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Sarcerius, Erasmus

(281 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 19, 1501, Annaberg – Nov 28, 1559, Magdeburg), a prolific writer and successful Reformer of an independent bent. After 1513 he spent years of study and travel in Freiberg, Erfurt, Leipzig, Wittenberg, Lübeck, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Basel, Vienna, Graz, and Rostock. His most important teacher was P. Mosellanus. In 1531 he was appointed deputy headmaster of the Katharineum, the Gymnasium in Lübeck founded by J. Bugenhagen. On Jun 15, 1536, he was appointed headmaster of the new L…

Melanchthon, Philipp

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence (born Schwartzerdt, in 1509 grecized by Reuchlin, from 1531 simplified by Melanchthon as Melanthon; Feb 16, 1497, Bretten – Apr 19, 1560, Wittenberg). I. Life Son of an arms technician in the service of the Palatinate court and the daughter of a prosperous merchant, Melanchthon was well educated, after his father's death in 1508 at Pforzheim under Georg Simler (fellow students: M. Erb, S. Grynaeus, B. Haller, K. Hedior, Franciscus Irenicus [1494–1553]), promoted by his relat…

Agricola, Rudolf

(99 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Huisman) (Feb 17, 1444, Baflo – Oct 27, 1487, Heidelberg) was schooled in Groningen and undertook studies in Erfurt, Cologne, Louvain, Pavia and Ferrara (Huisman). He translated rhetorical and dialectical works from Greek. In 1480 he was a lawyer for the city of Groningen. In 1484 he taught in Heidelberg and maintained frequent contact with humanists and journeyed to Rome. His writings, published posthumously, have had enduring influence. Heinz Scheible Bibliography Works include: Opuscula Orationes Epistolae, 1539, repr. 1975 De inventione dialectica libri…

Busche, Hermann von dem

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Buschius, Sylvius; c. 1468, Sassenberg – Apr 1534, Dülmen) was educated in Münster, Deventer and Heidelberg, after which he traveled to Italy. From 1495 to 1500 he studied law in Cologne and lectured in the humanities, later also in Rostock, Greifswald and Leipzig. In 1502, he held the ceremonial speech on the occasion of the opening of the University of Wittenberg, and became professor of poetry in Leipzig in 1503. From 1507 onward, he was a man of letters in Cologne. He sided with J. Reuchlin in the Jewish books dispute and contributed to the Dunkelmännerbriefe (

Dryander

(110 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Enzinas, Francisco de; Nov 1, 1518, Burgos – Dec 30, 1552, Straßburg) moved from Leuven (1539) to Wittenberg in 1541, where he lived with Melanchthon. The latter inspired him to translate the NT into Spanish. In 1543, Dryander presented the Antwerp impression (Bible translations: II, 2.a) to the emperor in Brussels, whereupon he was imprisoned. In 1545, he fled to Wittenberg, where he recorded his experiences. He then traveled throughout Upper Germany and Switzerland, and stayed in England from 1548 to 1549. Heinz Scheible Bibliography F.W. Bautz, BBKL I, 1975, 151…

Aepinus, Johannes

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Hoeck; 1499, Ziesar – May 13, 1553, Hamburg). In 1517 Aepinus was premonstratensian in Belbuck (near Treptow on the Rega). He studied in Wittenberg from 1518 to 1520, after which he taught in Ziesar, was imprisoned and fled, taught in Greifswald, and in 1524 in Stralsund, where he composed a church order on the commission of the Council in 15…

Briesmann, Johannes

(146 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Dec 31, 1488, Cottbus– Oct 1, 1549, Königsberg, Prussia), OFM. He studied at Wittenberg in 1507, at Frankfurt/Oder in 1510, and Wittenberg again in 1513. He was consecrated to the priesthood in 1510, and won over to Luther in 1519 at the Leipzig Disputation. He received the Dr. theol. from Wittenberg in 1522, became cathedral preacher in Köni…

Eitzen, Paul von

(163 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1521, Hamburg – Feb 25, 1598, Schleswig) began studies in Wittenberg in 1539 (1543 M.A., 1556 Dr.theol.) and became school rector in Cölln/Spree (Berlin) in 1544. In 1547, he became professor of logic in Rostock. In 1548, he became preacher and lector at the cathedral in Hamburg, in 1555 also superintendent. In 1562, he became the general superintendent …

