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Plütschau, Heinrich

(158 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (1676?, Wesenberg near Neustrelitz – Jan 4, 1752, Beidenfleth near Itzehoe), studied theology as a student of Joachim Lange in Halle (from 1702) and was a teacher in the Francke Foundations (from 1703). Sent out by the Danish-Halle Mission as the earliest Lutheran missionary, along with B. Ziegenbalg, he worked from 1706 in Tranquebar on the east coast of southern India. Less talented than Ziegenbalg, he cared mainly for the Portuguese community. In 1711 he returned to Germany and…

Spittler, Christian Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1782, Wimsheim, near Pforzheim – Dec 8, 1867, Basel), vigorous organizer of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements) in southern Germany. After receiving training in public administration, in 1801 he was appointed secretary of the Deutsche Christentumsgesellschaft in Basel, where he inspired or founded several missionary and philanthropic institutions, including the Basel Bible Society (1804) and the Basel Mission (1815), a training center for teachers in ragged s…

Heyling, Peter

(127 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (1607/1608, Lübeck – 1650/1652 [?] Sawakin, Sudan [?]), Protestant theologian and canonist. A student of H. Grotius, Heyling traveled to Ethiopia in 1634 to spread the teachings of Protestantism. There he was received at the court of King Fâsilades (1632–1667) and was active as an influential adviser, educator, physician, and theologian. He translated the NT into Amharic and probably was also the compiler of a legal code of Roman and civil law. His missionary work provoked christological controversies and led to his banishment c. 1650. Werner Raupp Bibliography J.H. …

Lüderwald, Johann Balthasar

(171 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1722, Fahrland near Potsdam – Aug 25, 1796, Vorsfelde near Wolfsburg), studied in Helmstedt where he attended lectures by J.L. v. Mosheim. In 1747, he became a Lutheran pastor in Glentorf near Königslutter, and in 1762 superintendent and pastor primarius in Vorsfelde. Sympathetic in his early years with the theology of Wolffianism (C. Wolff), he ultimately adhered to late orthodoxy (Orthodoxy: II, 2) and opposed G.E. Lessing in the Fragments Controversy. In addition, Lüderwald became known especially for his comprehensive treatise on the Berufung und Seli…

Krapf, Johann Ludwig

(186 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Jan 11, 1810, Tübingen-Nov 26, 1881, Korntal near Stuttgart). Coming from Württemberg Pietism (I, 1), Krapf worked as a missionary of the Church Missionary Society in what is now Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania (1837–1855, 1861/1862, 1868; from 1846 with J. Rebmann). Although himself unsuccessful in his missionary endeavors, his geographical, ethnological, and especially linguistic publications (esp. on Swahili) stimulated numerous missionary, academic, and colonial activities. He …

Schmidt, Georg

(184 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Sep 30, 1709, Kunewalde, Moravia (Kunín) – Aug 2, 1785, Niesky, Upper Lusatia), first Protestant missionary in South Africa. Schmidt, an educated butcher, joined the Herrnhut community (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren). While traveling as an itinerant preacher for the community, he was imprisoned in Moravia (1728–1734). In 1736 he was sent to the Cape Colony, where he worked among the Khoekhoe in the Baviaanskloof (after 1806 Genadendal). After being ordained in writing by N. v. Z…

Gundert, Hermann

(188 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Feb 4, 1814, Stuttgart – Apr 25, 1893, Calw) came from Württemberg Pietism. In South India since 1836 (with K.T.E. Rhenius), he joined the Basel Mission in 1838 and laid the foundations of their work in Malabar (Thalassery, 1839; Chirakkal, 1849). In 1857 he became school inspector of the English colonial government of Malabar and South Kanara. He returned to Germany in 1859 and took over the directorship of the Calwer Verlagsverein (publishing house). On account of his studies o…

Langhans, Ernst Friedrich

(190 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (May 2, 1829, Wimmis near Thun, Switzerland – Mar 17, 1880, Bern), was pastor at the Waldau sanatorium (near Bern) from 1858 and became associate professor (1871), then full professor (1876) of systematic theology and the history of religion in Bern; he was a cofounder of the Kirchlicher Reformverein (Church Reform Society, 1866). Langhans caused a stir with his profusely documented work Pietismus und Christenthum im Spiegel der äußeren Mission [Pietism and Christianity in the light of foreign mission; 1864], in which he sharply criticized Pietist/…

Mermannius, Arnoldus

(127 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Aalst, East Flanders – Sep 5, 1578, Leuven) belonged to the Order of Friars Minor ( Ordo Fratrum Minorum = OFM), in which he held the functions of definitor and provincial superior; he was also professor in Leuven. Mermannius authored apologetic writings. His Theatrum conversionis gentium totius orbis (1572 and 1614) appears to be the first ¶ attempt to write a comprehensive literary account of the mission history of the early and medieval church. Conceived as the Counter-Reformation's reaction to the Centuries of Magdeburg, it seeks t…

