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Virodunum

(233 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in Gallia Belgica in the territory of the Mediomatrici (It. Ant. 364,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,68; Not. Galliarum 5,4: Verodunum; various forms of the name in Greg. Tur. Franc. passim) on a spur between the Mosa [1] (Meuse) and its tributary, modern Scanne, at a crossing of the Durocortorum-Divodurum road with regional roads, modern Verdun in the département of Meuse. A Celtic oppidum cannot archaeologically be ascertained, the Imperial period topography is largely unknown ( macellum in Rue de Mazel?); already by the middle of th…

Nasium

(249 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] City of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 365,3; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Νάσιον/ Násion, Ptol. 2,9,13) between the rivers Mosella and Matrona [2] in the region of the present-day communities of Naix-aux-Forge and Saint-Amand-sur-Ornain. The Gallo-Roman city, located in the Ornain valley, succeeded a Celtic oppidum (52 ha) situated on the neighbouring hill of Boviolles. N. is located on the military road leading from Durocortorum to Tullum and Divodurum (Tab. Peut. l.c.; It. Ant. l.c.), but its importance in transportation is prim…

Pannonia

(1,883 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Up to subjugation by Rome Region and Roman province to the north and east of the Danube (Ister [2]), bordered in the south by the region south of the Savus; the western border ran west of the line between Vindobona, Poetovio and Emona, now the western part of Hungary, the Slovakian territory around Gerulata, the Austrian around the Viennese Basin and Burgenland, as well as the northern strip of Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia. The country was named after its original inhabitants (Παννόνιοι/ Pannónioi, cf. Str. 7,5,2; Παίονες/ Paíones, cf. 1,1,10). This lllyrian group…

Dubis

(40 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia, modern Doubs, rises in the French Jura, crosses the territory of the Sequani and flows into the  Arar at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (Caes. B Gall. 1,38; Str. 4,1,11; 14; 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,10,3). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Triboci

(256 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Lower Alsace, who arrived in Gaul with Ariovistus in 58 BC and settled among the Mediomatrici around Brocomagus (modern Brumath) and Haguenau [1]. Their neighbours to the north were the Nemetes, to the west the Mediomatrici, to the south or southwest the Rauraci and the Leuci. When the T. became settled is unclear. The depictions in Caes. B Gall. 4,10 and  Str. 4,3,4 (Τρίβοκχοι/ Tríbokchoi) probably correspond only to circumstances around the middle of the 1st cent. BC ([2. 27-30]; later: [3]). In AD 70 the T. took part in the Treveri …

Vertunum

(374 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus, name only mediaeval, in the western part of the civitas Treverorum (Belgium, province of Luxemburg, Treveri), at the point where the Rivers Ton and Vire meet. V. developed as a centre on the right bank of the Ton, which gradually rises to a height of 20 m (modern Vieux-Virton) and ultimately merges into the Majeroux plateau; also on the left side in the narrow floor of the Vire valley, where a trade quarter (modern Saint-Mard) developed. V. lay on an old, presumably pre-Roman, ro…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Helellum

(170 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Tab. Peut. 3,4; Alaia, Geogr. Rav. 26). Roman vicus of the Triboci in Upper Alsace (not identical to  Helvetum) on the Argentovaria-Argentoratum route at the crossing of the Ill near modern Ehl-Benfeld, Département Bas-Rhin [1]; a late La Tène period settlement was followed in the late Augustan period by the Gallo-Roman vicus that ultimately developed c. 100 m on both sides of the main road over a length of c. 1,000 m. A necropolis (3rd/4th cents. AD) is located south of H. Despite the minor artisan businesses, H. was primarily a trading centre. The vicus, which was also …

Suessiones

(164 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐέσσονες/ Ouéssones, Ptol. 2,9,11). People in Gallia Belgica in the particularly fertile modern Soissonais (departement of Aisne/Oise). With the Remi to the east, the S. formed a cultural identity, linked by the same law, the same magistrates and a unified commander-in-chief (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,4 f.). In about 80 BC, Diviciacus [1] gained supremacy as far as the southeast of Britain. When Caesar invaded in 58/7 BC, the state unity of the S. and the pro-Roman Remi disintegrated. Th…

