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Philaretus

(367 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Φιλάρετος; Philáretos). [German version] [1] Greek writer on medicine Greek writer on medicine. A text which bears P.’s name and ultimately goes back to Galen’s theories about the pulse, is a Byzantine revision (from the 9th cent.?) of the text De pulsibus ad Antonium (= Gal. 19,629-642 K.) which was influenced by pneumat (Pneumatists). Whether or not P. was the author of the original text or the revised version, is a matter of controversy. A connection with Philagrius cannot be ruled out as his name is occasionally misrepresented in P.…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Paulicians

(316 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Παυλικιανοί/ Paulikianoí; Armenian Pawlikeank'). Heretical Christian group of Armenian origin in the Byzantine Empire, whose teachings survive only in secondary sources of Orthodox polemic. The accounts of the Armenian katholikós John of Odzun (8th cent. AD) and of Petros Sikeliotes (9th cent. AD) are particularly important. According to these the Paulicians were described as an offshoot from the Manichaeans (Mani), whose dualistic doctrine postulated only an individualistic approach to faith and rejected the OT (Bible), the sacraments ( sacramentum

Lazi

(120 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Λᾶζαι, Λάζοι; Lâzai, Lázoi). People of the Caucasus mountains who migrated into Colchis about 100-75 BC, initially settled on the river Phasis (modern Rioni; Plin. HN 6,12; Ptol. 5,10,5) and later spread widely. About AD 300, they founded the Lazic state in the belief they were the true descendants of the Colchi. Colchis then became known as the Lazica (Λαζική/ Lazikḗ; in Old Georgian sources also Egrisi). In the Byzantine period the Lazi were the cause of battles between imperial and Persian troops because of the important trade routes across the Caucasus. von Bredow, …

Maronites

(140 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Christian religious community going back to the Syrian hermit Maro(n) (Μάρω(ν)/ Márō(n), Syriac Morun; 4th/5th cent. AD), the patron saint of a monastery on the Orontes near Apamea [3] in Syria, which became the centre of the resistance against the Monophysitism. After the death of the patriarch Anastasius II (died 609), the Antiochene ( Antioch [1]) patriarchal see remained vacant (Persian invasions); in 636, the region came under Arab rule. Its isolation in terms of geography and Church poli…

Athingani

(165 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀθίγγανοι; Athínganoi). The A. (‘Untouchables’, from θιγγάνω) are mentioned as heretics who are counted as Paulicians, first by Patriarch  Germanus (De haeres. et synodis, PG 98, 85) in the 8th cent. They are called ‘Phrygians’ because of their origins or ‘Manichaeans’ because of their magical and astrological practices. Flourishing in the 9th cent.; found followers even in palace circles ( Michael II). They supported  iconoclasm. Several attempts to integrate them remained unsuccessful.  Astrology;  Magic;  Mani;  Phrygia Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibli…

Synaxarion

(131 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(συναξάριον; synaxárion). [German version] [1] Short life Short life or encomiastic note in the menaea of the Orthodox Church's órthros (ὄρθρος, 'morning service') between the 6th and 7th odes of the canon [2], which together with the synaxarion characterize services on saints' days and feasts. Structure: month, epigram in iambic verse, naming of the saint and the feast, hexameter on the date and name, historical note, mention of the church commemorating the saint, life of the saint. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) [German version] [2] Book with short lives Book containing the synaxária

Canon

(2,022 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Vogt-Spira, Gregor (Greifswald) | Rese, Martin (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[1] [German version] I. General points The Greek word canon (κανών, kanṓn) was probably derived from κάννα ( kánna: ‘bulrush reed or rod’), a Semitic loan word in the Greek language. The original meaning of ‘straight reed, stick, rod (in different uses)’ developed into several more specific and technical meanings. As a result, the Greek word canon designates a carpenter's or bricklayer's measuring stick or square, a chronological or astrological table, a monochord in music terminology (from Euclides [3]) etc. In …

