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Ambiani

(108 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Coastal people in  Gallia Belgica in modern Picardy, main town was  Samarobriva; participated in the Gallic coalitions against  Caesar of 57 and 52 BC, were finally subjugated in 51 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 7,75,1-3; 8,7,3-4). Their settlement areas between the  Bellovaci in the south and  Morini in the north (Ptol. 2,9,4) encompassed the Somme basin, bordered in the north by the Canche, in the north-east and south-east by the Somme watershed; the Catuslougi [1] documented on the southern border, the Bresle valley, were considered as   pagus of the A. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Bratuspantium

(63 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Oppidum of the  Bellovaci, mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 2,13, localization uncertain. It is a matter of dispute whether it was a settlement on the same location as -- and preceding -- the capital of the civitas  Caesaromagus, or whether is was a Celtic settlement in a completely different location (Bailleul sur Thérain, Breteuil sur Noye). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Argentorate

(155 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Raeti, Raetia Modern Strasbourg, epigraphically first mentioned at the time of Vespasian (CIL XIII 9082). A smaller military installation from the Augustan period was replaced by a legionary fortress following  Varus' defeat in AD 9, where the   legio II was garrisoned until  Claudius' invasion of Britain in AD 43. After use by detachments from other units, recent archaeological research points to A.'s use once again as a permanent garri…

Tervanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Civitas, capital of the Morini (Tab. Peut. 2,2;  It. Ant. 376; 378 f.: Tarvenna; Ptol. 2,9,8: Ταρουάννα/ Tarouánna), which developed at a ford across the Leie/Lys from a river island to the northern bank. Archaeological finds remain lacking, since the vieille ville was razed in 1553 at the behest of Charles V; the modern town of Thérouanne (in the département of Pas-de-Calais) is farther to the south. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography R. Delmaire, Notes sur l'évolution urbaine de Thérouanne, in: Rev. archéologique de Picardie 1984, 223-228  Id. et al., Le Pa…

Mosa

(431 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River, present-day R. Maas River, modern name Maas, which rises in Germania superior in the land of the Lingones, on the plateau of Langres (differently Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: in the Vosges), then flows northwards through Belgica, cuts through the Ardennes shortly before Germania inferior and arrives at the Mare Germanicum in the land of the Batavi. The apparently contradictory information from classical authors, as to whether the M. flowed directly into the sea (Plin. HN. 4,100f.; Ptol. 2,9,3) or via the left arm of the Rhine, the Waal, (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,1: Vacalus; …

Beda

(111 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Today's Bitburg, vicus located on a naturally elevated site along the Roman road Augusta Treverorum -- Colonia (It. Ant. 372,4), centre of the Treverian pagus of the Bedenses. Inscriptions indicate that B. sported a lively theatre (CIL XIII 4132; BRGK 40, 1959, 125,8) and activities of   iuniores (CIL XIII 4131). After B.'s destruction around AD 275/6, it was newly built in the 4th cent. as a military fort with oval surrounding walls (two hectares) and was i…

Durocortorum

(572 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Limes | Limes | Rome | Batavian Revolt Capital of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Remi; modern Reims, on the northern edge of Champagne (Ptol. 2,9,6; 8,5,6); whether it should be identified with the centre of the autonomous Remi (Caes. Gall. 6,44) remains an open question. After sporadic settlement since the end of the Hallstatt period it expanded during La Tène III. In the course of the 1st cent. BC an oppidum arose, c. 90 ha. in area, with a massive earth rampart and ditch and surrounded by a second co…

Lacus Lemanus

(161 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Largest of the Alpine lakes (581 km2), modern Lake Geneva. Documented by Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 8,1; 3,1,1; Str. 4,1,11; 6,6; 11; Luc. 1,396; Mela 2,74; 79; Plin. HN 2,224; 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2; Amm. Marc. 15,11,16. It. Ant. 348,2: lacus Lausonius; Tab. Peut. 3,2: lacus Losanenses. It was the border between Gallia Belgica or Germania superior and Gallia Narbonensis and thus separated the Helvetii in the north from the Allobroges in the south. In Genava harbour installations have been established through dendrochronological methods for the…

