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Rodrigues

(87 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] Rodrigues, Simão, de Azevedo (1510 Vouzela – 15.7.1579 Lissabon), erster port. Provinzial der Jesuiten. Studium in Paris, wo er mit Ignatius von Loyola und dessen Gruppe an der Gründung der SJ beteiligt war. Von König Johannes III. zus. mit F. Xavier nach Portugal gerufen, gründete er dort verschiedene Kollegien (z.B. Jesus Kollegium, Coimbra, 1542). R. arbeitete danach in Spanien, Italien und schließlich Lissabon. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography F. Rodrigues, História da Companhia de Jesus na Assistência de Portugal, 4 Bde., 1931–1950.

Vega

(142 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] Vega, Andreas (Andrés) de (1498 Segovia – 13./21.9.1549 Salamanca), Franziskaner, studierte an der Universität Salamanca und war dort Prof. V. folgte den Lehren von J. Duns Scotus und Bonaventura. Im Tridentinum nahm er an der Diskussion über die kanonischen Schriften, Vulgata und Rechtfertigungslehre teil. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Werke: Opusculum de justificatione, gratia et meritis, 1546 Tridentini decreti de justificatione expositio et defensio, 1548 Über V.: M. Oltra Hernández, Die Gewißheit des Gnadenstandes bei A.de V. O.F. M., 1941 P…

Osuna

(188 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] Osuna, Francisco de (ca.1492 Osuna [Sevilla] – ca.1541), Franziskaner, einer der wichtigsten span. Mystiker. O. studierte in Alcala´ de Henares und zog sich nach der Priesterweihe in die Eremitage La Salceda zurück, wo er die Grundlinien seiner Spiritualität der inneren Sammlung »recogimento« entwarf und die ersten Traktate vf. (»Abecededarios«). Eng waren seine Kontakte mit den »Alumbrados«. Sein bekanntester Traktat ist das »Dritte geistl. ABC«, das Theresa von Avila stark beeinflußte. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Ausg.: Tercer abecedario es…

Braga

(155 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (Bracara Augusta) became a Portuguese diocese in the 4th century; it lost its status as a result of the Suevian and Arabic invasions, then after the Reconquista in 1070 was reestablished under bishop Peter and elevated to the status of archdiocese in 1100. The dispute concerning primacy with Santiago de Compostela and …

Ledesma, Martin de

(122 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (c. 1509, Ledesma, Spain – Aug 15, 1574, Coimbra), Dominican friar and Spanish theologian. A student of F. of Vitoria and the teacher of M. Cano in Salamanca, he was professor of theology in Coimbra from 1540 to 1562, a major representative of the School of Salamanca in Portugal, and a commentator of Thomas Aquinas ( Expositiones in universam D. Thomae Summam, unpubl.; Commentaria in quartum librum Sententiarum, 2 vols., 1555–1560). Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography F. Stegmüller, Filosofia e teologia nas Universidades de Coimbra e Évora no século XVI, 1956 M.A. Ro…

Otfrid von Weißenburg

(411 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (c. 800 – c. 871), entrusted, presumably as a child ( puer oblatus; Oblates: I), to the monastery at Weißenburg (Wissembourg) in Alsace; ordained priest c. 830, he received a thorough education at his home monastery, followed by studies in Fulda under Rabanus Maurus. After his return he became, under Abbot Grimald, a teacher, head of the scriptorium, and spiritus rector of a theological program on the Fulda model, directed towards a deeper understanding of Holy Scripture. To this end, Otfrid worked towards a commentary on the whole Bible. …

John of Avila, Saint

(186 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (Juan de Ávila; 1500, Almodóvar del Campo, New Castile – May 10, 1569, Montilla, Andalusia), Jewish convert. After studying law in Salamanca and theology in Alcalá, John became a priest. He was a proponent of university education for clergy, a missionary to the people (the “Apostle of Andalusia”), and the pastoral counselor of Francis of Borgia, John of God, Luís de Granada (who authored John's biography in 1588), as well as others. He translated J. de Gerson's Contemptus mundi with the title Imitación (1536). Persecuted by the Inquisition for a time, he was ca…

Francis of Vitoria

(251 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (Francisco de Vitoria; 1492, Burgos, Spain – Aug 12, 1546, Salamanca, Spain), OP, Spanish theologian. After studying in Paris (1506–12), Francis taught there in the College of St. Jacques, first artes liberales , then theology; in 1523–26 he was a theologian in Valladolid, then from 1526 in Salamanca. He maintained close connections with humanism (Erasmus and J.L. Vives). The basis for his solution to juridical and ethical problems, however, was increasingly Thomism (Thomas Aquinas: III); Francis contributed considerably ¶ to the renewal of Aquinas's teachi…

Peter of Alcántara (Saint)

(199 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (1499, Alcántara – Oct 18, 1562, Arenas, Ávila), joined the Franciscans in 1515; after studying at Salamanca, he was ordained in 1524, and served as guardian of several friaries. As provincial of the Franciscan province of St. Gabriel (1538–1541), in 1540 he began laying the groundwork for a Franciscan order of the strictest observance (Alcantarines, Discalced Friars). Through his preaching, he deepened the spirit of penitence, prayer, and asceticism in his friaries. In 1560 he me…

Portugal

(1,784 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] I. General Portugal (the western mainland of the Iberian Peninsula, together with the island of Madeira and the Azores in the Atlantic) has an area of 92,389 km2 and 10,084,234 inhabitants (July 2002). II. History The area that today constitutes Portugal was settled by various peoples. After the Romans, it was conquered by the Suevi (409), the Visigoths (585), and the Arabs (712). Following the Christian Reconquista, in 1096 Henry of Burgundy (died 1112) became ruler of the territory between the Minho and Mondego…