Thalassius

(456 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θαλάσσιος; Thalássios). [German version] [1] Follower of Constantius [2] II, 4th cent. AD (Thalassius). Praefectus praetorio Orientis 351-353, from a family of curiales [2] of the East. Little is known about his career, but T. was obviously a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II: in 345, he acted as the emperor's comes in Aquileia; in 351, he held a high office at his court in Cibalae (Zos. 2,48,5); still in the same year, T. - probably a Christian - entered into the office of praetorian prefect of the East (Artemii Passio…

Apollinarius

(377 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Forms of the name The following are attested: Apollinaris or Ἀπολινάριος ( Apolinários) or Ἀπολεινάριος ( Apoleinários), but not  Ἀπολλινάριος ( Apollinários). Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Zahn, Apollinaris, Apollinarius, Apolinarius, in: id., Paralipomena, Forsch. zur Gesch. des nt. Kanons 5/1, 1893, 99-109. [German version] [2] of Laodicea Priest and teacher of grammar Priest and teacher of grammar. According to Sozom. Hist. eccl. (2,46; 3,15-16; 5,18; 6,25) the father of  A. [3]. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Dräseke…

Book of Letters

(107 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Armenian collection of important theological letters, documenting the history of the Armenian church and its relations with neighbouring churches (Syria, Georgia, Byzantium), such as the separation of the Georgian church from the Armenian in c. 600. The Book of Letters is divided into three chronological phases: 5th-7th, 8th-11th and 11th-13th cents.  Byzantium;  Georgia;  Syria Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography Girk T̀`ġtoc`, 1901 E. Ter-Minassiantz, Die armen. Kirche in ihren Beziehungen zu den syr. Kirchen. Bis zum Ende des 13.Jh.…

Amphilochius of Iconium

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A. ( 340/345 in  Cappadocia, † after 394) was a student of  Libanius and rhetorician in Constantinople. In 370 he returned to Cappadocia and at the instigation of  Basilius the Great became bishop of  Iconium in the newly created province of  Lycaonia in 373. He created an ecclesiastical administration in his episcopacy and defended it against the  Messalians and other heretics. Through his cousin  Gregorius of Nazianze, who converted him, a close friendship developed with the Cappadocians and later with circles in the capital.  Gregorius of Nyssa Savvidis, Kyriak…

Synodikon

(110 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Συνοδικόν; Synodikón). Liturgical formula of the Orthodox Church. The synodìkon originated in the period of iconoclasm in AD 843, on the initiative of Methodius, patriarch of Constantinople, as a document of the victory of the patriarchate over the iconoclasts (Syrian dynasty). It continued the tradition of the diptycha . At the beginning of the 11th cent., the synodìkon was granted the more general function of a liturgical formula, which contained a commemoration list of emperors and patriarchs (in the prov…

Hesychius

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡσύχιος; Hēsýchios). [German version] [1] Alex. scholar, author of a lexicon Alexandrian scholar, author of an alphabetically arranged lexicon, which has passed down to us numerous fragments (primarily of poetry), allows many text variants to be restored, and is of special significance to the study of ancient classical exegesis, of dialects, and of the history of the Greek language. The basis for dating him is the Epistula ad Eulogium, which introduces the lexicon: some scholars identify the addressee with  Eulogius Scholasticus (5th cent. AD), others, includin…

Agrippa

(1,444 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
According to modern etymology, the name derives from *agrei-pod-, ‘having the feet in front’ (according to Leumann, 398, ‘very dubious’). Originally a praenomen (thus still in the Iulii, especially A. Postumus), then a cognomen in the families of the Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, but also of Jewish kings ( Herodes A.). Documented as name of various persons. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [1] M. Vipsanius, consul 37, 28, 27 BC M. Vipsanius, born 64/3 BC, of knightly lineage, probabl…

Romanos

(779 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ῥωμανός; Rhōmanós). [German version] [1] R. Melodod, the Melodist Byzantine hymnographer, 5th/6th cent. AD (Ῥωμανὸς Μελωδός; Rhōmanòs Melōdós). Byzantine hymnographer of Syrian origin, b. before AD 493 at Emesa (present-day Ḥims in Syria), d. between AD 551 and 565 at Constantinople. Initially deacon at Berytus (Beirut), he took up his post at the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople under the emperor Anastasius [1] I. According to legend, he is said to have decided to become a composer of hymns after receivi…

