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Evagrius

(598 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Εὐάγριος; Euágrios) [German version] [1] Ponticus Christian writer and monastic leader Religious writer and monastic spiritual leader (AD 345-399). Born in the Pontic Ibora, he was a pupil of  Gregorius of Nazianzus; after periods spent in Constantinople (ordination to deacon) and Jerusalem, he stayed in the Egyptian anchorite community of Kellia (Nitrian desert) from 383 as a much sought-after spiritual advisor. Posthumously condemned as an Origenist (553 Council of Constantinople), his few extant works …

Georgius

(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Eunomius

(180 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Εὐνόμιος; Eunómios). Bishop of Cyzicus († about AD 394). Of lowly origins, E., who was connected with the bishops Aetius of Alexandria and Eudoxius of Antioch, became Bishop of Cyzicus about AD 360. Following opposition he gave up his office. With the death of Aetius (367), E. became the sole leader of the church community of the Anhomoiousians ( Arianism) which had broken away from the imperial church. He was exiled repeatedly. Only a few of his writings are extant, among these being the Ἀπολογητικός ( Apologētikós) that was written about 360 and the work that w…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Melitius of Lycopolis

(145 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Bishop of Lycopolis in Middle Egypt. († c. AD 327), originator of a schism in the Egyptian church at the time of the Diocletian persecution ( Tolerance). Because of the frequent vacancies of episcopal sees, M. consecrated bishops in vacant bishoprics about 305/6 on his own initiative. Additional conflicts with bishop Petrus of Alexandria over the treatment of lapsi and the latent conflict between Alexandria and the rest of Egypt [2. 297] eventually resulted in his deposition. The numerically significant church of the M…

Sextus

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Author of a collection of 'gnomes' The name 'Sextus' is associated with a Greek collection of 610 maxims (Gnome) in all, known from two Greek MSS (Patm. 263, Vat. Gr. 742; Pap. Palau Rib. 225v, c. AD 400 offers 21 'gnomes'); they probably originated c. AD 200. Origenes [2] is the first to mention the title Σέξτου γνῶμαι ( Séxtou gnômai), remarking among other things that 'most Christians read them' (Orig. Contra Celsum 8,30). In about 399, Rufinus [II 6] Tyrannius translated a collection of 451 maxims into Latin, naming as author…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Theodoretus

(442 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Θεοδώρητος; Theodṓrētos). [German version] [1] Bishop of Cyrrhus, 1st half of the 5th cent. Bishop of Cyrrhus (born in c. 393, bishop in 423, died in c. 466). T. received a solid classical education in the monastic milieu of Antioch [1]. A devoted pastor in his diocese, he fought against heretics (Heresy) and worked towards improving living conditions. In the Christological conflict between Cyrillus [2] of Alexandria and Nestorius he joined the latter without reservations. He was dismissed by the Synod of Ephesus in 449…

Pneumatomachoi

(353 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Πνευματομάχοι/ Pneumatomáchoi, 'those who contend against the [Holy] Spirit'). Designation of a group of Christian theologians, active in Asia Minor primarily in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD, who denied the divinity ( homoousía) of the Holy Spirit. The first use of the expression pneumatomáchoi, in the form πνευματομαχοῦντες/ pneumatomachoûntes, is encountered in AD 358 in the letters of Athanasius of Alexandria to Bishop Serapion of Thmuis (Athan. Epist. ad Serapionem 1,32; 4,1). The local Egyptian group whom he calls 'tropi…

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Theophilus

(1,625 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Θεόφιλος; Theóphilos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, 4th cent. BC Comic poet of the 4th cent. BC; victor at the Dionysia of 329 [1. test.2], fourth there in 311 with his Pankratiastḗs [2.190, 200]. T. was of the declining Middle and the incipient New Comedy [I G]. Of the nine known titles, two - Νεοπτόλεμος ( Neoptólemos, 'Neoptolemus'), Προιτίδες ( Proitídes, 'The daughters of Proitus') - are mythological plays, the others deal with everyday material. In the Ἐπίδημοι ( Epídēmoi, 'The Pilgrims'), a slave considers whether to run away from his kind master (fr. 1); in the Φίλαυλος ( Phílaul…

Monotheletism

(305 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Theological controversy of the 7th cent. AD, closely linked to the politics of the Byzantine Empire. Monotheletism, as well as its predecessor, monenergism, is the doctrine of a single will (μόνος/ mónos, ‘single’; θέλημα/ thélēma, θέλησις/ thélēsis, ‘will’) or a single action or power of action (ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia) in Christ. Following military victories (Persian Wars), the East Roman Emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641) tried to reestablish ecclesiastical unity with the monophysites (Monophysitism). This was the starting point in…