Triboci

(256 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Lower Alsace, who arrived in Gaul with Ariovistus in 58 BC and settled among the Mediomatrici around Brocomagus (modern Brumath) and Haguenau [1]. Their neighbours to the north were the Nemetes, to the west the Mediomatrici, to the south or southwest the Rauraci and the Leuci. When the T. became settled is unclear. The depictions in Caes. B Gall. 4,10 and  Str. 4,3,4 (Τρίβοκχοι/ Tríbokchoi) probably correspond only to circumstances around the middle of the 1st cent. BC ([2. 27-30]; later: [3]). In AD 70 the T. took part in the Treveri …

Vertunum

(374 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus, name only mediaeval, in the western part of the civitas Treverorum (Belgium, province of Luxemburg, Treveri), at the point where the Rivers Ton and Vire meet. V. developed as a centre on the right bank of the Ton, which gradually rises to a height of 20 m (modern Vieux-Virton) and ultimately merges into the Majeroux plateau; also on the left side in the narrow floor of the Vire valley, where a trade quarter (modern Saint-Mard) developed. V. lay on an old, presumably pre-Roman, ro…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Helellum

(170 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Tab. Peut. 3,4; Alaia, Geogr. Rav. 26). Roman vicus of the Triboci in Upper Alsace (not identical to  Helvetum) on the Argentovaria-Argentoratum route at the crossing of the Ill near modern Ehl-Benfeld, Département Bas-Rhin [1]; a late La Tène period settlement was followed in the late Augustan period by the Gallo-Roman vicus that ultimately developed c. 100 m on both sides of the main road over a length of c. 1,000 m. A necropolis (3rd/4th cents. AD) is located south of H. Despite the minor artisan businesses, H. was primarily a trading centre. The vicus, which was also …

Suessiones

(164 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐέσσονες/ Ouéssones, Ptol. 2,9,11). People in Gallia Belgica in the particularly fertile modern Soissonais (departement of Aisne/Oise). With the Remi to the east, the S. formed a cultural identity, linked by the same law, the same magistrates and a unified commander-in-chief (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,4 f.). In about 80 BC, Diviciacus [1] gained supremacy as far as the southeast of Britain. When Caesar invaded in 58/7 BC, the state unity of the S. and the pro-Roman Remi disintegrated. Th…

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vosegus-Agri Decumates crossed here (It. Ant. 354,6; Tab. Peut. 3,3). There are traces of settlements dating to the Bronze Age; a Celtic oppidum from the pre-Roman era is …

Scaldis

(202 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 6,33; Plin. HN 4,98; 105; Geogr. Rav. 263,6: Scaldea; Ptol. 2,9,3; 9: Ταβούλλα/ Taboúlla), modern Schelde (in French Escaut). It rises on Mont Saint Martin near Augusta Viromanduorum (modern Saint Quentin in the department of Oise), flows through Camaracum (modern Cambrai) and Turnacum (modern Tournai) and separates the civitates of the Atrebates [1] and the Menapii on its left bank from that of the Nervii on its right bank. In the region near its mouth (Plin. loc. cit.), which was settled by Ge…

Mosomagus

(104 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (‘Market on the Mosa’), present-day Mouzon (Dépt. Ardennes); town on the road from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum, between the civitates of the Remi and the Treveri on an island between two arms of the Mosa [1]. It was a significant  trading centre especially from the 2nd cent. AD. A fortification dating from Late Antiquity has been archaeologically authenticated. Musmagenses under a magister equitum inter Gallias  are documented (Not. Dign. Occ. 7,105); Merovingian coins mention Mosomo castri. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography J.-P. Levant, Mouzon…

