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Church

(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in t…

Sutel, Johann

(177 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (1504, Altmorschen, near Melsungen – Aug 26, 1575, Northeim). After receiving a master’s degree at Erfurt, he became rector of the Latin school in Melsungen, for which ordination was not required. In 1530 the city council of Göttingen appointed him pastor of Sankt Nikolai and commissioned him to introduce the Reformation into the city; in 1535 he became superintendent and pastor of the Johanniskirche. Upon his inquiry, Luther advised him against a belated ordination (letter of Mar 1, 1542). In 1542 Philip of ¶ Hesse called him to introduce the Reformation in Schw…

Oldenburg

(1,568 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] I. Territory – II. History – III. Statistics I. Territory The territory of Oldenburg was absorbed in 1946 into the Land of Lower Saxony, but within the structures of the Protestant and Catholic churches, it retains more or less the boundaries of the duchy of Oldenburg determined by the Congress of Vienna (Vienna, Congress of), comprising the administrative districts of Friesland, Wesermarsch, Ammerland, Oldenburg, Cloppenburg, and Vechta, and the independent cities of Wilhelmshaven, Oldenburg, and Delmenhorst. II. History 1. Middle Ages. At the behest of Char…

Marriage

(10,960 words)

Author(s): Nehring, Andreas | Otto, Eckart | Deming, Willoughby Howard | Schäfer, Rolf | Nave-Herz, Rosemarie | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Sociology – VI. Systematic Theology – VII. Law – VIII. Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies The term marriage denotes a relationship entered into between two or more persons of different sex, ritually formalized, intended to be permanent, and recognized by society. In all cultures, definitions of economic and sexual rights and the conveyance of social status to children (Child/Childhood) are part of the socially ¶ defined framework of marriage…

Communio sanctorum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] The expression communio sanctorum, an explanatory addition to “the holy church” in the Apostles' Creed, first appears in the context of pre-baptismal instruction in the catechetical sermon De symbolo of Bishop Nicetas of Remesiana. It soon came into widespread use, especially in Gaul. It may be interpreted as a reference to the sanctorum omnium congregatio (Nicetas), to those who have achieved perfection (in the context of veneration of the saints), or to participation in the sacraments. Luther recognized communio sanctorum as a gloss clarifying the signific…

Hammarskjöld, Dag

(160 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1905, Jönköping, Sweden – Sep 17, 1961, near Ndola, Zambia), first held high government offices in Sweden. In 1953, he was appointed secretary-general of the UN. His negotiation skills enabled him to mediate in numerous conflicts. When he attempted to arbitrate in the Congo crisis, he died in an unexplained airplane crash. In 1961, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize posthumously. During his lifetime, he was known to have only a general interest in religion. After his death, however – in express accordance with his will – his spiritual diary Vägmarken (1963; ET: Ma…

Sacredness and Sinfulness of the Church

(386 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[German Version] The sacredness (or holiness) of the church is stated in principle in Eph 5:27: Christ sanctifies the church by cleansing it with the washing of water; it is then “holy” ( hágia, sancta) and without blemish, i.e. sinless. The creeds adopted the predicate of holiness as one of the essential marks of the church (BSLK 24). In the course of time, the sense of the church’s holiness was extended from moral spotlessness to include purity from heretical doctrine (sixth Synod of Toledo, 638; DH 493). For the faithful, mem…

Communio

(2,855 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf | Thompson, J. Michael | Aymans, Winfried
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Liturgy – III. Music – IV. Canon Law I. Dogmatics In the Vulgate, the Latin term communio, along with the more frequent translations communicatio and societas, renders the New Testament word κοινωνία ( koinōnía). It gained ecclesiological content primarily through the Apostles' Creed, which adopted Augustine's description of the church as the communio sanctorum including not only the elect, but also the angels. The communio evidenced in the NT as participation in the benefits of salvation in worship became the startin…

Fundamental Theology

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf | Phillips, Craig A.
1. Concept “Fundamental theology” is a comprehensive term used to describe reflection that is basic to theology as a whole. The term has been used in a variety of ways, and the shape and scope of this theology often depend on the specific theological conception or issue under discussion at the time. Some theologians employ the term “foundational theology” and “philosophical theology” interchangeably with “fundamental theology,” while others make a distinction between these terms. Fundamental theol…

Oldenburg (Land)

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[English Version] I. Territorium Das Land O. ging zwar als Staat 1946 im Bundesland Niedersachsen auf, bewahrt aber in den Grenzen der ev. und der kath. Kirche ziemlich genau den Umfang, den das »Herzogtum« O. durch den Wiener Kongreß angenommen hatte mit den Landkreisen Friesland, Wesermarsch, Ammerland, O., Cloppenburg und Vechta sowie den kreisfreien Städten Wilhelmshaven, O. und Delmenhorst. II. 1.Geschichte Mittelalter. Beauftragt durch Karl den Großen begann der angelsächsische Priester Willehad um 780, im Gebiet der Wesermündung den Sachsen und F…

Sutel

(159 words)

Author(s): Schäfer, Rolf
[English Version] Sutel, Johann (1504 Altmorschen bei Melsungen – 26.8.1575 Northeim), bekleidete nach dem Studium in Erfurt als Magister ein Schulamt in Melsungen, für das er keine Priesterweihe benötigte. 1530 berief ihn der Rat der Stadt Göttingen als Pfarrer an St. Nikolai und beauftragte ihn mit der Durchführung der Reformation der Stadt (1535 Stadtsuperintendent an St. Johannis). Auf seine Anfrage hin riet ihm Luther (Brief vom 1.3.1531) von einer nachträglichen Ordination ab. Philipp von Hes…