Horsiesi

(178 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Abbot general of the coenobitic association of monasteries founded by  Pachomius in Upper Egypt († after AD 386). Initially superior of the monastery in Šenesēt (Chenoboscium), H. was appointed by Abbot Petronius as his successor. After conflicts in the so-called poverty dispute, Theodorus took over the ‘deputy leadership’ [3. 527] for H. Later the latter again was head of the koinōnía (‘community’), initially jointly with Theodorus, and on his own after Theodorus' death. As a spiritual testament he wrote the Liber Orsiesii (Latin translation by  Hieronymus, …

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Zacharias

(658 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ζαχαρίας/ Zacharías, Graecised form of the Hebrew Zacharyah, 'Yahweh remembers'). [German version] [1] Stoned to death at the command of the king Joash, 9th cent. BC According to 2 Chr 24:17-22, Zechariah bar Jehoiada was stoned to death in the Temple at the command of the king Joash (840-801 BC), for having reproached the people for practicing idolatry and hence abandoning their god. The Jewish Haggada developed this story: the blood of the murdered one boils on the floor of the Temple and does not come to rest (ultima…

Christianity

(4,343 words)

Author(s): Trombley, Frank R. (Cardiff) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] A. Definition Christianity (Χριστιανισμός, Christianismós) was a monotheistic religious system ( Monotheism) which emerged from Judaism in the procuratorial province of Judaea during the 1st cent. AD. At Christianity's centre were the life and mission of Jesus of Nazareth, whose adherents regarded him as the ‘Messiah’, or God's ‘anointed’ (Χριστός,

Monophysitism

(448 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Monophysitism, a term known since the 7th cent. AD, refers to the doctrine that Christ, after the union of the divine and human, has a single nature (μόνος/ mónos, single; φύσις/ phýsis, nature). In a narrower sense, monophysites are opponents (who may be of a variety of theological and organisational backgrounds) of the doctrine of the two natures of Christ as stated by the Council of Calchedon (AD 451). Contrary to the definition of the Council (on…

Nestorius, Nestorianism

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(named after N., bishop of Constantinople, AD 428-431; d. in c. 451). [German version] A. Life According to Socr. 7,29,2, N. was probably born after AD 381 in East Syrian Germanicea. The centre of his early work was Antiochia [1], where N. joined the monastery of Euprepius located outside of the city. Formative for his thinking was the so-called Antiochene theology represented by Diodorus [20] of Tarsus and Theodorus of Mopsu(h)estia (whose student he may have been). At Emperor Theodosius II's instigation, N., …

Exegesis

(725 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(εξήγησις; exḗgēsis) [German version] A. Judaism The Jewish exegesis, whi…

Gratus

(83 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Commander of the infantry of Herod the Gr. Pro-Roman commander of the infantry of Herod the Great (Jos. BI 2,3,4; 4,2,3; 5,2; Ant. Iud. 17,10,3; 17,10,6f.; 17,10,9). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) [German version] [2] Valerius G. Procurator of Judaea In AD 15-26 procurator of Judaea as successor of Annius Rufus (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,2; 18,6,5) under …

Moses

(1,439 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel (Berne) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Hebrew Mošæh, Greek Μω(υ)σῆς; Mō(y)sȇs). [1] Israelite religious founder [German version] I. Biblical tradition According to tradition, M. was a Levite who grew up as an Egyptian prince, was forced to flee to Midian, was called there by the god Yahweh to lead the enslaved Hebrew people out of Egypt; Biblical cultic and moral law were revealed to him on Mt. Sinai, and he led the Hebrew people through the desert to the edge of the Promised Land, where he died on Mount Nebo, across from Jericho (Ex 2 - Dt 34). …

Macedoniani

(296 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Initially the term for the Arian factions ( Arianism) gathered in the mid 4th cent. around bishop Macedonius of Constantinople († before AD 364). Later the name is applied to the pneumatomáchoi , i.e. all those, also non-Arians, who deny the divinity of the Holy Spirit. The eponymous Maced…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 and banished again in the following year. In 362 he returned briefly to Jerusalem and attempted to prevent the reconstruction of the Temple under the emperor  Iulianus [11] (Socr. 2,42,6; 45,17 and 3,20,7f.). Banished again under  Valens, he returned to his bishopric at the latest under  Gratianus [2] (Socr. 5,3,1). At the imperial council in Constantinople in 381 his anti-Arian (= anti-Homoean;  Arianism) position was emphasized (Socr. 5,8,3; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,7,3 and Theod. Hist. ecc…

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. …

Leucius

(289 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Λεύκιος; Leúkios). [German version] [1] Roman in the Ptolemaic army L. (= Lucius), son of Gaius, Roman, Ptolemaic phroúrarchos on Itanus (between 221-209 BC), thus the first Roman known to have had a higher rank in the Ptolemaic army. PP VI 15117. Ameling, Walter (Jena)…

