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Taxen

(222 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (lat. taxare, »prüfen, (ab)schätzen«), sind rechtlich die auf einer gesetzlichen Grundlage beruhenden Vergütungssätze für bestimmte Leistungen. Im Unterschied zu erbetenen Unterstützungen (subventiones; c.1262 CIC/1983), diözesanen Steuern bzw. Abgaben (tributum; vgl. c.1263 CIC/1983), der Seminarsteuer (c.264 CIC/1983; Priesterseminar), Missionsabgaben (c.791, 4° CIC/1983) und zur Kirchensteuer werden Gebühren (taxae) für Akte der freiwilligen Rechtspflege (Verwaltung) oder den …

Suffragan/Suffraganbistum

(89 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (von lat. suffragium, »Hilfe, Stimmrecht«). Suffragan ist die Bez. für einen Diözesanbischof, der innerhalb einer Kirchenprovinz (cc.431–446 CIC/1983; vgl. LG 23, 4; CD 39f.) einem Metropoliten (cc.435–437 CIC/1983; vgl. cc.133–139 CCEO) unterstellt ist, Suffraganbistum diejenige für ein zugehöriges Bistum. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography H. Paarhammer, Kirchenprovinz – Metropolit – Provinzialkonzil, in: Uni trinoque Domino, FS K. Berg, hg. von Dems., 1989, 469–496 O. Stoffel, MKCIC cc.431–446 (Stand August 1997) KanR 2, 131997, 309–312.349 H. Maritz, Die…

Scharnagl, Anton

(175 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1877, Munich – Jan 19, 1955, Munich), Catholic theologian. After studies in Munich and Bonn, he was appointed professor of canon law at the Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Freising in 1911. He was a deputy in the Bavarian Landtag from 1919 to 1933. He played a part in the signing of the Bavarian concordat, the founding of the Bavarian associations of diocesan priests, and their centralization in the Bayerischer Klerusverband. He was appointed auxiliary bishop of the archdiocese of Munich and Freising in 1943. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography Works include…

Suffragan, Suffragan Diocese

(97 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (from Lat. suffragium, “support, right to vote”). In Roman Catholic usage, a suffragan is a diocesan bishop subordinate to a metropolitan ( CIC/1983 cc. 435–437; cf. CCEO cc. 133–139) within an ecclesiastical province ( CIC/1983 cc. 431–446; cf. LG 23, para. 4; CD 39f.). The diocese is called a suffragan bishopric. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography H. Paarhammer, “Kirchenprovinz – Metropolit – Provinzialkonzil,” in: idem, ed., Uni trinoque Domino. FS K. Berg, 1989, 469–496 O. Stoffel, MKCIC cc. 431–446 (as of August 1997) KanR 2, 131997, 309–312, 349 H. Maritz, “Die Kirche…

Antistes

(102 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. anti-/antestare, to be at the head of, to deserve priority), in pre- and post-Christian times indicates the head of a cultic community, later also bishops, abbots, and the pope. In the reformed state churches of Switzerland, Antistes was the title of the highest cleric in the city. “Antistes Urbanis” (prelate of the papal house) was eliminated in the reform of the papal house (Mar 28, 1968). Antistes occurs in the liturgy and in the CIC (c. 667 § 4: antistita). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography M. Gelzer, RGG 3 I, 1957, 459 D. v. Huebner, LMA I, 1980, 725f.

General Absolution

(336 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] General absolution is a collective sacramental absolution of a group of penitents that ¶ does not require a personal confession of guilt, though it is only applicable in special situations (Repentance, Penitence). As a result of the Tridentine emphasis (Trent, Council of) on individual confession (Confession), general absolution only continued to be practiced in conjunction with grants of indulgence (Indulgence) or in cases such as war and other life-threatening situations (cf. CIC/1917 c. 468; AAS 31 [1939], 711f.; 32 [1940], 571; 36 [1944], 155f.).…

Enclosure

(280 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (clausura; from Lat. claudere, “to close”) is the term in Cath ecclesiastical law for the area of a monastery building that is exclusively reserved for the members of the community, and which members may not leave, or outsiders enter, depending on the stipulations that apply in each case. In non-contemplative institutions an enclosure adapted to the character and mission of the institute, and in accordance with its own laws, has to be observed ( CIC/1983 c. 667 §1; CCEO c. 477). Contemplative monasteries require a stricter system ( CIC/1983 c. 667). For nuns, the …