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vosegus-Agri Decumates crossed here (It. Ant. 354,6; Tab. Peut. 3,3). There are traces of settlements dating to the Bronze Age; a Celtic oppidum from the pre-Roman era is …

Iura

(221 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Caes. B Gall. 1,2,3; 1,6,1; 1,8,1; Iurensis, Iorensis, Sidon. Apoll. Epist. 4,25,5; Greg. Tur. vit. patr. 1; Iures, Plin. HN 3,31; 4,105; 16,197; Ἰόρας/ Ióras, Ἰουράσιος/ Iourásios, Str. 4,3,4; 4,6,11; Ἰουρασσός/ Iourassós, Ptol. 2,9,2; 2,9,10). Mountain chain, c. 250 km long and up to 70 km wide, stretching in an arch shape from the Rhône at the Lac du Bourget, in a northerly/north-easterly direction to Baden in Switzerland. According to Caesar and Strabo, it formed the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani…

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Catalauni

(78 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A tribal group of Gallia Belgica, who probably originally settled in the area of the Remi, in the modern Champagne. Its name and its capital of the same name, modern Châlon-sur-Marne, are only mentioned by later authors (Amm. Marc. 15,11,10; 27,2,4; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 274; Not. Gall. 6,4; Durocatalauni: It. Ant. 361). The  Catuvellauni, who migrated to southern Britannia, are probably part of the same tribal group.  Campi Catalauni Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Solicia

(143 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Place in Gallia Belgica, modern Soulosse-sous-Saint-Élophe, on the road from the Rhodanus to the Rhenus between Andematunnum and Tullum (modern Toul) in the territory of the Leuci (It. Ant. 358,9; CIL XIII 4679); another name was Solimariaca, derived from a deity Solima or Solimara (It. Ant. 385,8; CIL XIII 4681; 4683). Inscriptions provide information on trade and industry (CIL XIII 4678-4703; [1. 4845-4890; 2]). In the 4th century AD a castrum was built on the Saint Élophe hill. In the Carolingian period S. was the main town of the Pagus Solocensis. Schön, Franz (Reg…

Tres Tabernae

(398 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Town between Aricia and Forum Appii Town between Aricia and Forum Appii (modern Faiti) on the via Appia (Cic. Att. 1,13; 2,10; 2,12; It. Ant. 107,3; Tab. Peut. 6,1) where it crosses the road Antium - Satricum - Norba [1], located south-east of modern Cisterna. In TT, members of the Roman Christian community encountered Paulus [2] on his trip to Rome (Acts 28,15). Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] City of the Mediomatrici City of the Mediomatrici with the rank of a vicus (CIL XIII 11648), modern Saverne (Dép. Bas Rhin) on …

Menapii

(483 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of the North Sea coast of what is now Flanders, originally also north of the Rhine delta (Caes. B Gall. 4,4,2; Strab. 4,3,4). In 56/5 BC, the Germanic Usipetes and Tencteri crossed the Rhine, driving the M. out of their homelands on the right bank of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,4). The frontier of the C ivitas Menapiorum formed after their subjugation by Rome in 53 BC (stages of conquest 58 BC, Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 56 BC, Caes. B Gall. 3,9,10; 3,28f.; Cass. Dio 39,44; 55 BC, Caes. Gall. 4,22,5; 38,3; 53 BC, Caes. Gall. 6,5,6) ran al…

Raeti, Raetia

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ethnography of the Raeti The oldest, indirectly transmitted information about the R. comes from Cato [1], who praises Raetian wine (Serv. Georg. 2,95; Plin. HN 14,16; 67; Str. 4,6,8; Suet. Aug. 77); this was produced, as can be deduced from Plin. loc. cit., in the region of Verona. Ancient historiographers suggest repeatedly that the R. were in fact Etruscans who, having been driven out of Upper Italy by the invading Celts, had conquered the Alps under their eponymous ancestor Raetus and founded the race of the R. (Plin…