Hiba

(215 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] ( Ibâs) Bishop of  Edessa [2] († AD 28 October 457), where he, as teacher at the ‘Persian School’ and follower of Antiochene theology, translated the works of  Theodorus of Mopsuestia,  Diodorus [14] of Tarsus, and Aristotle into Syrian. He was repeatedly attacked (i.e. accused of heresy and simony) and, as successor of the city bishop  Rabulas (Rabbula) in 436, was removed from office and exiled by the ‘Robber Synod’ of Ephesus (449) as a follower of  Nestorius, only to be reinstat…

Basileides

(316 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Βασιλείδης; Basileídēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) Epicurean (c . 245-175 BC.), fourth leader of the  Epicurean School (since 201/0) who taught Philonides of Laodicea on the Pontus. He studied mathematics and is known for his discussions in Alexandria with the father of the mathematician Hypsicles about a writing…

Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Methodius

(918 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg)
(Μεθόδιος; Methódios). [German version] [1] Bishop of Olympus, 3rd-4th cent. AD Bishop of Olympus (late 3rd - early 4th cent. BC). Little about his life is known for certain. According to Jer. Vir. ill. 83 he was bishop of Olympus in Lycia, but Tyre, Patara, Myra and Philippi are also mentioned as his see. His martyrdom, also reported by Jerome, is equally disputed. M., who preferred the dialogue f…

Chronicles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Glassner, Jean Jacques (Paris) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] A. General Αἱ χρονικαὶ, τὰ χρονικά; Hai chronikaì, tà chroniká, chronicon; Latin according to Isid. Orig. 5,37 series temporum. No antique or medieval description of the genre [1; 2]. Chronicles are written histories structured on a yearly basis. They vary from mere lists of dates to miniature narratives for individual years: it is then, as  annals -- retrospective in the Roman period, ongoing…

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Hegemonius

(338 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Alleged author, otherwise unknown, of a powerfully effective anti-Manichaean ( Mani, Manichaeism) polemical treatise, recorded in its entirety only in Latin translation and known as the Acta Archelai (CPG 3570). Despite an indication of a Syrian source (Jer. Vir. ill. 72), the basis of the Latin translation from the 1st half of the 5th cent. could well have been a Greek original created between 330 and 348 [1. 136-140]. Information beyond any doubt regarding the author - H. names himself as author (Acta 68: ego scripsi; in the sense of ‘scribe’, ‘editor’?) - and…

Tatianus

(689 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I. Greek [German version] [I 1] Christian apologist and theologian, 2nd cent. (Τατιανός; Tatianós). Christian apologist and theologian (born c. AD 120). By his own account, T. was from the East Syrian/North Mesopotamian region (Or. 42). His work betrays a knowledge of classical authors relying upon Hellenistic scholarly tradition. His travels brought T. into contact with a variety of the philosophical and religious systems of his period ( i.a. participation in mystery cults, which he fails to define more precisely). In Rome, study of the Bible finally brought hi…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Vitae Sanctorum

(578 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] ('saints' lives'), an important genre of hagiographic literature. The VS enjoy a special position among the documents concerning early Christian saints (B.) and their veneration. From the point of view of the literary genre, they belong to the biography ('spiritual biography': [5.8]), but they can also assume features of other Greek and Roman literary genres (such as the novel), as well as of biblical stories. Modern scholars favour the term 'hagiographic discourse', which includes numerou…

Cerinthus

(365 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Κήρινθος; Kḗrinthos). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern coast of Euboea Town on the eastern coast of  Euboea (Hom. Il. 2,538; Str. 10,1,3; 5), localized near the modern Mandudion. The origins of C. date back into the Neolithic. In historical times, C. probably belonged to  Histiaea. Inscriptions: IG XII 9, 1184f. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Freund, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 323. [German version] [2] Jewish-Christian Gnostic Jewish-Christian  Gnostic, contemporary with the Apostles (1st/ early 2nd cents. AD). According to the…

Theognis

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Θέογνις/ Théognis). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] I. Life and textual history T. was born in Megara [2] in Greece (Didymus in schol. Plat. leg. 630a), hardly Megara [3] in Sicily (Suda Θ 136 and probably Plat. l.c.,), ca. 544-1 BC (Suda l.c.; acc. to [17] 65-71 ca. 630-600). Plat. l.c. (citing El. 77-8) and Isoc. Or. 3,42-3 first name T. as a good adviser, and according to Stob. 4,29,53 Xen. wrote On Theognis and cited El. 22-3 and 183-190. T.'s poems were probably sung at 5th and 4th cent. B…

