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Turbae

(71 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] are the sections of the Passion in which groups speak (apostles, the council, the people, etc.). The assignment of different pitches to the parts of Jesus, the evangelist, soloists, and the turba goes back to the 9th century. Originally recitation of Passion was assigned to a single officiant; later it was dramatized by separating the different roles (Passion music: I). Erich Konstantin Reymaier Bibliography Bibl.: see Passion music.

Routley, Erik

(188 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] (Oct 31, 1917, Brighton, England – Oct 8, 1982, Nashville, TN), English theologian and musician. Routley began his studies at Oxford in 1936, studying first classics and then theology. In 1943 he was ordained in the Congregational Union of England and Wales. In 1948 he was appointed lecturer in church his-¶ tory, chaplain, and musical director at Mansfield College of Oxford University. In 1959 he became a pastor in Edinburgh, in 1967 in Newcastle; in 1970 be became president of the Congregational Church in England and Wales. In 19…

Praetorius, Michael

(635 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] (Schultheiß; Feb 15, 1571, Creuzburg – Feb 15, 1621, Wolfenbüttel), sought to put Luther’s theological ideas about music (Music and musical instruments: II, 5.c) into practice. He composed music for the entire repertoire of Lutheran worship and published his magisterial Syntagma musicum in 1614/1619 as a theoretical foundation for musical practice. Praetorius was the son of a clergyman, who moved to Torgau in 1573. There Praetorius was taught by J. Walter’s successor, Michael Voigt. After attending the Latin school in Zerbst, he m…

Passion Hymns

(464 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] The German passion hymn had its root in the Tenebrae services of Passion Week, which concluded with the hymn “Rex Christe factor omnium.” This hymn became a processional hymn in the 12th/13th century, a development that encouraged the addition of responds. In the 14th century, a Bohemian or Austrian poet provided the German respond “Ehre sei dir Christe” – in Latin, “Laus tibi Christe.” Starting in the 13th century, individual verses were translated repeatedly, and in the second h…

Passion Music

(1,182 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] I. Responsorial Passion Since the late 4th century, there is good evidence for the recitation of the Passion in the liturgy (Augustine of Hippo, John Chrysostom). The division of the text into three parts – (1) narrative ( narratio, Evangelist), (2) the direct speech of Jesus and other individuals (soliloquists), and (3) the words of the “crowd” ( turba) – is attested from the 10th century on, but is suggested earlier by the different pitches assigned to the recitation. By the 15th century at the latest, polyphonic choruses for the turba were interpolated into this so-…

Recitative

(165 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] Recitative is a style of vocal music intermediate between speaking and singing. The idea and employment of Sprechgesang is found in many cultures. In Europe recitative became an important element of serious music with the emergence of opera. Its origin in spoken language is central: it determines the melodic line and above all leads to rhythmic freedom in performance, allowing for a better representation of the text’s drama and emotion. This ability to go beyond the text allowed recitative to beco…

Royal School of Church Music

(174 words)

Author(s): Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] (RSCM), founded in 1927 as the School of English Church Music (SECM) for the purpose of promoting Anglican church music, especially in parish churches. In 1929 a choir school was opened, but it had to close in 1939 on account of the war. To that point it had sponsored three great choir festivals and 1,300 clergy had become members. During the war, the director, Sir Sydney Nicholson, continued to provide courses. In 1945 the SECM was renamed the RSCM at the behest of King George VI…

Numerology

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Rebiger, Bill | Mädler, Inken | Reymaier, Erich Konstantin
[German Version] I. History of Religions

Music and Musical Instruments

(15,805 words)

Author(s): Sullivan, Lawrence | Kammerer, Stefan | Hübner, Ulrich | Bohlman, Philip V. | Reinert, Benedikt | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History I. Religious Studies In the history of civilization, music has played a role in many spheres. It accompanies work, provides entertainment, facilitates dancing (Dance), features in religious ceremonies and other forms of religious expression, and can be used for therapeutic purposes. Music for its own sake as an art form is a secondary development. Speech and song are not always clearly separate but depend on the language involved; production of words at various ¶ pitches and vocal registers can represent a form of music, so that music can arise from speech: recitation of sacral texts or prayers leads to cantillation and chant (Psalmody), used in worship without instrumental accompaniment (Choral/Chorale; recitation of the Qurʾān). Rhythm is also a characteristic feature, sometimes in the articulation of sounds, but also by means of other physical forms of expression (e.g. clapping, stamping) or the use of musical instruments like drums, rattles,…