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High Priest

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Schwartz, Daniel R. | Klauck, Hans-Josef | Link-Wieczorek, Ulrike
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics …

Aaron

(576 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Jacobs, Martin
[German Version] I. Old Testament - II. Early Judaism I. Old Testament The origin of the name is uncertain. In the Old Testament Aaron is the brother of Mose and his spokesman (Exod 4:14f.). He was reputed to be a “Levite” (priest; Exod 4:14), and the traveling companion and deputy of Moses (Exod 7:1–7), a miracle-worker (Exod 8:1f.), a charismatic leader (Exod 17:10–12; 24:14) and the progenitor of the legitimate, …

Rahlfs, Alfred

(185 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim
[German Version] (May 29, 1865, Linden near Hanover – Apr 8, 1935, Göttingen), became a Privatdozent (OT) in 1891, extraordinary professor in 1901, full professor in 1919, in Göttingen; he was director of the Septuagint project of the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, a project founded in 1908 by Rudolf Smend (1851–1913) and J. Wellhausen (Septuagint research). Rahlfs, an important Greek and Semitic philologist, was mainly concerned with scholarly editing of the LXX (see esp. his edition of the LXX, still in use,…

Child of God

(2,719 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim | Klein, Hans | Schlapkohl, Corinna | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Christianity – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament The Hebrew Bible can designate both individuals and groups as children (cf. e.g. Deut 32:5) or as sons and daughters of YHWH (cf. e.g. Deut 32:19). This usage occurs elsewhere in the ancient Near East to describe members of a deity's cultic community. The concept of childhood should be understood as mediated through creation (Deut 32:6; Isa 45:11; 64:8) or covenant (Isa 1:2, 4; Mal …

Social History

(4,845 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Theory In its scientific exploration of the past, all historiography aims at a synthesis in the sense of a valid overview of what has gone before. At best, however, the quest can succeed only paradigmatically and typically, because any reconstruction of an

Rahlfs

(158 words)

Author(s): Schaper, Joachim
[English Version] Rahlfs, Alfred (29.5.1865 Linden bei Hannover – 8.4.1935 Göttingen). 1891 PD für AT, 1901 a.o., 1919 o. Prof. in Göttingen; Leiter des 1908 von Rudolf Smend (1851–1913) und J. Wellhausen begründeten Septuaginta-Unternehmens (Septuaginta-Forschung) der Akademie der Wiss. zu Göttingen. R., ein bedeutender griech. und sem. Philologe, betrieb v.a. die wiss. Edition der LXX (vgl. bes. seine bis heute benutzte Handausg. der LXX und die krit. Edition der LXX-Pss im Rahmen des Septuaginta…

Sozialgeschichte

(4,188 words)

Author(s): Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Schaper, Joachim | Hezser, Catherine | Leutzsch, Martin | Herrmann, Ulrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff; Theorieprobleme Alle Geschichtsschreibung zielt in ihrer wiss. Erforschung der Vergangenheit auf Synthese im Sinne einer gültigen Gesamtschau des Gewesenen. Doch kann ihr dies höchstens paradigmatisch und idealtypisch gelingen, weil jede Rekonstruktion einer histoire totale zum Scheitern verurteilt ist. Gleichwohl darf Historiographie nicht auf das Wagnis verzichten, Geschichte als Ganzes in den Blick zu nehmen, weil ihr angesichts unüberschaubarer Details sonst jede…