Cumulation

(242 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. cumulatio; cumulare, “to accumulate”) occurs in Catholic canon law dealing with both penalties and offices. In canon penal law (Ecclesiastical penalties), the fundamental principle is to impose as many penalties as criminal offenses committed ( tot poenae quot delicta). In the event that the accumulation ¶ of all imposed individual penalties results in an excessive aggregate penalty, the judge may mitigate the penalty (cc. 1344, 1346 CIC/1983; cf. c. 2224 CIC/1917; c. 1409 §1, 30 CCEO). Cumulation applies in cases of repeated offense during a probat…

Ecclesiastical Province/Region

(186 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In contrast to the ecclesiastical region ( regio ecclesiastica; CD art. 39ff.), since the 4th century the ecclesiastical province ( provincia ecclesiastica) has belonged to the constitutional structure of the Catholic Church. It is the assembly of neighboring particular churches to promote pastoral work and relationships among the diocesan bishops in the union of particular churches so created ( CIC/1983 c. 431 §1). The provincial council and the metropolitan have leadership authority ( CIC/1983 c. 432 §1). Neighboring ecclesias…

Affiliation

(90 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, similar to the secular realm, “affiliation” (Lat. affiliare: “adopt”) denotes a special relationship of association; more specifically it is used in terms of aggregation (laws of religious orders and associations), incorporation or incardination and, in the context of the law code governing higher education, the affiliation of a university with a faculty. On the basis of papal privilege, letters of affiliation granted participation in the good works of a religious association. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Magnin, DCC I, 1935, 263f.

Exclaustration

(143 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the temporary separation of one who professes eternal vows (IV) from an institutional order. Exclaustration differs from secularization ( CIC cc. 688–693). It can result at the request of the one who professes or by compulsion for very serious reasons ( CIC c. 686, cc. 489, 490; CCEO 548). Exclaustration does not free from the vows, but from duties that are irreconcilable with the new situation. It invalidates active and passive electoral rights ( CIC c. 687). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography P.V. Pinto, “Exclaustratio et Absentia a domo des religieuses,” StCan 11, 1977, …

Consultation

(181 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (Lat. consultare, “ask for advice”) in Catholic canon law means the seeking of advice that preserves the ultimate responsibility of the seeker, yet at the same time involves that person in a collegial conferring process (cf. Priests' council College of Consultors [Consultors, College of], Diocesan Income Administrative Council, Diocesan Pastoral Council; Diocesan synod). Canon 127 CIC/1983 (c. 934 CCEO) standardizes the agreement rights of third parties. Consultation grows out of the communio structure of the church, as wel…

Abjuration

(77 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] designates in canon law renunciation in cases of apostasy (Apostate), heresy and schism (c. 2314 CIC/1917), as well as the conversion of a non-Catholic Christian (Church membership). Today, reconciliation in offences of the faith, leaving the church, and conversion, as regulated by local church law (cc. 751 and 1364 CIC), requires the deposition of a confession of faith. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography W. Rees, “Die Strafgewalt der Kirche,” KStT 41, 1993, 88–96, 228f., 426–429.

Indult

(78 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Indult, from Lat. indulgere, “be lenient, grant.” In Catholic church law indult is the granting of a usually temporary exemption from a legal requirement (Dispensation, Privilege) by a bearer of sovereign leadership authority (cf. e.g. CIC [1983] cc. 306; 320 §2; 684 §2; 692; 727f.; 743; 995; 1015 §2; 1019 §2; 1021). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography KanR I, 1991, 256f.; 505, n. 8 I. Riedel-Spangenberger, Grundbegriffe des Kirchenrechts, 1992, 133 A. McCormack, The Term “Privilege”, 1997.

Consultors, College of

(95 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law the College of Consultors is the prescribed and required organ of consultation that the diocesan bishop (Bishops: III, 1) calls freely in his diocese from the members of the priests' council for a period of five years (c. 502 CIC/1983; c. 271 CCEO; Cathedral chapter). It has agreement rights and duties when there is a vacant see (See, Vacant). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography KanR II, 1997, 399–401 O. Stoffel, MKCIC, c. 502 (as of Apr 1997) H. Schmitz, “Die Konsultationsorgane des Diözesanbischofs,” HKKR2 , 1999, 457–459.