Laura

(112 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (λαύρα/ Laúra, ‘lane’). Originally a Christian monastic settlement of hermits under the leadership of a common superior. Around AD 330, Chariton (Χαρίτων) founded near Pharan, Douka and Souka in Palestine the first laúrai with cells (κελλία; kellía) and caves that were connected by a lane. In the centre of the facilities were the church, the bakery, storerooms as well as the home of the superior. The hermits only gathered for the service with the Eucharist. This type of monastery became definitive for Byzantine Chri…

Boeotia, Boeotians

(1,481 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Βοιωτία, Βοιωτοί; Boiōtía, Boiōtoi). [German version] A. Topography Region and people in south-eastern Central Greece; with c. 2,500 km2 almost as large as  Attica. Bounded in the south-west by the Corinthian Gulf and in the north-east and east by the Euboean Gulf, B. is the only land bridge between northern and southern Greece and was thus a battleground over and over again ( Chaeronea,  Coronea,  Plataeae). In the south the  Parnes and the  Cithaeron formed a natural border with Attica and Megaris, while in t…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…

Gregorius

(2,969 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Γρηγόριος; Grēgórios) [German version] [I 1] Thaumaturgus Lawyer and theologian, 3rd cent. AD G. was born between AD 210 and 213, as the son of a wealthy pagan family in Neocaesarea/ Pontus (modern Niksar), probably under the name of Theodorus. In 232/3 (or 239), after a thorough elementary education G. actually wanted to study law in  Berytus/Beirut but before this in  Caesarea [2] (Palestine) got to know  Origen who taught there and then studied under his supervision the ‘Christian s…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Sinai

(194 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Σινᾶ/ Sinâ, Σινά/ Siná, Σεινά/ Seiná, later also Σιναΐ/ Sinaḯ, Latin Sina; Hebrew sīnay). Mountain in the wilderness of the same name, where the Covenant between Yahweh and Israel was made. S. is primarily attested in the Old Testament; in the New Testament Σινᾶ occurs only in Acts 7,30 and 38 and Gal 4,2; the etymology is debatable. Presumably S. is derived from the Hebrew root sny, 'shine' [1. 52033]. S. often occurs with the later additions 'Mount', 'Desert'. Euseb. On. 172,9 f. distinguished S. from Mount Horeb (Χωρήβ/ Chōrḗb), for Jerome (ibid. 173,15 f.) the …

Eznik of Kolp

(246 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Kołp). Pupil of  Mesrop. His student colleague Koriwn gives some details about E.'s biography in the Vita of Mesrop. According to him, in around AD 406 E. goes to  Edessa [2] (= Urfa) on behalf of his teacher and Katholikos  Sahak in order to learn Syriac and to translate works by the Syrian church fathers into Armenian. Together with Koriwn he brought around 435 Greek biblical manuscripts, manuscripts by the church fathers, and the Acts of the Synods of  Nicaea and  Ephesus from…

Theophanes

(1,115 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Θεοφάνης/ Theophánēs). [German version] [1] T. of Mytilene Close confidant and historiographer of Pompey (Pompeius [I 3]). As a recently-discovered inscription [1. 377-383] shows, T., the son of Hieroitas, was already active as prytanis at Mytilene (FGrH 188 T 1) before making the acquaintance of Pompey, whom he accompanied on the campaign against Mithridates [6] in 67 BC (T 2). He received Roman citizenship from Pompey in 62 BC (cf. Cic. Arch. 24 = T 3a) at an army gathering, and he therefore appears in IG XII 2, 150 as Cn. Po…

Nicolaus

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | CH.KÄ. | Et al.
(Νικόλαος/ Nikólaos). [German version] [1] Strategos of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria, 219 BC Aetolian, stratēgós of Ptolemy IV in Coele Syria. In 219 BC, he unsuccessfully besieged the dissident Theodotus in Ptolemais,  but succeeded in preventing the encirclement of Dora by Antiochus [5] III. Made supreme commander in 218, he occupied the coastal pass north of Sidon, but was repelled by Antiochus at the Damuras river. N. then probably defected to Antiochus, whom he accompanied in 209 to Hyr…