Bellovaci

(109 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica (Picardy region) south of the Ambiani in the Thérain valley (Ptol. 2,9,4; Str. 4,3,5). Beauvais ( Caesaromagus), once the capital of the civitas, and the surrounding Beauvaisis owe their names to the B. This mightiest tribe of the  Belgae was defeated by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,5; 2,13-15). They were hesitant participants in the revolt led by  Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75), but in the following year, they organized resistance against Rome (Caes. B Gall. 8,6…

Belgae

(762 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
(Βελγικοί; Belgikoí: Cass. Dio 39,1; 40,42; Βέλγαι; Bélgai: Str. 4,1,1). [German version] A. Origins According to Caesar's division of Gallia into three population groups (Caes. B Gall. 1,1), the B. were the one settling between the Seine, Marne, North Sea and Rhine; their southern spread is not specified. Little can be said with certainty about the origins of the B. At the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, tribal groups, presumably from Jutland and the Baltic region, invaded this region (Mela 3,36; 57; Amm. Ma…

Scarponna

(270 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman bridge station, modern Scarponne near Dieulouard in the département of Meurthe et Meuse, on a route from the Rhodanus (Rhone) to the Rhenus (Rhine) between Divodurum (modern Metz) and Tullum (modern Toul), where the Roman road crossed the four branches of the Mosella on bridges (It. Ant. 365,5; Tab. Peut. 3,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Scarbonna; CIL XIII 9050). The beginning of the Gallo-Roman vicus of the civitas of the Mediomatrici (no traces of pre-Roman settlement) can be viewed in the context of the extension of the traffic network at the beg…

Iura

(221 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 1,6,1; 1,8,1; Iurensis, Iorensis, Sidon. Apoll. Epist. 4,25,5; Greg. Tur. vit. patr. 1; Iures, Plin. HN 3,31; 4,105; 16,197; Ἰόρας/ Ióras, Ἰουράσιος/ Iourásios, Str. 4,3,4; 4,6,11; Ἰουρασσός/ Iourassós, Ptol. 2,9,2; 2,9,10). Mountain chain, c. 250 km long and up to 70 km wide, stretching in an arch shape from the Rhône at the Lac du Bourget, in a northerly/north-easterly direction to Baden in Switzerland. According to Caesar and Strabo, it formed the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani…

Catalauni

(78 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A tribal group of Gallia Belgica, who probably originally settled in the area of the Remi, in the modern Champagne. Its name and its capital of the same name, modern Châlon-sur-Marne, are only mentioned by later authors (Amm. Marc. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 274; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: It. Ant. 361). The  Catuvellauni, who migrated to southern Britannia, are probably part of the same tribal group.  Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Tullum

(184 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τούλλιον/ Toúllion). Civitas capital of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica on the left bank of the Moselle River (Mosella) on an elevation surrounded by branches of the Ingressin brook, before its confluence with the Moselle; modern Toul ( département of Meurthe et Moselle). An important hub for water and land routes (It. Ant. 365,4; 385,10; AE 1975, 634). Despite good geographical conditions for transport, T. was overshadowed by other cities and civitas capitals. Only in the 5th cent. was it of particular significance (Notitia Galliarum 5,4; Geogr. Rav 4,26). Apart from the c…

Nervii

(566 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people in Gallia Belgica; their territory encompassed parts of the modern Belgian provinces of Hainault, Brabant and East Flanders and the French Département Nord. The northwestern and western border with the Menapii and Atrebates [1] followed the Scaldis (Scheldt) from its estuary to its source; the southern border with the Remi ran from there in a direct line, probably identical with the contour of the Thiérache forest, to the source of the Isara [2]. The eastern border with t…

Sequani

(512 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοανοί/ Sēkoanoí, Σηκουανοί/ Sēkouanoí). A Celtic people, ethnically and culturally related to the north and east Gallic tribes, who in the Prehistoric Period presumably lived on the Sequana [1] (Seine) first, later in present-day Franche-Comté. In the mid 1st cent. BC, the rule of king Catamantaloedes was succeeded by an aristocratic regime (Caes. B Gall. 1,3,4). The S. called the Germani into their country against the Haedui and were forced to cede to them large parts of their t…