Brück, Gregor

(183 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Heins; after Oct 12, 1485, Brück, Potsdam-Mittelmark – Feb 15, or more likely 20, 1557, Jena) studied in Wittenberg (1502), in Frankfurt/Oder (1506), and law in Wittenberg (1508). He was then a lawyer, alderman (1519) and court adviser. He obtained his Dr.iur. from Wittenberg in 1521. From 1521 to 1528, he was the chancellor of John the Const…

Dévai Biró, Mátyás

(173 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1500, Deva – 1545, Debrecen). After study in Krakow in 1523–1524, Dévai became a Franciscan in 1526. He went to Wittenberg in 1529. In 1531, he preached Reformation principles in Hungary, but was immediately imprisoned in Vienna and Buda until 1535. Thereafter, he continued to preach from village to village. In 1536/37 and 1542/43, he stayed in Germany, mainly in …

Timan, Johannes

(160 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (before 1500, Amsterdam – Feb 17, 1557, Nienburg an der Weser), OESA. A prior in Antwerp, Timan fled to Wittenberg in 1522; in 1524 through the good offices of Henry of Zutphen he came to Bremen, where he became pastor of Sankt Martini and along with Jakob Propst (died 1562) introduced the Reformation; his initial sermons in the ¶ cathedral met resistance. In 1534 he introduced a church order modeled on J. Bugenhagen’s order for Brunswick. In 1529 he was called to Emden, where he composed a church order for Eastern Friesland. In 1538 he c…

Aurifaber, (Goldschmidt) Vinariensis, Johannes

(146 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1519, Weimar – Nov 18, 1575, Erfurt) entered the University of Wittenberg in 1537. In 1544/1545 he served as a military chaplain in France. In 1545/46 he became Luther's assistant. In 1546/47 he became military chaplain to John Frederick the Magnanimous. In 1547 he became a preacher at the Weimar court, becoming the second court preacher …

Hessus, Helius Eobanus

(265 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1488, Halgehausen near Korbach – Oct 4, 1540, Marburg). Beginning study in Erfurt in 1504 and soon becoming a member of the circle surrounding K.Muth, Hessus began to publish Latin poems in 1506 with great success. He was secretary to the bishop in Riesenburg 1509–1513. From there, he became acquainted with Cracow in 1512. Via ¶ Frankfurt an der Oder and Leipzig, he returned to Erfurt in 1514. Having married in 1515 and now the celebrated center of a circle of humanists, he became professor of Latin composition in 1517. In 1518, …

Cordatus, Conrad

(217 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1480 or 1483, Leombach near Wels – Mar 25, 1546, while traveling near Spandau) began his studies in 1502 in Vienna, Rome and Ferrara (Lic. theol.). In Bohemia he came into contact with Hussites (J. Hus). In Hungary he supported the Reformation in his preaching, had to step down and came to Wittenberg in 1524. In 1525 he returned and was incarcerated in Esztergom (Gran). He managed to escape. Luther helped him to a teaching position in Liegnitz i…

Myconius, Friedrich

(298 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Dec 26, 1490, Lichtenfels am Main – Apr 7, 1546, Gotha). He was educated in Lichtenfels and from 1504 in Annaberg, where in 1510 he entered the Franciscan monastery. He was transferred to Leipzig and in 1512 to Weimar, where in 1516 he was ordained priest, and soon after appointed a preaching ministry. In 1522, he was imprisoned as a follower of Luther and brought to Annaberg via Eisenach and Leipzig. In March 1524, he escaped. Myconius became a preacher at the leprosy hospital i…

Amerbach, Veit

(147 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Trolmann) (1503, Wemding – Sep 13, 1557, Ingolstadt). Amerbach studied at Ingolstadt in 1517, Freiburg in 1521, and Wittenberg in 1522. In 1526, he began teaching in Eisleben under J. Agricola. In 1529, he received his Master's degree and married. In 1530, he began teaching rhetoric and physics at Wittenberg, and in 1541 became a member of the consistory. After several years of criticizing Melanchthon and Luther philosophically and theologically, he became professor of rhetoric at Ingolstadt in 1543. In 1542, he published De anima, an attack on Melanchthon's …

Lang, Johann

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1486/1488, Erfurt – Apr 2, 1548, Erfurt). From 1500, Lang studied in his home town ¶ (B.A. 1503), where he joined the Augustinian Hermits in 1505/1506 and was ordained priest in 1508. With like-minded Luther, he was transferred to Wittenberg in 1551 (M.A. 1512, Bacc. biblicus 1515). From 1512 to 1516, he was professor of ethics. Having been recalled to Erfurt in 1516, Lang became prior and continued his studies of theology (Bacc. sententiarus 1516, Lic. theol. 1517, Dr. theol. 1519). He belonged…