Potamiaena

(117 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ποταμιαίνα/ Potamiaína). Martyr (died c. AD 360; feast 7 or 28 June). Pupil of Origenes [1] in Alexandria. According to an account by Eusebius [7] (Eus. HE 6,4) she suffered martyrdom under Septimius Severus (193-211). She converted the soldier Basileides who escorted her to her execution. Together with her mother Marcella she was executed by having hot pitch poured over her. After three days she is supposed to have appeared to Basileides, who was arrested for his conversion and then also martyred. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henscheniu…

Mesrop

(287 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] Known as Maštoc in the older MSS and in the vita written by his student Koriwn. His date of birth ( c. AD 360/364) and his descent from the influential family of the Mamikonians are uncertain. Born in Katzikk in the Armenian province of Tarawn, M. received a Hellenic education. After military service under the Armenian king - either Chosrov III ( Chosroes [4]) or his lieutenant Arawan - in Vagharshapat, he became a secretary at the Armenian royal court between 385 and 389. Between 390 and 395, the Armenian Patriarch Sahak [Isaac] the Great ( c. 457-438) made him a monk. Af…

Iberians

(89 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἴβηροι/ Íbēroi, Ἴβηρες/ Íbēres). I. and Iberia (Ἰβηρία/ Ibēría), as terms for the inhabitants and country of East Georgia, occur only in Graeco-Roman and Byzantine sources; possibly etymologically related to virkʿ (Armenian) or Sáspeires (Σάσπειρες, Hdt. 4,37; 40) [1. 146]. Iberia was bordered in the north by  Sarmatia, in the west by  Colchis, in the south by Greater Armenia ( Armenia) and in the east by  Albania [1] (Ptol. 5,10,1f.). Armenia;  Georgia, Georgians;  Georgian Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography 1 O. Lordkipanidse, Archäologie in Geor…

Kontakion

(198 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (κοντάκιον, κονδάκιον; kontákion, kondákion; from κοντός, ‘parchment roll’). Name given in later times to a genre of Byzantine hymns documented first in the 6th cent. AD. The kontakion consists of 18 to 24 metrically equal stanzas (so-called oíkoi, οἶκοι), preceded by the metrically differing prooemium ( koukoúlion, κουκούλιον). The individual stanzas are connected by acrostichs ( Acrostich) and have a common refrain (the ephýmnion or akroteleútion, ἐφύμνιον, ἀκροτελεύτιον). Kontakia are related to the Syrian madraša ( Ephrem Syrus), …

Elishē

(118 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ełišē). Author of a history of the Vardanids and the Armenian wars in the Armenian language, describing the uprising of the Armenian people under the leadership of Vardan Mamikonyan against the Sassanid occupation forces in AD 450/1. However, E. did not himself witness the historical events which he describes, but is likely to have lived in the 6th cent. AD. It was his aim to provide a martyrological anchor for the foundation of the Armenian church.  Armenia;  Armenians, Armenian literature;  Sassanids Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography E. Ter-Minassjan, Va…

Syntomon

(90 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (σύντομον; sýntomon). As a specimen of Byzantine liturgical poetry the s. lies between the kontákion and the kanṓn [2], but without having achieved their popularity. In the liturgy of the Orthodox Church its four to nine strophes are inserted between the verses of psalms, and for this reason a s. is also called a stichērón (στιχηρόν). Presumably it can be traced to the poet and hymnographer Kyprianos (1st half of the 8th cent.). Hymn IV. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Szövérffy, A Guide to Byzantine Hymnography ..., 1979.