Titelberg

(460 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Celtic oppidum in the western area of the Treveri near Pétange (Luxembourg) on the southern edge of the Ardenne mountains, c. 100 m above the valley of the Chier (a side arm of the Meuse), situated on a rocky ledge which served as the settlement area (43 ha). From the 1st half of the 1st cent. BC, the area was secured along the edges of the cliff with a fortification wall (2700 m) and with a barrier in the shape of a murus Gallicus at the narrowest connection to the plateau behind it, later with a 'Belgian type' wall. Two gates connected by…

Itium, Itius portus

(162 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Promontory and port of the Morini in Gallia  Belgica, starting-point of Caesar's fleet for the expeditions to Britain (Caes. B Gall. 4,21-23; 5,2). Caesar only mentions I. in the context of his second expedition of 54 BC; τὸ Ἴτιον in Str. 4,5,2 refers to the operation of the preceding year. The promontory (Ἴτιον ἄκρον, Ptol. 2,9,1) is to be located near Cap Gris-Nez rather than near Cap d'Albrech. Of the numerous theories regarding the exact location of this port (e.g. in Flanders…

Contionacum

(79 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A palace complex was developed at Konz bei Trier, above the point where the Saar joins the Moselle, in the middle of the 4th cent. AD and used as a palace until the early 5th cent.; identified as the summer palace C. where Valentinianus I issued several decrees in AD 371 (Cod. Theod. 2,4,3; 4,6,4; 9,3,5; 11,1,17); Auson. Mos. in 369 probably also refers to C. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography A. Neyses, Die spätröm. Kaiservilla von Konz, 1987.

Isar(a)

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Left tributary of the Rhodanus Left tributary of the Rhodanus, modern Isère, has its source in the  Alpes Graiae as a mountain stream ( torrens: Plin. HN 3,33; maximum flumen: Cic. Fam. 10,15,3) and flows through the territory of the Allobroges. In 218 BC Hannibal marched upstream from the confluence of the I. and the Rhodanus (Pol. 3,49; Liv. 21,31). It was here that Q. Fabius Maximus beat the Arverni in 121 BC (Flor. Epit. 1,37,4). Further evidence: Str. 4,1,11; 2,3; 6,6; Ptol. 2,10,4; Cass. Dio 37,47. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Guichonnet (ed.), Histoir…

Dalheim

(167 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, possibly identical with Ricciacus (Tab. Peut.); Indications of a late La Tène period settlement ( c. 1st cent. BC). It was refounded as a road-station ( mansio) during the construction of the Metz-Trier road in the Augustan period [1]. After the uprising of the Treveri in AD 69/70 the town developed into the economic and particularly religious centre of the region (CIL 13,1,2 p. 635-638) [2; 3]; in the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. it was devastated by invasions of German…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Scaldis Pons

(48 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman station on the Turnacum-Bagacum road at a bridge over the river Scaldis, which formed the boundary between the Menapii and the Nervii (It. Ant. 376,8; Tab. Peut. 2,3). Cf. the modern place name Escau(t)pont (in the département du Nord). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Mediomatrici

(467 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica; capital of their civitas was Divodurum (modern Metz). Their territory in modern Lorraine comprised the upper basins of the rivers Maas, Moselle and Saar (Str. 4,3,4; Ptol. 2,9,7), and originally extended eastwards as far as the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,10,3; Str. l.c.). It is unlikely they participated in the Gallic War ( Caesar). In 52 BC they sent 5000 men to support Vercingetorix who was besieged in Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3); they had to cede their territori…

