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Dietary Laws

(560 words)

Author(s): Reventlow, Henning Graf
In the ancient Orient (e.g., Egypt, Persia), as in all cultures, dietary laws were common. Being taboos, they defy rational explanation. In the OT they apply primarily to animals used for food. Deuteronomy 14 and Leviticus 11 contain systematic lists of clean and unclean animals of the land, sea, and air. Animals that chew the cud and have cloven hoofs are clean, as are most birds, all fish that have fins and scales, and, among insects, grasshoppers. Unclean are cloven-hoofed animals that do not chew the cud, various birds, fish …

Zechariah/Book of Zechariah

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Reventlow, Henning Graf
[German Version] I. Proto-Zechariah 1. The prophet and his time. The name Zechariah (Heb. זְכַרְיָה/ z ekaryāh, “YHWH has remembered”) is attested several times in the Old Testament: Zech 1:1, 7 names Berechiah, son of Iddo, as father of the prophet (Prophets and prophecy: II). In Ezra 5:1; 6:14, however, he is said to be the son of Iddo. According to Neh 12:16, a man named Zechariah – who can hardly be identified with the prophet – was the head of the priestly family of Iddo at the time of the high priest Joia…

Sarah

(370 words)

Author(s): Reventlow, Henning Graf
[German Version] Of the 51 occurrences of the name Sarah (Heb. הרָשָׂ/ śārāh, “princess”) in the Old Testament, all but one are in Genesis. Sarai (Old Sem. form?), first appears in Gen 11:29 as the wife of Terah’s son Abram; she went with them first from Ur to Haran (11:31) and later to Canaan (12:5). The change of names to Abraham and Sarah is reported in 17:5, 11. According to 20:11 (cf. 12:11, 19), Sarah was Abraham’s half-sister, a form of marriage later prohibited (cf. 2 Sam 13:13 with Lev 18:9; 20:17; Deut 27:22) but not criticized at all here ( pace Hepner). Sarah’s barrenness, a continu…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

Sacharja/Sacharjabuch

(1,169 words)

Author(s): Reventlow, Henning Graf
[English Version] I. Protosacharja 1.Person und Zeit des Propheten.Der Name Sacharja (S.; hebr. זְכַרְיָה/z ekarjāh, »JHWH hat gedacht«) ist im AT mehrfach belegt: Sach 1,1.7 nennt Berechja, den Sohn Iddos, als Vater des Propheten (: II.). Esr 5,1; 6,14 bez. ihn dagegen als einen Sohn Iddos. Nach Neh 12,16 war z.Z. des Hohepriesters Jojakim, des Nachfolgers Josuas und Zeitgenossen S.s, ein – kaum mit dem Propheten identischer – S. Haupt der Priestersippe Iddo. S. wirkte wenig später als Haggai, mit dessen …

Sara

(295 words)

Author(s): Reventlow, Henning Graf
[English Version] . Der Name S. (hebr. שָׂרָה/śārāh, »Fürstin«) begegnet im AT 51mal, davon 50mal in Gen. Sarai (altsem. Namensform?), Gen 11,29 als Ehefrau von Terachs Sohn Abram erstmals erwähnt, zieht mit ihnen zunächst von Ur bis Haran (11,31), später nach Kanaan (12,5). Die Namensänderung erfolgt 17,5.15 in Abraham und Sara. Nach 20,11 (vgl.12,11.19) ist S. die Halbschwester Abrahams, eine später verbotene (vgl.2Sam 13,13 mit Lev 18,9; 20,17; Dtn 27,22), hier noch keineswegs kritisierte (anders Hep…