Eutherius

(221 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Εὐθήριος; Euthḗrios). [German version] [1] Slave at the court of Constantine I An Armenian pagan eunuch, who had come to the court of Constantine I as a slave, later served under Constans, and under Julian rose to praepositus sacri cubiculi (AD 356-360). In Milan in 356/7, E. appeared before Constantius II to defend Julian against Marcellus' accusations (Amm. Marc. 16,7,2f.); after Julian had been made Augustus in 360, he became his envoy with Constantius (Amm. Marc. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); In 361, Julian recalled him once ag…

Euthymius I of Constantinople

(143 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐθύμιος; Euthýmidos) I of Constantinople (b. c. AD 834 in  Seleucia, d. 917). After a period as monk on the Bithynian  Olympus, he transferred to the monastery of St. Theodorus outside Constantinople. As the father confessor of Emperor  Leo VI, he became abbot of the monastery of Psamathias, which the emperor had built for him specifically. After the deposition of the patriarch of Constantinople,  Nicolaus I Mysticus, he assumed that office; in agreement with the other patriarchs and …

Theodosiopolis

(286 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοδοσιόπολις/ Theodosiópolis, Θεοδοσιούπολις/ Theodosioúpolis). [German version] [1] Modern Ras al-Ain, Syria T. in Osroene (in northern Mesopotamia), according to Procop. BP 2,19,29 (cf. Aed. 2,2,16) on the Ḫabur about 40 miles (= 60 km) from Dara, the village of Resaeina (= Ras al-Ain at the source of the Ḫabur) elevated c. AD 383 by Theodosius [2] I to a city (Malalas 13,40 p. 345 Dindorf). Iustinianus [1] I further increased the fortification of T., which was situated at the end of the Byzantine Limes (VI. C.), with forts (Procop. A…

Gennadius

(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Anthimus

(238 words)

Author(s): Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Ἀνθίμος; Anthímos). [German version] [1] Greek doctor Greek doctor who soon after AD 511 wrote a brief Latin treatise in letter form about dietetics, De observatione ciborum ad Theodoricum regem Francorum epistula. As a medical treatise and book of remedies, the work offered a description of the dietary customs of a Germanic tribe. It is written in a language associated with one of the colloquial languages of the people of his time, and his region (vulgar Latin). Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) Bibliography Ed.: E. Liechtenhan, 1963 (CML VIII 1). [German version] [2] Bishop of Trap…

Chronicon paschale

(172 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτομὴ χρόνων; Epitomè chrónōn). The chronicon paschale (also chronicon Alexandrinum, chronicon Constantinopolitanum, Fasti Siculi, according to where the particular codex was discovered) was written by a cleric between 631 and 641 at the instigation of the patriarch  Sergius. In its introduction, the ‘Easter Chronicle contains explanations of the Easter cycle. The chronology originally went from Adam to the year 629, but the record breaks off after 628. The chronicler is an eyewitness to ev…

Armenia

(707 words)

Author(s): Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A. Hellenism and Roman era The highlands south and south-west of the Caucasus. Main river is the  Araxes (today Aras). Northern border river Cyrus (today Kura), also upper reaches and tributaries of Tigris and Euphrates. Lakes: Lichnitis (today Sevan), Thospitis (today Van) and Matianus (Urmia). Holy mountain  Baris (5165 m, today Ararat), preserves the pre-classical name of Urartu of a state with Hurrite population, who under Persian rule became part of the Haikh (= Armenians). The Indo-European language was similar to Phry…

Philoponus, Iohannes

(755 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton)
(Φιλόπονος/ Philóponos, 'the industrious'; also called Γραμματικός/ Grammatikós, 'the teacher'). [German version] I. Life P. was a Christian polymath who lived in Alexandria [1] around AD 490-575 and was a disciple of Ammonius [12]. His cognomen may have been inspired by his enthusiasm for his work or by his membership in the brotherhood of the philóponoi (φιλόπονοι). He was sharply criticized for his Christian faith by the Neoplatonist scholar Simplicius, a member of the Academy in Athens, after Emperor Justinian [1] had closed that institution in …

Antonius

(5,913 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Ἀντώνιος; Antṓnios). [German version] [1] Thallus Epigrammatic poet, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Epigrammatic poet from Miletus (according to [2] he had received Roman citizenship, through the patronage of Antonia Minor) lived in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 the birth of a Καῖσαρ [ Kaîsar] is celebrated, who is to be equated with either C. Julius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, or with Germanicus). His five epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, are certainly conventional in their…