Billicanus Gerlacher, Theobald

(187 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1490/1495, Billigheim – Aug 8/9, 1554, Marburg). In 1510 Billicanus began his studies at Heidelberg (forming a friendship with Melanchthon), and became a priest in Weil in 1518. He was expelled from the town because of his criticism of the church and served as a Luther-influenced preacher from 1522 to 1535 in Nördlingen, where in 1525 he authored a Kirchenordnung (document on church order), by which time he was married. At the Augsburg Parliament, he made approaches to the Roman par…

Crato von Crafftheim

(201 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Johannes Kraft; Nov 20, 1519, Breslau – Oct 19, 1585, Breslau) came to Wittenberg to study in 1535 and lived with Luther for six years, though he did not participate in the transmission of the table-talks. From 1543 he studied medicine in Leipzig, and in 1546 in Padua and Bologna (1549 Dr.med.). In 1550 he became city physician in Breslau and served in the fight against the plague. As a supporter of Melanchthon in his doctrine of the Eucharist (…

Gratius, Ortwin

(196 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1480, Holtwick near Coesfeld – May 22, 1542, Cologne) began his studies in Cologne in 1501, received the M.A. in 1506, and became professor of rhetoric and poetry in 1507. He also worked as a printer's corrector and became a priest in 1514. The authors of the Epistolae obscurorum virorum picked on this supporter of Johannes (until his conversion in 1504: Josef) Pfefferkorn as the object of their scorn, against which he defended himself in vain. His suggestions for church reform, published in 1535, were placed on the Index in 1554. Heinz Scheible Bibliography VD16, 1, 8,…

Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus

(246 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1510, Hardenberg, The Netherlands – May 18, 1574, Emden). Brought up among the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Groningen (1517–1527), Hardenberg became a monk in the Cistercian monastery of Aduard near Groningen (1528) and studied in Leuven from 1530 until receiving the Bacc.theol. Instead of a journey to Italy interrupted because of illness (1538), he earned the Dr.theol. in Mainz (1539). Arrested and charged as a Protestant in Leuven, he entered the Aduard monaste…

Draconites, Johannes

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Drach, Draco; 1494, Karlstadt – Apr 18, 1566, Wittenberg). After studying in Erfurt (1509) and Basel (1512, 1514 M.A.), Draconites came to Wittenberg in 1521 (1523 Dr.theol.). While pastor in Miltenberg (1522–1523), his Reformation was checked. In 1525 he became pastor in Waltershausen, but withdrew to Eisenach as a private scholar. He was concerned with the chr…

Gnapheus, Gulielmus

(193 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Willem de Volder; 1493, Den Haag – Sep 29, 1568, Norden). After his studies in Cologne (from 1512) and from 1522, the successful humanistic dramatist was rector of a school in The Hague. In 1529, his Acolastus, a drama concerning the prodigal son that underwent more than 50 reprints and translations, appeared in Antwerp. In 1531, he evaded the Inquisition by going to Elbing, where he became the rector of the new Latin school in 1535. In 1541, he was forced to escape from bishop Johannes Dantiscus, to Königsberg. He…

Ratze(n)berger, Matthäus

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1501, Wangen im Allgäu – Jan 3, 1559, Erfurt), deserves mention only for his notes on the history of his times, which are highly subjective, yet written from the vantage point of personal closeness to Luther and great veneration for him; he lived through Luther’s Reformation from the start of his studies in Wittenberg in 1516. He was distantly related to Luther by marriage, and in 1546 became one of the guardians of his children. From 1538 to 1546 he served Elector John Frederick…

Loener, Kaspar

(186 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493, Markt Erlbach – Jan 4, 1546, Nördlingen), attended the monastery school in Heilsbronn, studied in Erfurt from 1508 and perhaps in Wittenberg from 1518. He became pastoral administrator in Unternesselbach and celebrant of the early mass in the Cistercian monastery in Birkenfeld (Neustadt/Aisch) in 1520 and preacher in Hof in 1524. Expelled in 1526, he became preacher in Oelsnitz, enrolled at the University of Wittenberg in 1526, but was a court preacher again already in 1529…