Incardination

(164 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law, incardination denotes the obligatory incorporation of all clergy into a clerical collegiate body (particular church, personal prelature, etc.) at the time of their ordination to the diaconate (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 265–272; CCEO cc. 357–366). Through incardination the cleric comes under the authority of his ordinarius proprius and at the same time acquires a legal claim to ministerial employment, supervision, and economic support. In the case of religious institutes and clerical societies of the apostolic life,…

Desecration

(155 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] deprives sacred objects (c. 1171 CIC; res sacrae ) or locations ( CIC c. 1205; loci sacri; cemetery) destined for worship or the burial of believers of their symbolic distinctiveness or dedication (Consecration/Ordination/Dedication). This occurs for sacred places if they have been substantially destroyed, declared profane by a decree of the responsible ordinarius, or converted de facto to a profane use ( CIC c. 1212; cf. CIC c. 1222: profane, but not unworthy use). The same applies to an altar ( CIC c. 1238 §1). The declaration tha…

Legates

(197 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (apostolic), from Lat. legare (“to dispatch/send someone”), are representatives of the Apostolic See in local churches, states, as well as at international organizations and conferences. Conciliar reform impulses ( CD art. 9f.) led to a reorganization through Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum (Jun 24, 1969; AAS 61, 1969, 473–484) and the CIC/1983 (cc. 362–367). The primary function of the legates is to enable communication between the pope and the local churches (c. 364); their secondary function is to act as…

Nuncio

(283 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] (inter-nuncio). Nuncios are papal envoys who are permanent representatives of the Holy See both to local churches and to national governments or public authorities, and have diplomatic status according to the norms of international law (cf. CIC 1983, c.363 §1; Legates). Nuncios belong to the first diplomatic rank and are always doyen of the diplomatic corps (cf. Vienna, Congress of). Without this precedence, papal envoys have the title of pro-nuntio or inter-nuntio (legates of the second rank). In addition to tasks within the church (cf. CIC 1983, c.364), the nunc…

Canonical Provision

(185 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is a technical term in Catholic canon law for all types of sovereign grants through individual administrative decrees (c. 48 CIC/1983; c. 1510 § 2, 1 CCEO; administration: IV, 3). More precisely, it involves the grant of legal capacity (Juridical persons: cc. 114 § 1; 116 § 2 CIC/1983; public Voluntary associations [II, 1.b]: c. 313 CIC/1983), of authorities (Delegation: cc. 131 § 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; the authority to confirm and hear confession: cc. 882; 969 CIC/1983; delegation of the authority to perform marriages: c. 1111 CIC/1983), of names and titles (cf. cc.…

Devolution, Right of

(185 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law (II) this is the transfer of the right to bestow a church office to the superior church official (authentic devolution) or the release of the bestower from his relationship to a right of nomination (inauthentic devolution). Introduced by Alexander III (X1, 6, 7; X3, 8, 2; X3, 38, 3), the right of devolution has been limited since the 13th century. The CIC knows of representative conveyance of office in the event of neglect or hindrance (c. 155 CIC; c. 945 CCEO) and of the replacement of a diocesan administrator (cc. 421 §2; 425 §3 CIC; cc. 220 n. 3; 221 n…

Parish Administrator

(180 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] ( administrator paroecialis) is a priest whom the diocesan bishop has to appoint if a parish is vacant (cf. CIC c. 538, 1983; CCEO c. 297), or the parish priest is prevented from fulfilling his pastoral duties ( CIC c. 539, 1983; CCEO c. 298). Until the parish administrator is appointed, the Pfarrvikar (Chaplain) assumes direction of the parish (cf. CIC c. 541, 1983; CCEO c. 300). As a rule, the parish administrator has the same privileges, duties, and rights as the parish priest, and has to give account of his office (cf. CIC c. 540, 1983; CCEO c. 299). The installation of a…