Armenians, Armenian literature

(347 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] The A. refer to themselves as hayk', while the term A. is used by the Persians (Behistun inscription) and the Greeks (Herodotus and Xenophon). In the 6th cent. BC, the A. immigrated and intermixed with the autochthonous Urartians. After enduring Median, Persian, Macedonian and Seleucid domination, the A. King Artashes won the fight for independence in AD 189. Following the Christianization of the country, Armenian literature (AL) emerged in the early 5th cent., with Maštoc's ( Mesrop in…

Theophylactus

(509 words)

Author(s): Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοφύλακτος; Theophýlaktos). [German version] [1] T. Simocatta Byzantine historian, 7th cent. (Θ. Σιμοκάτης; Th. Simokátēs). Byzantine historian, born in Egypt, jurist and high official in Constantinople under the emperor Heraclius [7] (610-641). The family name Simokates is not recorded prior to the Suda, the spelling with -tt- is modern. Author of a 'General History' (οἰκουμενικὴ ἱστορία/ oikoumenikḕ historía, 8 bks), designed as a continuation of Menander [13] Protector, on the reign of the emperor Mauricius (582-602) with a look back to the time …

Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …

Šīrīn

(66 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) [German version] [1] Persian martyr, died in 599 (Σιρή; Sirḗ). Persian martyr, died 559 AD. S. was the daughter of a respected Persian magus, who after her conversion to Christianity was publicly executed by hanging under the Persian king Chosroes [5] I. Bibliography P. Devos, Saint Šīrīn Martyr Khosrau Ier Avrošarvan, in: Analecta Bollandiana 64, 1946, 87-131. [German version] [2] see Schirin See Shirin.

Faustus

(805 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Supposedly an ancient Latin praenomen (Liber de praenominibus 4), but historically only attested (with meaning ‘The Fortunate’) for F. Cornelius [I 87] Sulla, the son of the dictator Sulla and his descendants ( Cornelius [II 57] and [II 60]). Epithet of the Anicii ( Anicius [II 2-6]); also a favourite name for slaves. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Anicius Acilius Glabrio F. Consul AD 438 Scion of the most important late Roman senatorial family who became praefectus urbi Romae three times under Honorius and Valentinian III, in AD 437/8 and 442 praefectus praetorio…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Paphnutius

(126 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] (Παφνούτιος; Paphnoútios), died around AD 360. According to Socrates [9] (Hist. eccl. 1,11), P. attended the first Council of Nicaea [5] (AD 325) as bishop of Upper Thebias. During the persecution of Christians, perhaps under Maximinus [1] Daia, he lost an eye. He was held in high regard by emperor Constantinus [1] and considered an ecclesiastical authority because of his strict monastic lifestyle. It is uncertain whether remarks attributed to him by Socrates ( loc. cit.) regarding the celibacy of priests (retention of clerical marriages entered into pri…

Bethania

(273 words)

Author(s): Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Village on the Mount of Olives near Jerusalem (Βηθανία; Bēthanía; Anānyā, Neh 11,32, or Bēt Aniyyā, ‘house of the poor’). Village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, 15 stades (John 11,18) or two miles (Eus. On. 58) from Jerusalem (ruins of settlement 5th cent. BC -- 14th cent. AD). Place where Jesus was anointed by the sinner (Mark 14,3; Matt. 26,6; John 12,1), home of Mary and Martha, and place where Lazarus was raised from the dead (John 11,1), hence in late antiquity Lazarion, today al-āzarı̄ya, ‘Lazarus(village)’. A chamber tomb in a cliff s…

Abdias

(125 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] A collection of apocryphal acts of the Apostles in Latin ( Historia Certaminis Apostolici or Historiae Apostolicae) frequently used in the MA, is attributed to A., supposedly the first bishop of  Babylon and a contemporary of  Origenes. It consists of 10 books purportedly compiled in Hebrew by A. and then translated by  Eutropius into Greek and by Julius, who was known to write in Greek, into Latin. However, the collection presupposes  Rufinus' History and must have been created in the 6th-7th cents.  Apocrypha Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography W. Smith and H. …
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