Aurifaber (Goldschmidt)

(264 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] 1. Andreas (1514, Breslau [Wrocław] – Dec 12, 1559, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]); brother of 2. From 1527 on he studied and taught at Wittenberg. In 1539 he became rector of the Latin school in Danzig; he move to Elbing in 1541, returned to Wittenberg in 1542, and then studied medicine in Padua. In 1546 he was appointed professor at Königsberg and became the personal physician to the duke. In 1550 a second marriage made him the son-in-law of A. Osiander, after whose death he became the leader of the Osiandrist party, exercising great influence on Duke Albert of Prussia. Heinz Sch…

Hedio, Kaspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1494, Ettlingen – Oct 17, 1552, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After education at Pforzheim, Freiburg, and Basel, Hedio became cathedral preacher in Mainz in 1520; he received his Dr.theol. in 1523. From 1523 to 1550 he served as preacher in the Strasbourg Minster. After 1549 he succeeded M. Bucer as president of the Strasbourg consistory. In 1550, as a result of the Augsburg Interim, he was transferred to the Dominican church. He was of great importance for the reform of the church an…

Rörer, Georg

(224 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1492, Deggendorf – Apr 24, 1557, Jena), Luther’s closest colleague, began his studies at Leipzig in 1511, receiving his M.A. on Dec 22, 1520. At the end of 1522 he moved to Wittenberg, where he matriculated on Apr 11, 1523. He tirelessly transcribed Luther’s sermons and lectures. After being ordained to the diaconate by Luther, in 1525 he was appointed second deacon of the municipal church, with responsibility for the rural parishes until 1533. In 1537 he was relieved of t…

Beyer, Hartmann

(143 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1516, Frankfurt/M. – Aug 11, 1577, Frankfurt). Following twelve formative years in Wittenberg, Beyer was appointed preacher in 1546 in his native town, which was Upper German in orientation (ordained by J. Bugenhagen). Against the advice of Luther, he immediately attempted to introduce the Saxon order of liturgy. When the council accepted the Augsburg Interim in 1548, Beyer published two polemical pamphlets under the pseudonyms Cephalus and Epitimius. In 1552, he secured the expulsion of Theobald Thamer by the council. In 1561, he obtained the closure of the We…

Aquila (Adler), Caspar

(226 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Aug 7, 1488, Augsburg – Nov 12, 1560, Saalfeld) traveled as far as Italy on extended educational journeys. In 1510 he studied at Leipzig, in 1513 at Wittenberg; in 1514 he was ordained priest and took a pulpit in Bern. In 1515 he became a military chaplain under F. v. Sickingen. In 1516 he became pastor of Jengen and married; his son Malachia…

Forster, Johann

(205 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1496, Augsburg – Dec 8, 1556 [not 1558], Wittenberg). Forster's work was essentially dedicated to the study of Hebrew. In Ingolstadt, where he was a student from 1515 (M.A., 1520), he attended the lectures of J. Reuchlin in 1520–21. He then studied Greek in Leipzig and in 1522 became a Hebrew teacher in Zwickau. In 1530 he went to Wittenberg, where he developed a close relationship with Luther. In 1535–38 he was a preacher in Augsburg, and in 1539–41 a professor in Tübing…

Sturm, Johannes

(315 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 1, 1507, Schleiden, Eifel – Mar 3, 1589, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After an education by the Brothers of the Common Life (Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life) in Liège and (along with J. Sleidanus) at the Collegium trilingue in Leuven, he came to Paris in 1529, where he studied medicine and lectured on Humanistic subjects. In 1533 he joined the Reformed group at the court of Francis I of France. In 1536 he fled to Straßburg, where M. Bucer and Jakob Sturm entrusted him wit…

Althamer, Andreas

(156 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (pseud. Palaeosphyra; before 1500, Brenz – 1539, Ansbach). Following studies at Leipzig and Tübingen from 1516, Althamer taught in Halle and Reutlingen from 1521 to 1523. In 1524, he was appointed curate in Schwäbisch Gmünd. After losing his position in 1525 because he had married, he studied at Wittenberg. In 1527, he became pastor in Eltersdorf near Nürnberg. As pastor in Ansbach from 1528, he played a decisive role in the reformation of the margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach. In 1537, he became a reformer in Brandenburg-Küstrin. Heinz Scheible Bibliography T. Kold…