Firmillianus

(166 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Important bishop of  Caesarea in Cappadocia (died in AD 268). Shortly after 230 he became bishop and around 250 he instigated the deposition of bishop Fabius of  Antioch [1] who was inclined towards Novatianus. In the dispute on the baptism of heretics, the close friend of  Origenes sided with  Cyprianus [2] of Carthage and opposed the Roman bishop Stephanus I. Informed by Cyprianus, he replied in autumn 256 [1. 248] with a letter originally written in Greek (Cypr. epist. 75 [CCL …

Doctrina patrum de incarnatione verbi

(79 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] Dogmatic florilegium, dating from the end of the 7th into the 8th cent. AD, that was put together from already existing but now partially lost Christological collections (i.a. ch. 24 and 33) and wrongly ascribed to the apocrisiary  Anastasius [3] († 666) or the abbot  Anastasius Sinaites [5] (died shortly after 700). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) Bibliography Edition: F. Diekamp, D., 1907. Bibliography: A. Grillmeier, Jesus der Christus im Glauben der Kirche 2/1, 21991, 94-100.

Titus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I Greek (Τίτος/ Títos). [German version] [I 1] Companion of Paul Important 'assistant' and 'partner' of Paul (Paulus [II 2]; 2 Cor 8,23), of unknown origin. Taken by Paul to the Apostles' Convent in Jerusalem as a 'Gentile Christian', he was not compelled to be circumcised there, in spite of the demands of the Judaists (Gal 2:1-3). Paul sent T. to Corinth on several occasions as his negotiator (2 Cor 7:6 f.; 7:13 f.; he also appeared as an independent co-organizer of the collects: 8:6; 8:16 …

Dositheus

(947 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Δωσίθεος; Dōsítheos). [German version] [1] Jewish apostate Son of Drimylos, Jewish apostate. He is supposed to have saved the life of Ptolemy IV Philopator before the battle at Raphia (217 BC)(3 Macc. 1,3). Around 240 BC he was one of the two leaders of the royal secretariat and accompanied Ptolemy III in 225-24 on a trip in Egypt; he held the highest priestly office in Hellenistic Egypt around 222 as the priest of Alexander [4] the Great and the deified Ptolemies. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum…

Marissa

(172 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pompeius (Hebrew Mārēšā, Mārešā, ‘settlement on the heights’; Gr. Μάρισ(σ)α; Máris(s)a). City in the south-west of Judea ( Palaestina ). M. became Edomite (Edom) after the Exile and was probably an important administrative centre. It is known to us from frequent OT references (Jos 15:44; 2 Chr 14:8f.; 20:37 inter al.), non-biblical sources (e.g. Flavius Josephus) and numerous archaeological finds from Tell Sandaḫanna (‘Hill of St. Anna’; also known as Tell Mārēšā) located c. 2 km south of the modern Bet-Guvrin. Tra…

Uranius

(384 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Οὐράνιος/ Ouránios). [German version] [0] Usurper, mid 3rd cent. L. Iulius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus U. Antoninus, usurper, who had coins minted in Emesa in 253/4; very likely identical with the priest of Aphrodite Sampsigeramus (Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 296 f.) who warded off an attack on Emesa by the Persian army in 253, in the course of which their leader (in the text Sapor [1] I himself) was killed. It may be that Or. Sib. 13,158-171 and IGLS 1799-1801 also refer to these events. When with Valerianus' [2] d…

Henotikon

(140 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] (Ἑνωτικόν; Henōtikón). Aimed at the churches of Egypt, Libya and the Pentapolis, on the occasion of patriarch Petrus Mongus' assumption of office, the H., promulgated in AD 482 by the East Roman emperor  Zeno, with the influential collaboration of patriarch Acacius of Constantinople (CPG III, 5999; originally Ἤδικτον Ζήνωνος, ‘edict of Zeno’, named H. since Zacharias Rhetor, Historia ecclesiastica 5,8; cf. Evagrius, Hist. eccl. 3,13f.), sought to restore the unity of belief and emp…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Stylites

(109 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
[German version] A special form of Christian asceticism common esp. in Syria, characterised by the ascetic's permanent abode on the top of a column (στυλίτης/ stylítēs, 'column-stander' of ὁ στῦλος/ ho stŷlos, 'column'). A connection to non-Christian forms (cf. the φαλλοβάται/ phallobátai in Lucian Syr. D. 28 f.) seems unlikely (differently [1]). The initiator and most important representative is Simeon the Elder (d. in AD 459) whose column became a destination for pilgrims. Other stylites of renown were the Simeon the Younger, Daniel, Alypius of Adrianopolis, Lazarus and Lucas. Ri…
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