Sambra

(132 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in Gallia Belgica River in Gallia Belgica, mentioned in ancient saints' legends (e.g., MGH Scriptorum rerum Merovingiorum 5,634,12; 5,643,12; details in [1. 1338]), modern Sambre, rising on the western edge of the Ardennes and flowing into the Mosa [1] (Meuse/Maas) near Namur. Identification with the Sabis [1] (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18) is uncertain. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 Holder. [German version] [2] Modern Somme Besides the modern Sambre (= S. [1]), the Samara was also called the S.  (cf. Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8). T…

Viromandui

(555 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica, Northern France, settled in the region of Picardie on the so-called 'sill of Vermandois', on the upper courses of the Samara (the modern Somme) and Isar(a) [2] (the modern Oise; Liv. Per. 104; Plin. HN 106; Ptol. 2,9,11; Oros. 6,7). In part surrounded by dense forests, the V. had as neighbours to the north and north-east the Nervii and Atrebates [1], to the west the Ambiani and Bellovaci, and to the south the Suessiones. During Caesar’s Gallic War, they…

Samara

(101 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Picardy (France), modern Somme, rises north-east of St. Quentin and flows into the mare Britannicum (English Channel) at Abbeville. The form S. itself is not attested but reconstructed from the name of the city Samarobriva. Other forms of the name: Sambra (Not. Dign. Occ. 38,8: classis Sambrica), Somena (Ven. Fort. 7,4,15), Sumena (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), Sumina, Sumna, Summana ( cf. [1. 1335 f.]). In Not. Dign. Occ. loc. cit., the modern Somme is referred to as Sambra [2]; in Ptol. 2,9,2, the river is called Φροῦδις/ Phroûdis. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliog…

Nemetacum

(436 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Main site of the Atrebates, modern Arras (Dép. Pas de Calais), on a summit at the confluence of the Scarpe and the Crinchon; swamps in the south and east and a steep drop to the north gave it natural protection. N. is probably identical with Nemetocenna, Antonius' [I 9] camp, which acted as Caesar's winter quarters in 51/0 BC (Caes. B Gall. 8,46,6; 52,1 [Hirtius]). There is evidence of a pre-urban La Tène period settlement and there was an Atrebatic oppidum (42 ha.) 5 km away near Etrun at the confluence of the Scarpe and the Gy. N. was an Augustan foundation…

Helvetum

(195 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (It. Ant. 252; 350; Ἔλκηβος; Élkēbos, Ptol. 2,9,18). Previously often equated with  Helellum (Tab. Peut. 3,4) or Alaea (Geogr. Rav. 26) and already confused with this in It. Ant. 354, but its location should not be pinpointed as near Ehl in the Alsace but as being on the right bank of the Rhine on the Mons Brisiacus-Argentoratus route near modern Riegel, district of Emmendingen [1]. Forts from the Claudian and Vespasian periods, which as a continuation of the series of forts on the Upper Danube secured the link with the Rhine. After the conquest of the   Decumates agri

Grand

(338 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Far from any significant roads on the inhospitable high plateau between Marne and Maas (Mosa) (Dept. Vosges), G. owed its existence to a forest sanctuary of the Leuci of interregional importance. After the Roman conquest, the healing god  Grannus, who had been absorbed by the Apollo cult (Claudius Marius Victor, Alethia 3,204-209), gave his name to the new vicus (AE 1937, 55). Laid out orthogonally, G. was enclosed by a circular pomerium (‘sacred city boundary’), today voie close; inside, there is an 18-ha. precinct surrounded by an irregular, six-sided en…

Sapaudia

(147 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Territory in Gallia ripariensis. The earliest evidence (Amm. Marc. 15,11,17) is corrupt and cannot be used to support localisation in modern Savoy. Further evidence: Not. Dign. Occ. 42,15 ( praefectus barbaricorum Ebruduni, modern Yverdon-les-Bains on Lake Neuchâtel, Sapaudiae) and 42,179 ( tribunus cohortis Flaviae Sapaudi[ c] ae Calarone). In AD 443, the Burgundiones escaping from their annihilation at the hands of the Hunni were settled here by Aetius [2] (Chron. min. 1, 660,128). Ground studies suggest that S. was in the Swiss highlands north of lacus Lemanus

