations beginning in 1492 with commentary added partly in his own hand and partly by his student, Jodocus Clichtoveus (c. 1472–1543). Lefèvre also edited writings by the church fathers (Patristics) and medieval authors. He was especiall…

Paul of Burgos

(172 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Solomon ha-Levi; c. 1352 Burgos –Aug 29, 1435, Burgos) converted to Christianity in 1391, taking the name Pablo de Santa Maria. In 1403 he became bishop of Cartagena, in 1415 bishop of Burgos, and in 1416 archchancellor of Castile. He wrote 1,100 critical and supplementary Additiones to the Postilla of Nicholas of Lyra, on the grounds that Nicholas treated the exegesis of the saints as inferior to his own, and sometimes even to that of the Jews, that Nicholas’s knowledge of Hebrew was inadequate and that Nicholas generally fol…

Münster, Sebastian

(172 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Jan 20, 1488, Niederingelheim am Rhein – May 26, 1552, Basel), was received into the Franciscan order c. 1505, and in 1512 was ordained priest. He taught philosophy in Tübingen (1514–1518) and Basel (1518–1520). In 1520 he published a German translation of Luther's sermon on the Decalogue. In 1524 he was called to teach Hebrew at Heidelberg University. In 1529 he left his order, then worked until his death at Basel University (1547/1558 rector) as a Hebraist, professor of Old Tes…

Epistolae obscurorum virorum

(315 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (“Letters of Obscure Men”), title of a two-part collection of fictitious letters that appeared in 1515–17. In 1514, in connection with the dispute concerning Jewish writings, J. Reuchlin had published the “Letters of Famous Men” ( Clarorum virorum epistolae) addressed to him in order to strengthen his position over against the Cologne Dominicans. The anonymous authors of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum (1I 1–41 [1515], esp. Crotus Rubeanus, 3I 42–48 [1516] and 1II [1517] mostly U. v. Hutten) belonged to the circle …

Exegesis

(13,995 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Cancik, Hubert | Seidl, Theodor | Schnelle, Udo | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] (Biblical Scholarship, Hermeneutics, Interpretation) I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Greco Roman Antiquity – IV. Bible – V. Church History – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Biblical Scenes in Art – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Religious Studies Exegesis (for etymology see III below) is the explanation, interpretation, or analysis of sacred or otherwise religiously central documents by experts; it enables and encourages the access of a …

Pellikan, Konrad

(303 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (Kürschner, Kürsner; Pelicanus; Jan 8, 1478, Ruffach, Elsaß [Rouffach, Alsace] – Apr 1, ¶ 1556, Zürich), began his studies in 1491 at Heidelberg; in 1493 he became a Franciscan. After 1495 he studied at Tübingen with the Humanist P. Scriptoris; there he became acquainted with J. Reuchlin. In 1501 he wrote the first textbook on Hebrew to be produced by a Christian ( De modo legendi et intelligendi Hebraeum, publ. in G. Reich, Margarita philosophica, 1504). In 1502 he became a lector in the Franciscan house in Basel. In 1515 he began to assist Erasmus in …

Nicholas of Lyra

(283 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[German Version] (c. 1270/1275, Lyre near Evreux – Oct 1349, Paris), Franciscan and an influential exegete. Nicholas taught theology in Paris from 1308 to 1319 and again c. 1326; in 1319 he became the Franciscan provincial of Francia and in 1324 of Burgundy. He composed a Postilla literalis et moralis in Vetus et Novum Testamentum (1471/1472 and later), which went through many editions to 1660 and was partially translated into various vernaculars. He also wrote anti-Jewish works, quaestiones, and 259 sermones. Nicholas grounded his interpretation on the literal meaning of the text ( Pro…

Sixtus

(104 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] von Siena (Senensis; 1520 Siena – 28.9.1569 Genua), vielleicht vom Judentum konvertiert, zunächst Franziskaner, als Häretiker zum Tode verurteilt, dann zum Widerruf und Eintritt in den Dominikanerorden bewogen. Sein Hauptwerk widmete er Pius V.: Bibliotheca sancta (Venedig 1566 u. ö., ed. P. T. Milante, 2 Bde., Neapel 1742), eine Einleitung in die Bibel, die sich streng am Literalsinn orientiert und die jüd. Exegese heranzieht. S. forderte die Verbrennung des Talmud, schätzte aber das kabbalistische Buch Zohar, weil es den Glauben an Christus stütze. Siegf…

Reuchlin

(504 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] Reuchlin, Johannes (Capnion; 22.2.1455 Pforzheim – 30.6.1522 Stuttgart), bedeutender Humanist (Humanismus: III.), studierte 1473 in Paris und 1474–1477 in Basel, wo er die Philos. des Nikolaus von Kues erforschte, zum M.A. promoviert wurde und das lat. Wörterbuch »Vocabularius breviloquus« (1478) vf. 1477 nahm er in Paris Griechischunterricht bei Georgios Hermonymus. Das Studium des ius civile, 1479 in Orléans begonnen, schloß er 1481 in Poitiers als Lic. ab. 1483 zum Rat des Graf…