Pleumoxii

(56 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of Gallia Belgica, mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 in the context of the events of the winter of 54/3 BC, who were in a relationship of dependence on their immediate neighbours the Nervii. Their homelands were probably in Brabant or in the Belgian province of Namur. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Gesoriacum

(523 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Batavian Revolt Harbour city of the Morini in Gallia Belgica, modern Boulogne-sur-mer, also attested as Bononia. Both names, which were used contemporaneously (Flor. Epit. 2,30), actually refer only to parts of the site. According to the traditional view, G. is the lower part of the city, while Bononia is the upper part (contrary [1. 63]). During his stay in AD 4, Tiberius called the place Bononia (ILS 9463); thereafter, unt…

Samarobriva

(526 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul Principal town of the civitas of the Ambiani, Late Antique Ambianis, modern Amiens (Dépt. Somme) at a crossing ( -briva) over the Samara (Caes. B Gall. 5,24,1; 47,2; 53,3; Cic. Fam. 7,11,2; 12,1,16; Tab. Peut. 2,3; CIL XIII 3490; Notae Tironianae 73 Zangenmeister; Honorius, Cosmographia 36 B1 Riese; in Ptol. 2,9,4 alternatively: Σαμαρόβριγα/ Samaróbriga; ILS 5839; It. Ant. 379,9 f.; 380,1: Samarabriva). No evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement has been found [1]. Its geographical charact…

Toxandria

(103 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Region (Amm. Marc. 17,8,3) in the modern provinces of Noord-Brabant, Antwerpen and Limburg, in the Middle Ages the earldom of Teisterbant. The population (Texuandri: Plin. HN 4,106; ILS 2556; CIL III, 6239; 14214) consisted of different groups, among them Germanic peoples which gathered in the former settlement area of the Eburones. The Salii [1], who settled in T. in Late Antiquity, were defeated in AD 358 by Iulianus [11], but may have remained in the country and made T. the starting point for their expansion in the 4th and 5th cents. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliograp…

Arduenna

(55 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Wooded mountains in  Gallia; exact location and extent unclear even in antiquity (Str. 4,3,5; Tac. Ann. 3,42). They centred on the modern Eifel and Ardennes, but evidently extended to the north-west over the hills of Artois to the territory of the  Atrebates and  Morini on the English Channel. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Tungri

(471 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τοῦγγροι/ Toûngroi). A tribe in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 358,15; Ptol. 2,9,9) that had not yet appeared at the time of Caesar's capture of Gallia. At the time, the Germani [2] Cisrhenani were settling between the Scaldis (Schelde) and the Rhenus [2] (Rhine) under the hegemony of the Eburones. After the defeat inflicted upon the latter by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 6,5; 6,29-34; 8,24 f.), the entire political structure of the Germani Cisrhenani was dissolved in accordance with Roman policy. In the Augustan Period, the civitas of the T. was founded in the western area …

Scaldis Pons

(48 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman station on the Turnacum-Bagacum road at a bridge over the river Scaldis, which formed the boundary between the Menapii and the Nervii (It. Ant. 376,8; Tab. Peut. 2,3). Cf. the modern place name Escau(t)pont (in the département du Nord). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Mediomatrici

(467 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica; capital of their civitas was Divodurum (modern Metz). Their territory in modern Lorraine comprised the upper basins of the rivers Maas, Moselle and Saar (Str. 4,3,4; Ptol. 2,9,7), and originally extended eastwards as far as the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,3; Str. l.c.). It is unlikely they participated in the Gallic War ( Caesar). In 52 BC they sent 5000 men to support Vercingetorix who was besieged in Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3); they had to cede their territori…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Orolaunum

(271 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Present-day Arlon-Arel (Belgium, province of Luxembourg), vicus of the civitas of the Treveri, probably the main town of one of their pagi . It was built by the sources of the Semois at the crossing point of the important major roads from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum (Itin. Anton. 366,2; [1]) and from Divodurum to Aduatuca. In view of the threat from barbarians the settlement was transferred to the northern hill town (present-day St. Donat) at the end of the 3rd/beginning o…