Grundemann, Peter Reinhold

(176 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1836, Mieszkowice [Ger. Bärwalde], Poland – May 3, 1924, Belzig) was a Protestant pastor in Bitterfeld (1861), Frankfurt an der Oder (1863) and Mörz near Belzig (1869–1913); he was a cartographer for Justus Perthes in Gotha (1865–1869). As a close collaborator with G. Warneck, Grundemann was a co-founder of missiology, for which he created the cartographical and statistical foundations, especially through his Allgemeiner Missionsatlas (4 vols., 1867–1871); with Warneck, he published the Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift (1, 1874–1837, 1910) and auth…

Barth, Christian Gottlob

(277 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Jul 21, 1799, Stuttgart – Nov 12, 1862, Calw) served as Lutheran pastor in Möttlingen (Black Forest) from 1824 to 1838. A journalist and author, he founded (1833) and directed the Calwer Verlag (1838–1862). He was an internationally renowned, pioneering ecumenical figure of the Württemberg revival movement. A man of many talents and great energy, he led a highly productive life: He wrote for the general public and for young people ( Christliche Kirchengeschichte, 1835, 241905, 37 translations; Jugendblätter, 1836–1951; his Biblische Geschichten, 1832, 4831945, 8…

Gnadauer Brasilien-Mission

(136 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Gnadau Brazil Mission), founded in 1927 as an independent work of the Evangelische Gnadauer Gemeinschaftsverbandes für Evangelisation und Gemeinschaftspflege (Protestant Gnadau Society for Evangelization and Congregational Ministry Gnadauer Verband) among those of German extraction in southern Brazil (since 1989 also in Paraguay). The work includes socio-diaconal assistance and theological education (theological academy, founded 1988). Currently, it includes some 45 workers, most…


(337 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] Meroe, Greek, ancient name (Hdt. II 29; Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia VI 184; Heliodorus, Aethiopica X 23.4, 24.2 as Meroebos) of the city and kingdom in the middle part of the Nile valley (between the 5th and 6th cataracts), today in the Sudan near Kabushia (city), Begrawia (necropolis), Naqa, and Mussawarat es-Sufra (temple district). Meroe is regarded as a continuation of the kingdom of Kush ( , 2 Chr 21:16; Ezek 29:10; etc.). It came into existence in the 9th/8th century bce with the religious center (until the 1st cent. bce) in Napata (near modern-day Jebel…

Welz, Justinian Ernst

(206 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1621, Styria [Chemnitz?] – 1668 [?], Surinam), pioneer of worldwide Protestant missions. Born to an Austrian Lutheran family in exile, Welz grew up in Ulm and studied law and history in Leiden. Endowed with a mystical spirituality and determined to live as a Protestant solitary, he pilloried the abuses rampant in state and church and was the first to call the attention of German Protestantism to its missionary obligation (1663/1664). He also planned to establish a “Jesus-…

Auberlen, Carl August

(187 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Nov 19, 1824, Fellbach – May 2, 1864, Basel) grew up in the setting of Württemberg Pietism and was inspired by the “humanism of Goethe and Hegel.” In his studies he was influenced especially by J.T. Beck. He served as curate to W. Hofacker, tutored at Tübingen, and was appointed professor at Basel. He based his …


(447 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] 1. Johann Friedrich (Feb 20, 1759, Tübingen – Nov 24, 1821, Tübingen) became associate professor of philosophy in Tübingen, where he was the first to lecture on I. Kant. In 1792, he became associate professor and in 1798 professor of theology, and in 1820 prelate. Along with F.G. Süskind and his brother (2.), Flatt belonged to the closer circle of the “Old Tübingen School” of G.C. Storr, which was rooted in “intellectually believing,” biblical and apologetic supranaturalism. Known as a Defensor fidei, he attained prominence through his studies on Kant and Chri…

Schirnding, August Carl Friedrich, Baron of

(174 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 14, 1753, Schleusingen, Thuringia – Jun 11, 1812, Doberlug-Kirchain, Lower Lusatia), forerunner of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). Scion of an ancient aristocratic family with roots in Franconia and Vogtland, he served as head forester in Doberlug and, in the spirit of Herrnhut, as sponsor of missionary and charitable programs, including a school ¶ and distribution of Bibles deep in Eastern Europe. Of particular importance was the missionary seminary in Berlin (1800), headed by J. Jänicke, the first German schoo…


(988 words)

Author(s): Jenkins, Paul | Raupp, Werner
[German Version] 1. Christian Gottlieb (Apr 29, 1779, Stuttgart – Dec 19, 1838, Basel). As a pastor in the Württemberg regional church, Blumhardt played a central role in the ¶ intensive exchange between the capital Basel and Pietist basic groups in his native Württemberg that arose in the early 19th century. From 1803 to 1807 he was assistant secretary of the German Society of Christianity (Deutsche Christentumsge…