Geidumni

(34 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people of Gallia Belgica mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 as being subject to the Nervii. Their home in Flanders cannot be located with certainty. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Caesaromagus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Civitas, main centre of the  Bellovaci on a loop of the river Thérain, modern Beauvais (Oise). There is no archaeological evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement in this location ( Bratuspantium), nor for the assumption -- derived from the name C. -- that it was founded by either Caesar or Augustus. The beginnings of Gallo-Roman urbanism probably lay in the early 1st cent. AD, more significant traces of building structures point to the …

Eburones

(234 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Gallia Belgica, the most important one amongst the Germani Cisrhenani (Caes. B Gall. 2,4); they were clients of the Treveri in the south; in between the two were the lands of the Germanic  Condrusi and Segni (Caes. B Gall. 4,6; 6,32). In the north, the E. shared a border with the coastal people of the Menapii (Caes. B Gall. 6,5). The core of their areas of settlement between Maas and Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 5,24) comprised the northern Ardennes, the Eiffel and the plains ex…

Belginum

(110 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Vicus near Wederath (Bernkastel-Wittlich district) on the Roman road Augusta Treverorum--Mogontiacum (Tab. Peut.; CIL XIII 7555a). The burial ground belonging to it shows continuous use from the 4th cent. BC to the 4th cent. AD. The beginnings of the vicus, however, did not occur until the 1st cent. AD. A preliminary settlement of Latène or early Roman times could not yet be documented. After the turmoil of AD 275/6, B. remained inhabited until the 4th cent. due to its location and its significance for traffic. Schön, Fran…

Morini

(575 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘sea people’). A people in Gallia Belgica in the modern Pas de Calais, whose territory in the north and west stretched to the sea. Their northeastern border with the neighbouring Menapii followed the Aa upstream to east of Saint Omer, southwards to meet the Leie, and a little upstream along this, where at Merville it met the one-time territory of the Atrebates [1]. From here it probably reached the old boundary of the bishopric of Arras in a southern direction to the s…

Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Treveri

(1,654 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Geography A tribe living in Gallia Belgica between the Meuse in the west and the Middle Rhine in the east, their territory bordered in the north by the Ardennes, the Luxembourg Eisling and the Middle Eifel; the southern boundary ran along the southern edge of Belgian Lorraine and Luxembourg, through the north of the Saarland and along the Nahe. Between the mountainous, densely wooded and rather settlement-hostile border areas in both north and south (Hunsrück) lay fertile hilly terrain, river valleys and bays with ideal conditions for settlement. Schön, Franz (Rege…

Sabis

(253 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] River in northern Gaul River in northern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 2,16,1; 2,18), where in 57 BC Caesar fought against the Nervii and their allies, the Atrebates [1] and Viromandui ( ibid. 2,16-27), on his way from Samarobriva. The river's identification and location are contested. Older scholarship identified the S. with the Sambra [1] (modern Sambre), suggesting that the battle took place 6 km outside of Maubeuge near Hautmont-Boussières [1; 2]. Recently these claims have been countered by topological, historica…

Belgica

(390 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Originally, B. is the settlement area of the  Belgae (Caes. B Gall. 2,4) as designated by Caesar in his division of Gallia into three parts (Caes. B Gall. 1,1). It was governed uniformly until Augustus established the imperial province of B. in 16/13 BC in the course of reorganizing the Tres Galliae. Based on records by Plin. HN 4,105 and Ptol. 2,9 about the tribes of B., the boundaries of the province can be approximately determined, but they differ strongly from Caesar's division. The boundary in the north was formed by the Nort…