Levaci

(52 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] In Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 a people of Gallia Belgica - mentioned in the context of the events of the winter of 54/53 BC - who were immediate neighbours of the Nervii, with whom they had a relationship of dependence; cannot be localized more precisely. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Bagacum

(319 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes Modern Bavai, capital ( civitas) of the  Nervii, in the French Département Nord not far off the Belgian border. The Celtic place name as well as some scanty finds from the Latène period hint at the possibility that a modest pre-Roman settlement existed. However, B. is a Roman foundation, and has to be seen in the context of Agrippa's road building programme for the reorganization of Gaul (20/19 BC). At this junction of the links with Durocort…

Leuci

(159 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Gallia Belgica between Matrona and Mosella, north-west of the Sequani, south-west of the Mediomatrici; their territory extended in the east and the south-east up to the Vosges (Caes. B Gall. 2,14; Tac. Hist. 1,64; Ptol. 2,9,13; Plin. HN 4,106; Luc. 1,242); civitas/capital was Tullum. A spring and healing cult has been attested with the L. - either in the form of Apollo worship (Graux, Malaincourt) or the Celtic Apollo Grannus (Tullum, Nasium, Grand) [1] or a nameless deity (Laneuveville) [2]. According to Claudi…

Vosegus

(335 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] The uplands which extend over some 200 km in eastern France (Caes. B Gall. 4,10; Luc. 1,397; Plin. HN 16,197; Vibius Sequester 145,16 Riese; Vosagus: Tab. Peut. 3,2-4; Ven. Fort. 7,4; Greg. Tur. Franc. 10,10), modern Vosges Mountains, form in the east the western edge of the Upper Rhine lowlands and in the west cross into the Lorraine plateau and the Monts Faucilles, in the north continue in the Palatinate Forest and in the south descend towards the Burgundy Gate. The V. is considered to be the boundary…

Turnacum

(393 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Modern Tournai/Doornik in the Belgian province of Hainault. Gallo-Roman vicus on both banks of the Scaldis (Scheldt) in the border region between the Menapii and Nervii, a node on the route from Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-mer) to Bagacum (modern Bavai: Tab. Peut. 2,3;  It. Ant. 367,7), from which roads lead to Castellum (modern Cassel; It. Ant. 377,5) and Tervanna (ibid. 378,11). There is evidence of traces of settlement as early as the Iron Age, the Gallo-Roman presence i…

Sequana

(426 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοάνας/ Sēkoánas, Σηκουανός/ Sēkouanós), modern Seine. River in Gallia (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,2; Mela 3,2,20; Plin. HN 4,105; 109; Amm. Marc. 15,11,3; Str. 4,1,14; 3,2-5; 4,1; 5,2; Ptol. 2,8,2; 9,1; Cass. Dio 40,38,4) rising - contrary to Str. 4,3,2 - not in the Alps but on the plateau of Langres, then flowing through the Paris Basin and, meandering strongly from Iuliobona (present-day Lillebonne) and broadening into an estuary, arriving at the mare Britannicum (present-day English Channel). According to literary tradition, the S. formed an ethnic bord…

Virodunum

(233 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in Gallia Belgica in the territory of the Mediomatrici (It. Ant. 364,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,68; Not. Galliarum 5,4: Verodunum; various forms of the name in Greg. Tur. Franc. passim) on a spur between the Mosa [1] (Meuse) and its tributary, modern Scanne, at a crossing of the Durocortorum-Divodurum road with regional roads, modern Verdun in the département of Meuse. A Celtic oppidum cannot archaeologically be ascertained, the Imperial period topography is largely unknown ( macellum in Rue de Mazel?); already by the middle of th…