Freder, Johannes

(284 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Aug 29, 1510, Koszalin [Ger. Köslin], Poland – Jan 25, 1562, Wismar). After studying in Wittenberg (from 1524, M.A. in 1533; Wittenberg, University of), Freder was appointed co-rector of the Johanneum in Hamburg in 1537, where he also became preacher in 1539. Without ordination, through the laying-on-of-hands he officiated as pastor and lector secundarius of the cathedral from 1540 to 1547. When Freder became superintendent of Stralsund in 1547, the general superintendent of Wolgast, J. Knipstro, was in favor of ordaining him, but …

Schwebel (Schweblin), Johannes

(213 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1490, Pforzheim – May 19, 1540, Zweibrücken). After studying at Tübingen and Leipzig, Schwebel joined the Hospitalers of the Holy Spirit. In 1511 he began studying at Heidelberg, receiving his B.A. in 1513. In 1514 he was ordained to the priesthood in Straßburg (Strasbourg) and appointed preacher at the Heilig-Geist-Spital in Pforzheim. In 1519 he began to preach in the spirit of the Reformation; in 1521 he left the order and had to leave the city, taking refuge with F. v. Sic…

Alber, Erasmus

(190 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1500, Windecken [in modern Nidderau] or Bruchenbrücken [in modern Friedberg] – May 5, 1553, Neubrandenburg). After attending school in Nidda and Weilburg, Alber studied at Wittenberg in 1520, then (1522–1528) taught in Büdingen, Oberursel, and Eisenach. From 1528 to 1540, he served as pastor in Sprendlingen (modern Dreieich); in 1537, he i…

Stoltz, Johann

(145 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1514, Wittenberg – 1556, Weimar), editor of the Jena edition of Luther’s works. He came to Wittenberg in 1532 and went through the usual course of instruction, receiving his M.A. in 1539. There was a brief interruption when he was ordained as a deacon in Jessen in 1539 and served as court tutor in Freiberg and Dresden in 1539/1540. In 1544 he was appointed to a professorship at the Wittenberg Pädagogium and the theological faculty. In 1547 he was appointed court chaplain in We…

Gramann, Johann

(183 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Poliander; Dec 26, 1486 or Jul 5, 1487, Neustadt/Aisch – Apr 29, 1541, Królewiec [Ger. Königsberg], Poland). After studying in Leipzig (1503–1516), Gramann stayed on to become a lecturer at the St. Thomas School and served as secretary to J. Eck during the Leipzig Disputation of 1519, whereupon he then joined Luther in Wittenberg, although he was awarded the degree of Bacc.theol. from Leipzig in 1520. He was rector of the St. Thomas School from 1520 to 1522, and cathedral preache…

Hermann of Wied

(248 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1477, Wied – Aug 15, 1552, Wied). The younger son of a count who was orphaned early in life received his first benefice as early as 1483 in Cologne, became canon in 1490, and was appointed archbishop and thus also elector in 1515. He delayed his ordination until 1518 and his entry into Cologne until 1522. He supported the Edict of Worms (1521) against Luther and his adherents out of convic-¶ tion. He saw the church's need for reform chiefly in the involvement of the curia in the filling of positions. His theological adviser was J. Gropper, who…

Euricius Cordus

(185 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1486, Obersimtshausen [near Marburg] – Dec 24, 1535, Bremen), physician and poet. A teacher in Kassel about 1509–1511, in 1513 he went to Erfurt, where he gained his M.A. and became rector of St. Marien foundation school in 1516. He traveled to Italy, and became a doctor of medicine at Ferrara in 1521. He became municipal physician in Braunschweig in 1523, and i…

Witzel, Georg

(357 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1501, Vacha – Feb 16, 1573, Mainz). In 1516 he matriculated at Erfurt and became a schoolteacher in Vacha in 1518. He studied at Wittenberg in 1520 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1521, being appointed vicar and town clerk in Vacha. In 1524 he was married in Eisenach and became an assistant to J. Strauß. In 1524 he was appointed pastor in Wenigenlupnitz and in 1526 in Niemegk. He was an observer at the Marburg Colloquy in 1529 (Disputations, Religious). His critical corresp…

Nausea, Friedrich

(330 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1496, Waischenfeld – Feb 6, 1552, Trent). After studying and teaching in Bamberg, Zwickau, Nuremberg, and Leipzig (1514), Nausea went to Italy in 1518 (1523 Dr.iur.utr. in Padua). In 1524 he accompanied the legate L. Campeggio as his secretary to Stuttgart (visiting Melanchthon in Bretten), to the Nuremberg Diet, to the Regensburg Council, to Vienna, and to Hungary, and became a papal Palatine notary. In 1524 he addressed an open letter to Erasmus of Rotterdam. In 1525 Nausea was…