Anathema

(153 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] The word “anathema” originally meant an offering consecrated to a deity, or a curse (Blessing). Anathema as banishment or exclusion from the community was a common practice before Christianity, which adopted it as a disciplinary measure after the analogy of the OT ban and the practice of exclusion at Qumran. In the penal code of the church, “anathema” referred to excommunication, especially when solemnly imposed as provided in the Pontifcale Romanum ( CIC 1917, c. 2257, §2). This form of excommunication was not included in CIC 1983. Neither does the formula anathema sit

Quinquennial Faculties

(179 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the language of canon law, quinquennial faculties (from Lat. quinquennalis, “every five years”) denotes the special powers that were conceded to diocesan bishops by the Apostolic See for a period of five years. This institution was in effect from the period of Catholic restoration until the restructuring of the dispensation system in the period following Vatican II; it was tied to the bishops’ quinquennial reports (cf. CIC/1983 c. 399; CCEO c. 206; CIC/1917 c. 340). The faculties involved dispensations (mixed marriage), acts of clemency (Indulgence)…

Expectative

(159 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic canon law (II), an expectative was the legally binding assurance that an office (benefice) that was not yet vacant would be granted to the beneficiary when that office was vacated. Expectatives came into being after the 12th century, with Alexander III ( Liber Extra 3.8.2) and Boniface VIII ( Liber Sextus 3.7.2) taking action against abuses. All such rights were abrogated by the Council of Trent (session XXIV c. 19 de ref.). While not actually forbidden by current canon law, expectatives lack legal force ( CIC c.153 §3; CCEO c. 943 §3; similarly CIC c. 150 §2 19…

Constitutions, Apostolic

(130 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, the term constitutions (from Lat. constituere, “set up, appoint”) refers to the decrees of a pope or council (cf. CIC/1983, c. 754) as well as the statutes of religious orders. Today, it is used primarily for statutes decreed ¶ by the pope as Constitutiones apostolicae in the style of an ordinary bull (Bullae) and administrative actions by the heads of curial offices. In the law governing religious orders, the statutes of institutes of consecrated life, secular institutes, and societies of the apostolic life are called constitutions. Wilhelm Ree…

Aequitas canonica

(112 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] This principle of Catholic canon law is rooted in the aequitas (“equity”) of Roman law, in biblical thinking, and in Aristotle's theory of epikeia (Epiky). The aim of the aequitas canonica (unlike that of epikeia) is to achieve a harmony between already codified law and the legal judgment required in a specific situation. The effect is a moderation of existing law; on occasion, however, the law may also be tightened ( oikonomia). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography E. Wohlhaupter, Aequitas canonica, 1931 G. Wingren, art. “Billigkeit” TRE VI, 1980, 642–645 A. Hollerbach, art. “…

Mensa/Mensal Revenue

(287 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Mensa/Mensal Revenue, Lat. mensa, English “table, meal,” is church property set aside for the personal support of the bishop ( Mensa episcopalis) or of the chapter ( Mensa capitularis). The mensa developed from the 9th century onward out of the originally undifferentiated property of the church in order to meet the personal needs of clerical communities and individual office holders. Being a separate estate, it was not accessible to third parties. As a consequence of the secularization of 1803 in Germany, th…

Church Rector

(176 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] ( rector ecclesiae). In Catholic canon law, the church rector is a priest who is entrusted with the care of a church that is neither a parish nor a chapter church (Chapter) and that is not associated with a branch of a religious order or with any of the Societies of the Apostolic Life (cf. cc. 556–563 CIC/1983; cc. 304–310 CCEO). As a rule, the diocesan bishop (Bishop: III, 1) freely appoints the church rector (c. 557 §1 CIC/1983). The local ordinary has the authority to recall him (c. 563 in connection with cc. 192–195 CIC/1983). The church rector has worship duties…

Reservation

(324 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the restriction or deprivation of powers of a subordinate officeholder in accordance with an objection (devolution, prevention) pronounced by a higher authority (pope, bishop, episcopal conference). Decisions regarding ecclesiastical offices and church governance are reserved to the pope or Holy See (public associations: CIC/1983 c. 312 §1; particular churches: c. 373; ecclesiastical provinces: c. 431 §3; episcopal conferences: c. 449 §1; ecumenical councils: c. 338; the episcopal synod: c. 344; cardinals: c. 351; nuncio…