Nasium

(249 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] City of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 365,3; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Νάσιον/ Násion, Ptol. 2,9,13) between the rivers Mosella and Matrona [2] in the region of the present-day communities of Naix-aux-Forge and Saint-Amand-sur-Ornain. The Gallo-Roman city, located in the Ornain valley, succeeded a Celtic oppidum (52 ha) situated on the neighbouring hill of Boviolles. N. is located on the military road leading from Durocortorum to Tullum and Divodurum (Tab. Peut. l.c.; It. Ant. l.c.), but its importance in transportation is prim…

Dubis

(40 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia, modern Doubs, rises in the French Jura, crosses the territory of the Sequani and flows into the  Arar at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (Caes. B Gall. 1,38; Str. 4,1,11; 14; 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,10,3). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Solicia

(143 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Place in Gallia Belgica, modern Soulosse-sous-Saint-Élophe, on the road from the Rhodanus to the Rhenus between Andematunnum and Tullum (modern Toul) in the territory of the Leuci (It. Ant. 358,9; CIL XIII 4679); another name was Solimariaca, derived from a deity Solima or Solimara (It. Ant. 385,8; CIL XIII 4681; 4683). Inscriptions provide information on trade and industry (CIL XIII 4678-4703; [1. 4845-4890; 2]). In the 4th century AD a castrum was built on the Saint Élophe hill. In the Carolingian period S. was the main town of the Pagus Solocensis. Schön, Franz (Reg…

Menapii

(483 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of the North Sea coast of what is now Flanders, originally also north of the Rhine delta (Caes. B Gall. 4,4,2; Strab. 4,3,4). In 56/5 BC, the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri crossed the Rhine, driving the M. out of their homelands on the right bank of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,4). The frontier of the C ivitas Menapiorum formed after their subjugation by Rome in 53 BC (stages of conquest 58 BC, Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 56 BC, Caes. B Gall. 3,9,10; 3,28f.; Cass. Dio 39,44; 55 BC, Caes. Gall. 4,22,5; 38,3; 53 BC, Caes. Gall. 6,5,6) ran al…

Titelberg

(460 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic oppidum in the western area of the Treveri near Pétange (Luxembourg) on the southern edge of the Ardenne mountains, c. 100 m above the valley of the Chier (a side arm of the Meuse), situated on a rocky ledge which served as the settlement area (43 ha). From the 1st half of the 1st cent. BC, the area was secured along the edges of the cliff with a fortification wall (2700 m) and with a barrier in the shape of a murus Gallicus at the narrowest connection to the plateau behind it, later with a 'Belgian type' wall. Two gates connected by…

Itium, Itius portus

(162 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Promontory and port of the Morini in Gallia  Belgica, starting-point of Caesar's fleet for the expeditions to Britain (Caes. B Gall. 4,21-23; 5,2). Caesar only mentions I. in the context of his second expedition of 54 BC; τὸ Ἴτιον in Str. 4,5,2 refers to the operation of the preceding year. The promontory (Ἴτιον ἄκρον, Ptol. 2,9,1) is to be located near Cap Gris-Nez rather than near Cap d'Albrech. Of the numerous theories regarding the exact location of this port (e.g. in Flanders…

Contionacum

(79 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A palace complex was developed at Konz bei Trier, above the point where the Saar joins the Moselle, in the middle of the 4th cent. AD and used as a palace until the early 5th cent.; identified as the summer palace C. where Valentinianus I issued several decrees in AD 371 (Cod. Theod. 2,4,3; 4,6,4; 9,3,5; 11,1,17); Auson. Mos. in 369 probably also refers to C. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography A. Neyses, Die spätröm. Kaiservilla von Konz, 1987.

Dalheim

(167 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, possibly identical with Ricciacus (Tab. Peut.); Indications of a late La Tène period settlement ( c. 1st cent. BC). It was refounded as a road-station ( mansio) during the construction of the Metz-Trier road in the Augustan period [1]. After the uprising of the Treveri in AD 69/70 the town developed into the economic and particularly religious centre of the region (CIL 13,1,2 p. 635-638) [2; 3]; in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. it was devastated by invasions of German…
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