Orolaunum

(271 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Present-day Arlon-Arel (Belgium, province of Luxembourg), vicus of the civitas of the Treveri, probably the main town of one of their pagi . It was built by the sources of the Semois at the crossing point of the important major roads from Durocortorum to Augusta [6] Treverorum (Itin. Anton. 366,2; [1]) and from Divodurum to Aduatuca. In view of the threat from barbarians the settlement was transferred to the northern hill town (present-day St. Donat) at the end of the 3rd/beginning o…

Levaci

(52 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] In Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 a people of Gallia Belgica - mentioned in the context of the events of the winter of 54/53 BC - who were immediate neighbours of the Nervii, with whom they had a relationship of dependence; cannot be localized more precisely. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Bagacum

(319 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Limes Modern Bavai, capital ( civitas) of the  Nervii, in the French Département Nord not far off the Belgian border. The Celtic place name as well as some scanty finds from the Latène period hint at the possibility that a modest pre-Roman settlement existed. However, B. is a Roman foundation, and has to be seen in the context of Agrippa's road building programme for the reorganization of Gaul (20/19 BC). At this junction of the links with Durocort…

Leuci

(159 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Gallia Belgica between Matrona and Mosella, north-west of the Sequani, south-west of the Mediomatrici; their territory extended in the east and the south-east up to the Vosges (Caes. B Gall. 2,14; Tac. Hist. 1,64; Ptol. 2,9,13; Plin. HN 4,106; Luc. 1,242); civitas/capital was Tullum. A spring and healing cult has been attested with the L. - either in the form of Apollo worship (Graux, Malaincourt) or the Celtic Apollo Grannus (Tullum, Nasium, Grand) [1] or a nameless deity (Laneuveville) [2]. According to Claudi…

Vosegus

(335 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] The uplands which extend over some 200 km in eastern France (Caes. B Gall. 4,10; Luc. 1,397; Plin. HN 16,197; Vibius Sequester 145,16 Riese; Vosagus: Tab. Peut. 3,2-4; Ven. Fort. 7,4; Greg. Tur. Franc. 10,10), modern Vosges Mountains, form in the east the western edge of the Upper Rhine lowlands and in the west cross into the Lorraine plateau and the Monts Faucilles, in the north continue in the Palatinate Forest and in the south descend towards the Burgundy Gate. The V. is considered to be the boundary…

Turnacum

(393 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Modern Tournai/Doornik in the Belgian province of Hainault. Gallo-Roman vicus on both banks of the Scaldis (Scheldt) in the border region between the Menapii and Nervii, a node on the route from Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-mer) to Bagacum (modern Bavai: Tab. Peut. 2,3;  It. Ant. 367,7), from which roads lead to Castellum (modern Cassel; It. Ant. 377,5) and Tervanna (ibid. 378,11). There is evidence of traces of settlement as early as the Iron Age, the Gallo-Roman presence i…

Sequana

(426 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοάνας/ Sēkoánas, Σηκουανός/ Sēkouanós), modern Seine. River in Gallia (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,2; Mela 3,2,20; Plin. HN 4,105; 109; Amm. Marc. 15,11,3; Str. 4,1,14; 3,2-5; 4,1; 5,2; Ptol. 2,8,2; 9,1; Cass. Dio 40,38,4) rising - contrary to Str. 4,3,2 - not in the Alps but on the plateau of Langres, then flowing through the Paris Basin and, meandering strongly from Iuliobona (present-day Lillebonne) and broadening into an estuary, arriving at the mare Britannicum (present-day English Channel). According to literary tradition, the S. formed an ethnic bord…

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Ambiani

(108 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Coastal people in  Gallia Belgica in modern Picardy, main town was  Samarobriva; participated in the Gallic coalitions against  Caesar of 57 and 52 BC, were finally subjugated in 51 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,9; 7,75,1-3; 8,7,3-4). Their settlement areas between the  Bellovaci in the south and  Morini in the north (Ptol. 2,9,4) encompassed the Somme basin, bordered in the north by the Canche, in the north-east and south-east by the Somme watershed; the Catuslougi [1] documented on the southern border, the Bresle valley, were considered as   pagus of the A. Schön, Franz (Rege…
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