Camerarius, Joachim

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Apr 12, 1500, Bamberg – Apr 17, 1574, Leipzig) began studies in Leipzig in 1512, in Erfurt in 1518 (M.A. 1521), and in Wittenberg in 1521, where he enjoyed a close friendship with Melanchthon. He became professor of rhetoric in 1522, although he often spent long periods in Bamberg and traveling, in 1524 with Melanchthon to Bretten and as Luther's emissary to Erasmus in Basel. In 1525 he became professor of Greek in Wittenberg, in 1526 rector in …

Mosellanus, Petrus

(227 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1493/1494, Bruttig – Apr 19, 1524, Leipzig). After attending school in Beilstein, Luxembourg, Limburg, and Trier, he began studies at Cologne in 1509, receiving his B.A. in 1511 and matriculating on Feb 1, 1512. In 1513/1514, he taught in a school in Freiberg. In 1515 he went to Leipzig to study with Richard Crocus, professor of Greek, whom he succeeded in 1517. He published several translations and editions of Greek authors and in 1518 published his Paedologia, a widely used schoolbook. Georg Agricola (1490–1555), J. Camerarius, C. Cruciger, J. Pflug, a…

Muth, Konrad

(227 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Mutianus; Oct 15, 1470, Homberg/Efze – Mar 30, 1526, Gotha), fellow student of Erasmus of Rotterdam in the school of A. Hegius in Deventer. While a student in Erfurt from 1486 (1488 B.A., 1492 M.A.), he attended the lectures of C. Celtis. From 1494 he studied in Italy (Dr.iur.can.). In 1502 Muth returned to Germany, served briefly in the Hesse chancery, and in 1503 joined a religious foundation in Gotha (as Stiftsherr). In 1504 he was ordained priest, but despised choir service, lived for his Humanist studies, published nothing, but gathered friends…

Alesius, Alexander

(120 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Alane) (Apr 23, 1500, Edinburgh – Mar 17, 1565, Leipzig) was canon in St. Andrews; imprisoned in 1529 for criticizing the church, he fled to the mainland; he became a lecturer in Wittenberg in 1533. In 1535, Alesius went to Reformation-friendly England, but had once again to flee in 1539 because he married. In 1540, he became professor of theology in …

Fagius, Paul

(181 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1504, Rheinzabern – Nov 13, 1549, Cambridge). Fagius studied from 1515 in Heidelberg (Heidelberg, University of; 1522, M.A. degree), ¶ where he became acquainted with Luther in 1518. In 1522 he became a teacher in Strasbourg. He learned Hebrew from W. Capito. In 1527 he became a school rector in Isny, returning to Strasbourg in 1535, where he worked with M. Bucer and studied theology. In 1537–1542 he was a preacher in Isny, where he improved his Hebrew with Elijah Levita and ran a Hebrew printing co…

Bibliander (Buchmann), Theodor

(175 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1504, Bischofszell – Sep 26, 1564, Zürich) studied at Basel and was professor of Rhetoric in Liegnitz from 1527 to 1529. In 1531, as a follower of Zwingli, he became professor of Old Testament at Zürich. Buchmann had command of an exceptional number of languages. His exegesis was philosophical and historical; he interpreted the entire Old …

Humanism

(4,363 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred | Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Antiquity – III. Middle Ages and Renaissance – IV. Modern Era I. Terminology Humanism derives from Lat. humanus, “human, humane,” with the suffix - ism denoting the corresponding intellectual attitude; the noun means “the effort to live a humane life, appropriate to the nature of humanity,” “efforts on behalf of humanity.” The word was coined by the educationalist F.I. von Niethammer in 1808 as an alternative to the educational concept of philanthropism (Philanthropy), based on utili…

Brunfels, Otto

(211 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1488/1490, Mainz – Nov 23, 1534, Bern). After studies in Mainz, Braunfels joined ¶ the Carthusians at Königshofen (Koenigshoffen), near Strassburg (Strasbourg). He fled the monastery in 1521 and was given a pastorate in Steinau an der Strasse by U. v. Hutten, but had to flee again the next year. He served as preacher in Neuenburg am Rhein from 1522 to 15…
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