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Luder, Peter

(161 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1415, Kislau [Bad Schönborn] – 1472, Vienna). After basic studies in Heidelberg from 1430/1431, Luder lived from 1434 to 1456 in Italy and also visited Greece. He was a student of Guarino da Verona (1374–1460) in Ferrara, received a notary's certificate from the Republic of Venice in 1444 and studied medicine in Padua. From 1456 to 1460, he held an electoral commission to teach the studia humanitatis in Heidelberg. In his programmatic inaugural address, he commended the study of history, rhetoric, and poetry. In 1460, he resumed his travels. …


(256 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] 1. Alfonso de (c. 1500, Cuenca – Oct 6, 1532, Vienna), from 1520 or earlier secretary in the chancery of Emperor Charles V, for whose policies he acted as spokesman after 1525. He was present at the diets in Worms in 1521 and Augsburg in 1530, where he debated with Melanchthon. Heinz Scheible Bibliography J.C. Nieto, EncR IV, 1996, 212 E. Wenneker, BBKL XII, 1997, 1035–1037 K. Ganzer, LThK 3 X, 2001, 511. 2. Juan de (1509?, Cuenca – August 1541, Naples), brother of Alfonso; Spanish humanist and theologian. He began his studies in 1526 at the University of…

Volz, Paul

(239 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (before 1480, Offenburg – Jul 6, 1544, Straßburg [Strasbourg]), monastic Humanist and Straßburg preacher. After attending school in Schlettstadt (Sélestat), he joined the Benedictines in Schuttern (part of the Bursfelde congregation since 1489). In 1495 he began to study in Tübingen, earning his M.A. in 1499, after which he became librarian and historian of Schuttern Abbey. In 1512 he became abbot of Hugshofen (Honcourt) near Schlettstadt, charged to implement the Bursfelde reform…

Cureus, Joachim

(155 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Oct 23, 1532, Kozuchów (Freystadt), Silesia, Poland – Jan 21, 1573, Glogów (Glogau), Silesia, Poland). After studying at Wittenberg from 1550 to 1554 and teaching in Freystadt, Cureus went to Padua and Bologna in 1557, where he received a medical degree (Dr. med.) in 1558. In 1559, he began working as a doctor in Glogau. He wrote medical, historical, and theological books, including the anonymous Exegesis perspicua et ferme intégra controversiae de sacra coena, published posthumously (in 1574), in which he argued that the Melanchthon School dev…

Agricola, Stephan

(133 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Kastenbauer) (1491?, Abensberg – Apr 10, 1547, Eisleben) studied in Vienna from 1513, became an Augustinian hermit here in 1515, was awarded a doctorate in theology in 1519 and then became a monastic lector in Regensburg and Rattenberg. In 1522 he was imprisoned in Mühldorf (Inn) on account of his evangelical doctrine and fled in May 1524. In…

Heß, Johann

(345 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1490, Nuremberg – Jan 5, 1547, Breslau). The merchant's son Johann Heß attended the grammar school in Zwickau from 1503, studied at the University of Leipzig from 1505 to 1510, and later at Wittenberg (M.A. in 1511) where he met Luther. In 1513, he moved to Neisse where he became secretary and notary in the chancellery of the bishop of Breslau, Johannes V. Turzo, who endowed him with canonries in Neisse, Brieg and Breslau from 1515 onward. Heß was appointed tutor to Princ…

Eber, Paul

(226 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (Nov 8, 1511, Kitzingen – Dec 10, 1569, Wittenberg) received his preliminary education in Ansbach and Nuremberg before moving to Wittenberg in 1532, where he received his M.A. in 1536, became professor at the pedagogical institute in 1541, professor of physics in 1544, a member of the consistory in 1546, professor of Hebrew and court preacher in 1557, city preacher and general superintendent of the Saxon electoral district in 1558 as the successor of J.Bugenhagen, ¶ Dr.theol. in 1559, and a member of the senate of the faculty of th…

Capito, Wolfgang

(285 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1481 [not 1478] Hagenau – Nov 4, 1541, Strasbourg) studied in Ingolstadt (1501), Heidelberg (1504), Freiburg (1505, 1515 Dr. theol.). In 1512, he became seminary preacher in Bruchsal, in 1515 cathedral preacher and professor in Basel, an eminent Hebraist. Capito was sympathetic to Erasmus and produced the first edition of Luther's collected writings in 1518. In 1520, Capito became cathedral preacher in Electoral Mainz. As counselor to archbishop…

Gallus, Nikolaus

(118 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] (1516, Köthen – Jun 17, 1570, Bad Liebenzell). After studying in Wittenberg from 1530 onward (M.A. in 1537), Gallus became school headmaster in Mansfeld in 1540 and deacon in Regensburg in 1543. In 1548, he left the imperial city because of the Augsburg Interim and worked as a preacher and lecturer in Wittenberg, though he soon accepted an appointment as pastor in Magdeburg (1549), where he joined the Gnesio-Lutherans around M. Flacius. In 1553 (after a brief stay in Köthen), he was recalled to Regensburg as superintendent. Heinz Scheible Bibliography VD 16, 1, 7, 1986,…


(256 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz | Campi, Emidio
[English Version] 1.? Alfonso de (ca.1500 Cuenca – 6.10.1532 Wien). Seit mindestens 1520 Sekretär in der Kanzlei Kaiser Karls V., dessen Politik er ab 1525 publizistisch vertrat. Anwesend bei den Reichstagen in Worms 1521 und Augsburg 1530, wo er u.a. mit Melanchthon verhandelte. Heinz Scheible Bibliography J.C. Nieto (EncR 4, 1996, 212) E. Wenneker (BBKL 12, 1997, 1035–1037) K. Ganzer (LThK 3 10, 2001, 511). 2. Juan de (1509? Cuenca – August 1541 Neapel), Bruder von 1., span. Humanist und Theologe. Ab 1526 studierte er an der Universität von Alcalá, wo die …


(4,363 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred | Scheible, Heinz
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Antiquity – III. Middle Ages and Renaissance – IV. Modern Era I. Terminology Humanism derives from Lat. humanus, “human, humane,” with the suffix - ism denoting the corresponding intellectual attitude; the noun means “the effort to live a humane life, appropriate to the nature of humanity,” “efforts on behalf of humanity.” The word was coined by the educationalist F.I. von Niethammer in 1808 as an alternative to the educational concept of philanthropism (Philanthropy), based on utili…


(336 words)

Author(s): Scheible, Heinz | Beyer, Michael
[German Version] 1. Joachim (Apr 6 [8?], 1514, Wittenberg – May 23 [29?], 1571, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]). Following schooling and training as a craftsman in Marburg, Constance, and Coburg, Mörlin began university studies at Wittenberg in 1532, receiving his master's degree in 1536. In 1539 he was appointed deacon in the parish church. After earning his Dr.theol. in 1540, he was appointed superintendent in Arnstadt. Deposed by the territorial prince because of his rigor, he was appoint…
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