Coimbra

(283 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] A town and bishopric in Portugal. In the 8th century the town (Roman Conimbriga, today Condeixa) was transferred to the site of Aeminium, modern Coimbra. It belonged to the province of Emerita Augusta (Merida) and became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the 6th century. Conquered by the Moors in 715/716, Coimbra was finally retaken by Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon in 1054. The first bishop after the Reconquista was Paterno. When Portugal …

Goes, Damiano de

(171 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (1502, Alenquer, Portugal – 1574, Alenquer), a Portuguese historian and humanist, spent a long time first in Flanders, then in various European countries in which he maintained close contact with Humanists and Reformers (Luther, Melanchthon, Erasmus, S.Münster, P.Bembo, J.Sadoleto and Gian Battista Ramusio). In Portugal, Goes taught Prince John. Because of his great interest in the Reformation and the Jews, Goes was persecuted by the Inquisition. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Works: Legatio Magni Indorum Imperatoris, 1532 Fides, religio, moresque …

Rodriguez de Azevedo, Simon

(94 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (Simão; 1510, Vouzela – Jul 15, 1579, Lisbon), the first Portuguese provincial of the Jesuits. Rodriguez studied in Paris, where he shared with Ignatius of Loyola and his group in the foundation of the Society of Jesus. King John III recalled him to Portugal, together with F. Xavier. There he founded various colleges (e.g. the Jesus Collegium at Coimbra, 1542). Rodriguez later worked in Spain, Italy, and, finally, in Lisbon. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography F. Rodrigues, História da Companhia de Jesus na assistência de Portugal, 4 vols., 1931–1950.

Lisbon

(206 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] Lisbon, capital of Portugal, with a population of 565,000 (2001). The first known bishop of Lisbon was Potamius (357). With the Arab conquest in 719, it became a Mozarabic see. The Reconquista retook it in 1147. Under King Alfonso III (1248–1279), it rose to become the royal residence and capital. In 1288/ 1290 a university was founded; in 1308 it was shifted to Coimbra, where (after several interim moves) it finally remained after 1537. In 1393 Lisbon was elevated to an archdioce…

Vega, Andreas de

(146 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (1498, Segovia – Sep 13/21, 1549, Salamanca), a Franciscan. He studied at the University of Salamanca, where he became a professor, following the teachings of J. Duns Scotus and Bonaventura. At the Council of Trent, he participated in discussions of the canon of Scripture, the Vulgate, and the doctrine of justification. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Works: Opusculum de justificatione, gratia et meritis, 1546 Tridentini decreti de justificatione expositio et defensio, 1548 On Vega: M. Oltra Hernández, Die Gewißheit des Gnadenstandes bei Andeas de Vega OFM,…

Osuna, Francisco de

(185 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[German Version] (c. 1492, Osuna [Seville] – c. 1541), Franciscan, one of the most important Spanish mystics. Osuna studied in Alcalá de Henares, and after ordination as a priest retired to the La Salceda hermitage, where he drew up the main lines of his spirituality of inner composure ( recogimento) and wrote his first treatises ( Abecededarios). He had close contacts with the Alumbrados. His best-known treatise is the Third Spiritual ABC, which strongly influenced Theresa of Avila. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Ed.: Tercer abecedario espiritual, ed. S.L. Santidrian, 1998 On…

Soto

(162 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] Soto, Domingo de (1495 Segóvia – 15.11.1560 Salamanca), Dominikaner, einer der wichtigsten Meister der »Schule von Salamanca«, gehört zu den wichtigsten Vertretern der span. Spätscholastik. Studierte in Alcalá und Paris, wo er Franz von Vitoria hörte. S. war Prof. der Universität Salamanca, Theologe Kaiser Karls V. und Vertreter des Dominikanerordens auf dem Tridentinum. S. verteidigte B. de  Las Casas im Streit um die Menschenrechte der Indios Amerikas und nahm an den Disputationen von Valladolid 1550/51 teil. Manuel Augusto Rodrigues Bibliography Ausg. …

Petrus

(174 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] von Alca´ntara (1499 Alca´ntara – 18.10.1562 Arenas, A´vila). 1515 Franziskaner, nach Studium in Salamanca 1524 Priester, Guardian mehrerer Konvente. Als Provinzial der Ordensprovinz St. Gabriel (1538–1541) schuf er seit 1540 die Grundlagen für eine Richtung der strengsten Observanz (Alcantariner, Discalceaten). Durch seine Predigt vertiefte er den Geist der Buße, Gebet und Askese in seinen Konventen. 1560 begegnete er Theresa von A´vila. Als Ordensoberer, durch Abfassung von Stat…

Portugal

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Rodrigues, Manuel Augusto
[English Version] I. Allgemein P. (das Festland im Westen der iberischen Halbinsel und die Insel Madeira und die Azoren im Atlantik) umfaßt 92 389 km2 mit 10 084 234 Einwohnern (Juli 2002). II. Historisch Das heutige Gebiet P. wurde von verschiedenen Völkern besiedelt. Als Eroberer kamen nach den Römern die Sueven (409), Westgoten (585) und Araber (712). Nach der christl. Wiedereroberung (Reconquista) wurde 1096 Heinrich von Burgund (gest.1112) Herrscher des Gebiets zw. den Flüssen Minho und Mondego (Hauptstadt: Coimbra). …