Provision

(148 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist im kath. Kirchenrecht Fachausdruck für alle Arten hoheitlicher Verleihungen durch Einzeldekret auf dem Verwaltungsweg (c.48 CIC/1983; c.1510 @ 2, 1 CCEO; Verwaltung: IV.,3.). Näherhin geht es um die Verleihung von Rechtsfähigkeit (juristische Personen: cc.114 @ 1; 116 @ 2 CIC/1983; öfftl. Vereine [: II.,1., b]: c.313 CIC/1983), von Vollmachten (Delegation: cc.131 @ 1; 133; 137 CIC/1983; Firm- und Beichtvollmacht: cc.882; 969 CIC/1983; Delegation der Eheschließungsassistenz…

Ecclesiastical Penalties

(480 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] are legal restrictions imposed by the Catholic Church on church members who culpably and accountably violate church law. In continuity with CIC/1917, CIC/1983 c.1312 §1 distinguishes censures ( CIC/1983 cc.1331–1335; cf. CCEO cc.1431f., 1434f.), namely, excommunication, interdict, and suspension (clerics), from expiatory penalties ( CIC/1983 cc.1336–1338; CCEO cc.1429f.; 1433). Such include residency stipulations and prohibitions, withdrawal of authorizations, offices, privilege…

Delegation

(167 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is, in Catholic canon law (II, 1), the transfer of administrative authority independent of an office (c. 131 CIC; cc. 981 §1; 983 §1 CCEO) by law or administrative order. Authority can be delegated for individual actions or for all cases. Legislative authority, as a rule, cannot be delegated (c. 135 §2 CIC; c. 985 §2 CCEO; judicial authority can only be delegated for the preparation of judicial decisions (c. 135 §3 CIC; c. 985 §3 CCEO). In the strictest sense, delegation pertains only to clerics, but in a limited sense also to lay people (c. 483 §2; 1282; 129 CIC; cc. 253 §2; 979 CCE…

Celebret

(94 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the Catholic Church, this is a letter of recommendation by a priest's own ordinary (Incardination) or superior for admission by the church rector of a different church to celebrate the Eucharist there. A celebret may not be more than a year old (cf. c. 903 CIC/1983; c. 703 CCEO) and is intended to prevent unsanctioned celebrations (cf. c. 1378 § 2, 1° CIC/1983; c. 1443 CCEO). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography K. Lüdicke, MKCIC, canon 903 (as of Nov 1989) E. Miragoli, “Il celebret,” Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale 7, 1994, 435–442.

Ordinariate

(161 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] Resulting from the separation of functions required by the ecclesiastical lawgiver (e.g. CIC/1983 c.135; CCEO c. 985; Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical), and alongside the diocesan court (Consistory), the ordinariate is the authority in the diocesan curia (cf. CIC/1983 cc. 469–494; CCEO cc. 243–263) which serves the administration of the diocese (also denoted general vicariate; Bishopric) under the direction of the vicar general (cf. CIC/1983 c. 475). Requirements include a chancellor, additional notaries as needed, a property adminstrator, and …

Quinquennalfakultäten

(155 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (von quinquennalis, »fünfjährig«) bez. in der kanonistischen Fachsprache bes. Vollmachten, die den Diözesanbischöfen (Bischof: III.,1.) seit der Zeit der kath. Restauration bis zur Neugestaltung des Dispenswesens (Dispens) in der Zeit nach dem Vaticanum II im Zusammenhang mit dem Fünfjahresbericht (vgl. c.399 CIC/1983; c.206 CCEO; c.340 CIC/1917) für die Dauer von fünf Jahren vom Apostolischen Stuhl verliehen wurden. Sie betrafen Dispensen (Mischehe [ Ehe]), Gnadenakte (Ablaß) un…

Reservation

(274 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist die Einschränkung bzw. der Entzug von Vollmachten eines untergeordneten Amtsträgers nach Maßgabe des durch einen höheren Oberen (Papst, Bischof, Bischofskonferenz) ausgesprochenen Vorbehalts (Devolutionsrecht, Prävention). R. des Apostolischen Stuhls bzw. Papstes bestehen im Blick auf Kirchenämter und Kirchenverfassung (öff. Vereine [c.312 § 1 Nr. 1 CIC/1983], Teilkirchen [c.373], Kirchenprovinzen [c.431 § 3], Bischofskonferenzen [c.449 § 1], ökum. Konzil [c.338], Bischofssyn…

