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(147 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[English Version] Schirnding, August Carl Friedrich Frhr. v. (14.10.1753 Schleusingen/Thüringen – 11.6.1812 Doberlug-Kirchhain/Niederlausitz), Vorläufer der Erweckungsbewegung. – Einem alten fränkischen und vogtländischen Adelsgeschlecht angehörend, wirkte er v.a. als Oberforstmeister in Doberlug und, von herrnhutischem Geist geprägt, als Initiator missionarisch-karitativer Werke (u.a. Erziehungsanstalt, bis nach Osteuropa reichende Schriftenmission). Bes. Bedeutung erlangte das von J. Jänicke geleitet…


(157 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[English Version] Schmidt, Georg (30.9.1709 Kunewalde, Mähren – 2.8.1785 Niesky, Oberlausitz), erster prot. Missionar in Südafrika. – Der gelernte Metzger schloß sich 1726 der Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine (Brüder-Unität: II.) an. Für diese als Reiseprediger unterwegs, wurde er in Mähren inhaftiert (1728–1734). 1736 wurde Sch. ins Kapland entsandt, wo er in der Baviaanskloof (seit 1806 Genadendal) unter den Khoikhoi wirkte und, von N.v. Zinzendorf schriftlich ordiniert, 1742 die ersten Einheimischen tau…

Mermannius, Arnoldus

(127 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Aalst, East Flanders – Sep 5, 1578, Leuven) belonged to the Order of Friars Minor ( Ordo Fratrum Minorum = OFM), in which he held the functions of definitor and provincial superior; he was also professor in Leuven. Mermannius authored apologetic writings. His Theatrum conversionis gentium totius orbis (1572 and 1614) appears to be the first ¶ attempt to write a comprehensive literary account of the mission history of the early and medieval church. Conceived as the Counter-Reformation's reaction to the Centuries of Magdeburg, it seeks t…

Grundemann, Peter Reinhold

(176 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Jan 9, 1836, Mieszkowice [Ger. Bärwalde], Poland – May 3, 1924, Belzig) was a Protestant pastor in Bitterfeld (1861), Frankfurt an der Oder (1863) and Mörz near Belzig (1869–1913); he was a cartographer for Justus Perthes in Gotha (1865–1869). As a close collaborator with G. Warneck, Grundemann was a co-founder of missiology, for which he created the cartographical and statistical foundations, especially through his Allgemeiner Missionsatlas (4 vols., 1867–1871); with Warneck, he published the Allgemeine Missionszeitschrift (1, 1874–1837, 1910) and auth…

Barth, Christian Gottlob

(277 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Jul 21, 1799, Stuttgart – Nov 12, 1862, Calw) served as Lutheran pastor in Möttlingen (Black Forest) from 1824 to 1838. A journalist and author, he founded (1833) and directed the Calwer Verlag (1838–1862). He was an internationally renowned, pioneering ecumenical figure of the Württemberg revival movement. A man of many talents and great energy, he led a highly productive life: He wrote for the general public and for young people ( Christliche Kirchengeschichte, 1835, 241905, 37 translations; Jugendblätter, 1836–1951; his Biblische Geschichten, 1832, 4831945, 8…

Gnadauer Brasilien-Mission

(136 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Gnadau Brazil Mission), founded in 1927 as an independent work of the Evangelische Gnadauer Gemeinschaftsverbandes für Evangelisation und Gemeinschaftspflege (Protestant Gnadau Society for Evangelization and Congregational Ministry Gnadauer Verband) among those of German extraction in southern Brazil (since 1989 also in Paraguay). The work includes socio-diaconal assistance and theological education (theological academy, founded 1988). Currently, it includes some 45 workers, most…


(337 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] Meroe, Greek, ancient name (Hdt. II 29; Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia VI 184; Heliodorus, Aethiopica X 23.4, 24.2 as Meroebos) of the city and kingdom in the middle part of the Nile valley (between the 5th and 6th cataracts), today in the Sudan near Kabushia (city), Begrawia (necropolis), Naqa, and Mussawarat es-Sufra (temple district). Meroe is regarded as a continuation of the kingdom of Kush ( , 2 Chr 21:16; Ezek 29:10; etc.). It came into existence in the 9th/8th century bce with the religious center (until the 1st cent. bce) in Napata (near modern-day Jebel…

Welz, Justinian Ernst

(206 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Dec 12, 1621, Styria [Chemnitz?] – 1668 [?], Surinam), pioneer of worldwide Protestant missions. Born to an Austrian Lutheran family in exile, Welz grew up in Ulm and studied law and history in Leiden. Endowed with a mystical spirituality and determined to live as a Protestant solitary, he pilloried the abuses rampant in state and church and was the first to call the attention of German Protestantism to its missionary obligation (1663/1664). He also planned to establish a “Jesus-…

Auberlen, Carl August

(187 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Nov 19, 1824, Fellbach – May 2, 1864, Basel) grew up in the setting of Württemberg Pietism and was inspired by the “humanism of Goethe and Hegel.” In his studies he was influenced especially by J.T. Beck. He served as curate to W. Hofacker, tutored at Tübingen, and was appointed professor at Basel. He based his …


(447 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] 1. Johann Friedrich (Feb 20, 1759, Tübingen – Nov 24, 1821, Tübingen) became associate professor of philosophy in Tübingen, where he was the first to lecture on I. Kant. In 1792, he became associate professor and in 1798 professor of theology, and in 1820 prelate. Along with F.G. Süskind and his brother (2.), Flatt belonged to the closer circle of the “Old Tübingen School” of G.C. Storr, which was rooted in “intellectually believing,” biblical and apologetic supranaturalism. Known as a Defensor fidei, he attained prominence through his studies on Kant and Chri…

Schirnding, August Carl Friedrich, Baron of

(174 words)

Author(s): Raupp, Werner
[German Version] (Oct 14, 1753, Schleusingen, Thuringia – Jun 11, 1812, Doberlug-Kirchain, Lower Lusatia), forerunner of the revival movement (Revival/Revival movements). Scion of an ancient aristocratic family with roots in Franconia and Vogtland, he served as head forester in Doberlug and, in the spirit of Herrnhut, as sponsor of missionary and charitable programs, including a school ¶ and distribution of Bibles deep in Eastern Europe. Of particular importance was the missionary seminary in Berlin (1800), headed by J. Jänicke, the first German schoo…


(988 words)

Author(s): Jenkins, Paul | Raupp, Werner
[German Version] 1. Christian Gottlieb (Apr 29, 1779, Stuttgart – Dec 19, 1838, Basel). As a pastor in the Württemberg regional church, Blumhardt played a central role in the ¶ intensive exchange between the capital Basel and Pietist basic groups in his native Württemberg that arose in the early 19th century. From 1803 to 1807 he was assistant secretary of the German Society of Christianity (Deutsche Christentumsge…
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