Pratensis

(146 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] Pratensis, Felix (a Prato; um 1460 Prato – 5.11.1558 Rom), als Rabbiner vor 1506 konvertiert und in Prato den Augustiner-Eremiten beigetreten, besorgte bei D. Bomberg, Venedig, den ersten Druck der Rabbinerbibel (1517/18), von der Melanchthon 1518 ein Exemplar für die Wittenberger Universität erwarb (jetzt in der Jenaer Universitätsbibliothek). Statt einer vollständigen Bibelübers. erlaubte Leo X. P. probeweise die Übers. des Psalters aus dem Hebr. (Venedig 1515). Sie ist wörtl. g…

Pagninus

(90 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] Pagninus, Santes (Santi Pagnini; 18.10.1470 Lucca – 24.8.1541 Lyon), Dominikaner, in Rom Lehrer für orientalische Sprachen, 1521–1524 in Avignon, dann in Lyon, übers. die Bibel, das AT streng wörtl., aus den Ursprachen ins Lat. (Lyon 1527) und vf. ein hebr. Lexikon (Lyon 1529) sowie umfangreiche Werke über das AT. In der Hervorhebung des myst. Sinnes folgte er Augustin. Siegfried Raeder Bibliography T.M. Centi, L'attivita` letteraria di Santi Pagnini nel campo delle scienze bibliche (AFP 15, 1945, 5–51) F. Domi´nguez (LThK 3 7, 1998, 1271f.).

Raimund Martin(i)

(147 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] (Ramón Martí, ca.1215/1220 Subirats, Katalonien – ca.1292 Barcelona), Dominikaner, war 1263 in Barcelona bei einem christl.-jüd. Religionsgespräch (: I.) zugegen, predigte in Murcia vor Juden und Muslimen, wurde nach kurzem Aufenthalt in Tunis 1269 ausgewiesen, unterhielt in Paris Beziehungen zum Hof Ludwigs IX., des Heiligen, und zu Thomas von Aquin und verbrachte seine letzten Jahre in Barcelona. Sein 1278 vf. polemisches Hauptwerk »Pugio fidei« beruht auf ausgezeichneter Kennt…

Paulus

(151 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] von Burgos (Salomon ben Levi; um 1352 Burgos – 29.8.1435 ebd.), 1391 konvertiert (seither Pablo de Santa Maria), 1403 Bf. von Cartagena, 1415 von Burgos, 1416 Erzkanzler von Kastilien, vf. 1100 krit. und ergänzende Additiones zur Postilla des Nikolaus von Lyra, was er so begründete: Nikolaus stelle die Auslegung der Heiligen hinter seine eigene, zuweilen sogar hinter die der Juden zurück; er besitze keine ausreichende Kenntnis des Hebräischen; er folge meist Rabbi Salomo ben Isaak…

Nikolaus

(276 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] von Lyra (um 1270/1275 Lyre bei Evreux – Oktober 1349 Paris), Franziskaner, bedeutender Exeget, lehrte 1308–1319 und wieder seit etwa 1326 in Paris Theol., wurde 1319 Provinzial von Francia und 1324 von Burgund, vf. eine »Postilla literalis et moralis in Vetus et Novum Testamentum« (1471/72 u. ö.), die bis 1660 oft gedruckt, teilweise auch in Volkssprachen übers. wurde. Ferner sind antijüd. Werke, Quaestionen und 259 Sermone zu nennen. N. legt den Schwerpunkt seiner Auslegung auf …

Raimund

(161 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] von Toledo (gest.20.8.1152 Toledo), aus der Gascogne stammend, in das Kapitel von Toledo berufen, wurde R. 1109 Bf. von (Burgo de) Osma, 1124/25 Erzbf. von Toledo und Primus in Spanien. 1148 nahm er an der Synode von Reims teil. Nach dem Ende der isl. Herrschaft (1085) wurde Toledo um 1136 mit Plato von Tivoli zu einem Zentrum für arab.-lat. Übers. Das von Petrus Venerabilis inaugurierte »Corpus Toletanum« enthält auch den vollständigen Koran, 1143 übers. von Robert Ketton und Her…

Trubar

(266 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] Trubar, Primož (Primus Truber; 9.6.1508 Raščica bei Ljubljana – 28.6.1586 Derendingen bei Tübingen), slowenischer Reformator (Slowenien), Schüler des der Reformation zugewandten Triester Bf. Pietro Bonomo, 1530 Pfarrer in Laško und 1542 Kanonikus in Ljubljana, beeinflußt von der Schweizer (H. Bullinger, K. Pellikan) und der luth. Reformation. T. flüchtete 1548 nach Nürnberg, kam durch Vermittlung V. Dietrichs nach Rothenburg ob der Tauber als Prediger und wurde 1553 Pfarrer in Kem…

Pellikan

(258 words)

Author(s): Raeder, Siegfried
[English Version] (Kürschner, Kürsner), Konrad (8.1.1478 Ruffach, Elsaß – 6.4.1556 Zürich), begann 1491 ein Studium in Heidelberg, wurde 1493 Franziskaner in Ruffach, studierte seit 1495 unter dem Humanisten P. Scriptoris in Tübingen, wurde mit J. Reuchlin bekannt. P. vf. 1501 als erster Christ ein Lehrbuch des Hebräischen (De modo legendi et intelligendi Hebraeum, gedruckt in: G. Reisch, Margarita philosophica, 1504), war seit 1502 Lektor im Franziskanerkloster in Basel, half seit 1515 Erasmus von …
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