Ordinariat

(137 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist im Sinne der vom kirchl. Gesetzgeber geforderten Funktionstrennung (z.B. c.135 CIC/1983; c.985 CCEO; Jurisdiktion) neben dem Diözesangericht (Konsistorium) jene Behörde der Diözesankurie (vgl. cc.469–494 CIC/1983; cc.243–263 CCEO), die unter der Leitung des Generalvikars (vgl. c.475 CIC/1983) der Verwaltung der Diözese dient (auch als Generalvikariat bez.; Bistum). Gefordert sind ein Kanzler, ggf. weitere Notare, ein Vermögensverwaltungsrat und ein Ökonom (Vermögensrecht, kir…

Ordinarius

(126 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] bez. im kath. Kirchenrecht den Träger ordentlicher Leitungsvollmacht (Jurisdiktion). Hierzu zählen (vgl. c.134 @ 1 CIC/1983; c.984 CCEO) neben dem Papst, die Diözesanbischöfe (Bischof: III.,1.), die Gebietsprälaten (Prälat: I.) und -äbte (Abt), die Apostolischen Vikare, Präfekten und Administratoren, die Militärbischöfe, der Vorsteher einer Personalprälatur (c.295 @ 1 CIC/1983) sowie die General- und Bischofsvikare (nicht die Gerichtsvikare/Offiziale), ferner auch die interimisti…

Pfarradministrator

(159 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (Administrator paroecialis; auch Pfarrverwalter bzw. Pfarrverweser) ist ein Priester, den der Diözesanbischof für den Fall zu bestellen hat, daß eine Pfarrei vakant (vgl. c.538 CIC/1983; c.297 CCEO) oder der Pfarrer an der Wahrnehmung seiner pastoralen Aufgaben gehindert ist (c.539 CIC/1983; c.298 CCEO). Bis zur Berufung des P. hat der Pfarrvikar (Kaplan) die Leitung der Pfarrei zu übernehmen (vgl. c.541 CIC/1983; c.300 CCEO). Der P. hat in der Regel dieselben Vorrechte, Pflichte…

Zelebret

(85 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] ist in der kath. Kirche ein Empfehlungsschreiben des eigenen Ordinarius (Inkardination) oder Oberen für einen Priester, um in einer fremden Kirche durch den Kirchenrektor zur Zelebration der Eucharistiefeier zugelassen zu werden. Ein Z. darf nicht älter als ein Jahr sein (vgl. c.903 CIC/1983; c.703 CCEO) und will unerlaubte Zelebrationen (vgl. c.1378 § 2, 1° CIC/1983; c.1443 CCEO) verhindern. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography K.Lüdicke, MKCIC, c.903 (Stand November 1989) E. Miragoli, Il celebret (Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale 7, 1994, 435–442).

Nuntien

(267 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] (Internuntien) sind päpstl. Gesandte, die den Hl. Stuhl sowohl bei den Ortskirchen als auch bei den Staatsregierungen bzw. öfftl. Autoritäten auf Dauer vertreten und gemäß den Normen des internationalen Rechts (Völkerrecht) diplomatischen Status genießen (vgl. c.363 @ 1 CIC/1983; Legaten). N. gehören der ersten diplomatischen Rangklasse an und sind stets Dekan (Doyen) des diplomatischen Corps (vgl. Wiener Kongreß). Ohne diesen Vorrang führen die päpstl. Gesandten den Titel Pronun…

Tonsur/Tonsura (Corona) clericalis

(167 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] bez. im lat. Kirchenrecht das Ausscheren des Haupthaares bei (Ordens-)Klerikern als Zeichen der Übereignung an Gott oder die dadurch entstandene kahle Stelle. Sie bildete im Unterschied zu den kath. Ostkirchen (vgl. IOpers [ostkirchl. Personenrecht] c.38 § 1, 1°: AAS 49, 1957, 448) als prima tonsura (ordo ad faciendum clericum) den Zugang zum Klerikerstand (vgl. c.108 § 1 CIC/1917; C.12 q.1 c.7 Liber extra [X] 1.36.6; Inkardination; Ordo/ Weihe). Bereits während der Geltung des C…

Scharnagl

(143 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[English Version] Scharnagl, Anton (15.11.1877 München – 19.1.1955 ebd.), kath. Theologe. Studium in München und Bonn; seit 1911 Prof. für Kirchenrecht an der Philos.-Theol. Hochschule in Freising; Abgeordneter im Bayerischen Landtag (1919–1933); Mitwirkung am Zustandekommen des Bayerischen Konkordats, an der Gründung der bayerischen Diözesanpriestervereine und deren Zusammenfassung im Bayerischen Klerusverband; seit 1943 Weihbf. in der Erzdiöz. München-Freising. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Das feierliche Gelübde als Ehehindernis, Diss., 1908 Der Begrif…

Exemption

(283 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] refers in Catholic canon law to the exclusion of natural or juridical powers, or of regions, from the normal organization of the church and their subjection to the jurisdiction of a higher-ranking or a specifically instituted authority. The CIC recognizes exemption in the system of orders (c. 591; CCEO c. 412 §2; c. 586: autonomy; brotherhood of Peter), the exemption of regions (free abbeys and prelatures [c. 370]; see also Military chaplaincy) – although t…

Tonsure

(183 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Latin canon law, tonsure denotes the shaving of the hair of a (monastic) cleric as a sign that he belongs to God; it can also denote the resulting bald area. Unlike in the Uniate Eastern Churches (cf. Ius Orientale, De personis c. 38 §1, 1°: AAS 49, 1957, 448), as prima tonsura ( ordo ad faciendum clericum) it constituted admission to the clerical state (cf. CIC/1917, c. 108 §1; C. 12 q. 1 c.7 Liber Extra [X] 1.36.6; Incardination, Consecration/Ordination/Dedication). Even under CIC/1917 it was already being discontinued (cf. CIC/1917, c. 136 §1); postconciliar legi…

Approbation

(77 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In the usage of the Catholic Church, “approbation” (Lat. approbatio, approbare) means acceptance, approval, recognition, affirmation, or authorization by the competent authority. Approbation provides legal justification or approval; it is required for admission to certain positions and offices, for hearing confessions, and for proclamation of the word ( missio canonica; imprimatur). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography G. May, “Verschiedene Arten des Partikularrechtes,” AKathKR 152, 1983, 31–45 W. Aymans & K. Mörsdorf, Kanonisches Recht 1, 131991, 375–381.

Audientia episcopalis

(102 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] In Catholic ecclesiastical law, audientia episcopalis ( Cod. Just. I, 4) denotes the jurisdiction exercised by bishops. The authority of bishops to arbitrate in secular disputes (cf. 1 Cor 6:1–7) even if one party objects, recognized by Constantine the Great, was soon limited to cases involving compromise. Audientia episcopalis remained in force for internal ecclesiastical matters and for clergy (jurisdictional immunity; criminous clerics). Wilhelm Rees Bibliography G. Vismara, Episcopalis audientia, 1937 A. Steinwenter, RAC I, 1950, 915–917 DDC VI, 1957, …

Ordinary

(167 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] in Catholic church law designates the bearer of regular power of governance (Jurisdiction). In addition to the pope, these include (cf. CIC/1983 c. 134 §1; CCEO c. 984) the diocesan bishops (III, 1), the regional prelates (I) and abbots, the vicars apostolic, prefects, and administrators, the military bishops, the head of a personal prelacy ( CIC/1983 c. 295 §1), as well as the vicars general and bishops’ vicars (not court vicars and officials); in addition, the interim leaders (e.g. diocesan administrator), the higher heads of clerical order institutes iuris pontifi…

Bination

(106 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm
[German Version] is the designation in Catholic church law for the practice, generally not allowed, of celebration of the Eucharist twice in the same day by the same priest. The local ordinary can permit bination or trination (c. 905 CIC). In relation to the rule of sobriety (c. 919 § 2 CIC) and mass stipends (c. 951 § 1 CIC), special regulations hold. Bination is permitted at Easter and Maundy Thursday, trination at Christmas and All Souls' Day. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography É. Jombarth, DDC 2, 1937, 889–898 C. Holböck, Die Bination, 1941 K. Lüdicke, MKCIC, 1985, 905 A. Heinz, LTK 3 II, 1994, 462.
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