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Hippe

(224 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἵππη; Híppē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Theseus Mistress of  Theseus (Hes. fr. 147 M-W = Ath. 13,557a). Her identification with Hippolyte (= Antiope, according to Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 18 = Plut. Theseus 27,13a) is reasonable considering the identification of Antiope with Hippo (Callim. H. 3,239; 266); furthermore, the name H. appears in the form of Hippo (Clem. Al. Strom. 1,73,4-5 and [1st Prologue l. 21]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the centaur Chiron and of Chariclo Daughter of the centaur  Chiron (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,18) and of Ch…

Segetia

(158 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman goddess (from * sēi, 'sow (seed)': [1. 285]; from seges: Plin. HN 18,8; cf. Isid. Orig. 17,2,7). Linked to a triad in Aug. Civ. 4,8 (= Varro Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 166 Cardauns) in the context of a  polemical account of the multiplicity of Roman gods: Seia is stated to be responsible for the grain in the ground, S. for the same on the culm and Tutilina for it when harvested. The images ( simulacra) of these deities could be seen in circo (Plin. HN. 18,8), possibly referring to reliefs on columns (Tert. De spectaculis 8,3; cf. Macrob. Sat. 1,16,8…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Thallophoria

(245 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (θαλλοφορία/ thallophoría, 'carrying of branches'). At the Panathenaea the act, performed by selected old men (Xen. Symp. 4,17,4), of presenting branches; the term thallophoria is not recorded, but thallophóros ('branch carrier': Hsch. s. v.) and the verb thallophoreîn (Eust. in Hom. Od. 1157,24) are, and these both became proverbial (Aristoph. Vesp. 542 f. with schol.; Suet. perì blasphēmiôn 8,10) in with the meaning 'useful only for carrying branches'. To this extent the modern terminology [1. 278; 2. 1215] is motivated by analogous…

Moriae

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (μορίαι/ moríai). In Athens a term for the olive-trees that were sacred to Athena, the maintenance of which, by assigning special custodians, known as gnṓmones, was watched over by the Areopagus ( áreios págos ) (Lys. or. 7,25). The moriai and even their stumps, which were protected by fences ( sēkós), were sacred, and this may be connected with the high regenerative power of olive trees (cf. Hdt. 8,55). Even the Spartans are said, according to schol. Soph. OC 701, to have spared them when devastating Attica. Offences against the moriai were punished with death (Aristo…

Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Cecrops

(658 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κέκροψ; Kékrops). Indigenous (Apollod. 3,177) Attic first king, who was revered cultically on the acropolis of  Athens, where his grave also lay (Antiochus-Pherecydes FGrH 333 F 1). The Cecropion (building inscription Erechtheion IG I3 474,56. 56-63) is presumably identical with the structure at the south-west corner of the Erechtheion, which was taken into consideration during the construction of the temple, and can be dated before the  Persian Wars (Hecatompedon inscription IG I3 4B, 10-11). An inscription of the Augustan period names a priest of …

Laius

(699 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος; Láios). [German version] [1] Mythical Theban king Mythical Theban king, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus [1] and great-grandson of Cadmus [1] (Hdt. 5,59); his mother's name is not mentioned. He lives four generations before the Trojan War (his great-great-grandson Tisamenus is a minor when the war begins: Paus. 9,5,13). He loses his father when he is one year old (Apollod. 3,40); Lycus, the brother of L.'s great-grandfather on his mother's side, Nycteus (Paus. 9,5,5), becomes his guardi…

Mulciber

(165 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] M. was an epithet for Vulcanus documented on an inscription (CIL XI 5741 from Sentinum) and in literature (amongst others Plaut. Epid. 34, Ov. Met. 2,5 and Sil. 4,668). Besides erroneous constructs (Serv. Aen. 8,724: quod mulcatus pedes; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8: quod mutilatus; Don. in Ter. Ad. 1,2,10: a mulctando), classical derivations of the name originate mostly from the destructive power of fire, which is meant by the verb mulcere (as in Serv. Aen. 8,724; Macrob. Sat. 6,5,2; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8). The derivation a molliendo scilicet ferro in Fest. 129 L. points …

Valetudo

(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…

Teleboae

(203 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεβόαι; Tēlebóai). Mythical people in the west of Acarnania, on Leucas (Str. 7,321 f.) and the adjoining islands (Plin. HN 4,53). Their eponymous progenitor Teleboas is considered a son of Poseidon and the father of Pterelaus (Anaximand. FGrH 9 F 1) or as the latter's son of Pterelaus and the brother of Taph(i)us (Herodorus FGrH 31 F 15). His descriptive name means 'far-calling' (Eust. Od. 1396,3-4) or derives in a strange etymology from T.'s campaign against Electryon to steal his 'oxen' ( bóas) 'far' ( tḗle) from his homeland (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,747), to …

Quies

(89 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Personification of quiet, the religious worship of which is documented exclusively by the mention of a sanctuary of  Q. ( fanum Quietis) on the via Labicana  (Liv. 4,41,8). The inscription Quies Augustorum can be found on coins of Diocletianus and Maximianus after their abdication in AD 305; however, it must be seen in connection with the relief they felt at their withdrawal from official duties, rather than as in fact reflecting religious practice. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s. v. Q., LIMC 7.1, 612; 7.2, 489.

Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also derived) was cooked on the occasion, which was etiologically linked with Theseus' homecoming (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). A procession of boys hung the E iresiṓnē, olive branches bound with wool decoration and laden with first-fruit offerings, on the doors of houses and on the temple of Apollo (Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 72…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Gorgophonus/-os

(93 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Athena (‘killer of Gorgo’). Epithet of Athena in Orph. H. 32,8 (but see  Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Perseus Epithet of Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonnus, Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Son of Electryon and Alcmene Son of  Electryon and Anaxo, Alcaeus' daughter, thus Perseus' grandson.  Alcmene is mentioned as his sister, his brothers' names are listed as Stratobates, Phylonomos, Celaeno, Amphimachus, Ly…

Tenerus

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τήνερος; Tḗneros). Mythical seer ( Mántis : Pind.  Fr. 51d) in Thebes, son of Apollo and the ash-nymph Melia (Melia [1]; schol.  Lycoph. 1211), who gives birth to him in the Ismenion  (Pind. Fr. 52k), where his oracle also was (schol. Pind. Pyth. 11,5); brother of Ismenius (Paus. 9,10,6). Apollo bestows on him the gift of prophecy (schol.  Lycoph. 1211). The Tenerian Plain between Thebes and Lake Copais is named after T. (Str. 9,413; Paus. 9,26,1). Pindar's seventh p…

Memnonides

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεμνονίδες/ Memnonídes; Lat. Memnoniae aves).The legend of the birds of Memnon is closely associated with the grave of Memnon [1] on the river Aisepus. According to Paus. 10,31,6 Polygnotus had portrayed Memnon wearing a robe painted with birds in the picture of Hades on the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. The extant versions probably date back to scholarly of Alexandrine poetry: according to Q. Smyrn. 2,642-655 it is the companions of Memnon who are turned into birds by Eos (simil…

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…

Zephyritis

(228 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζεφυρίτις; Zephyrítis). Epithet of Arsinoe [II 3] II, the sister-wife of Ptolemaeus [3] II Philadelphus who was worshipped as Aphrodite Z. Her sanctuary, donated by the admiral of the fleet Callicrates [9] (Posidippus, Epigrammata 12 GA I. 3110-3119) was located on the cape of Zephyrion (from which the name Z. is derived) not far from Alexandria [1] (Str. 17,1,16; Posidippus, Epigrammata 13 GA 1, 3120-3125) according to Ath. 7,318d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζεφύριον), where she may have b…

Hellusii

(107 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] In Tac. Germ. 46,4, the name of a fantastic people with a human face and a body the shape of an animal. An etymology that goes back to an animal name is therefore assumed; a Germanic equivalent with Greek ἐλλός, Armenian eln, Lithuanian élnis ‘deer (fawn)’ [1. 534-537] has been suggested. Whether this fantastic people bears witness to Scandinavian peoples or rather to seals with a face resembling that of a human remains to be seen [1. 537]. They should certainly not be linked with the Helisii, part of a tribe of Lugians (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliogra…

Telete

(465 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (τελετή /teletḗ, pl. teletaí, < *tḷ1-et2 from teléō/télos < *tel-1 , 'to bring' [10. 232] in contrast to the common two-fold derivation of *kwel- and *tel-2 ; as a Greek foreign word in Lat. teleta, Apul. Met. 11,22 et alibi on the cult of Isis). In the religious realm, the term could refer to various types of events (cf. Hsch. s. v. τ.: festivals, sacrifices, mysteries), originally to religious acts in general (e.g. Batr. 303 [11. 97]; Aristoph. Pax 413). It is therefore used in connection with various Greek fest…

Gorgophone

(187 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γοργοφόνη; Gorgophónē). [German version] [1] Epithet of Athena Epithet of Athena in the sense of ‘killer of Gorgo’ (Eur. Ion 1478; Orph. H. 32,8 Quandt after the passage in Euripides, although γοργοφόνος is transmitted in the vocative); the name can also be interpreted as ‘glowing terribly’ (cf.  Persephone). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 F. Bräuninger, s.v. Persephone, RE 19, 946-947. [German version] [2] One of the Danaids One of the Danaids ( Danaus, Danaids) natural sister of Hypermestra. Her husband is Proteus (Apollod. 2,16 Wagner), whose …

Zenoposeidon

(168 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζηνοποσειδών/ Zēnoposeidṓn). Ζηνο-/ Zēno- is the Doric form of Zeus, Z. is the interpretating Greek translation of Zeus Osogo(a) worshipped in the Carian city of Mylasa [2. nos. 319-327, 361-376; 4. 109-117] who, according to depictions on coins [3. vol. 2, 576-582], exhibited attributes and traits of Zeus (eagle, double axe) and Poseidon (crab, trident) [4. 117-126]; this is documented in the double name (with a humorous anecdote in Machon fr. 8 GA = Ath. 8,337c). The sanctuary which can be located close to (Ath. loc.cit.) or inside (Str. 14,2,23) the city (f…

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Protesilaus

(380 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πρωτεσίλαος/ Prōtesílaos, Latin Protesilaus; approx. 'First Among the People', cf. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; mythological interpretation of the name from his death before Troy in Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; in Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Son of Iphicles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) or Actor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) and Diomedea (Hyg. Fab. 103) are named as his mother. Like his brother Podarces [1] (Hom. ibid.), he courted Helen (Helena I [1]) (Hes. fr. 199,5 M…

Myrmex

(177 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μύρμηξ; Mýrmēx). [German version] [1] Father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite According to Philochorus FGrH 328 F 27 and Hes. fr. 225 M.-W. (= Harpocr. 202,7 Dindorf) he was the father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite. The legend of the Athenians' futile war against the máchimoi mýrmēkes (‘embattled ants’; Eubulus, Glaucus PCG V fr. 20) who guarded the gold dust on Mt. Hymettus, is likewise set in Attica and probably related to this myth. It became proverbial (Pl. Plt. 450b; Harpocr. 308,6 Dindorf). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2]…

Hipponous

(100 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος; Hippónoos). [German version] [1] Name of Bellerophontes According to schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf, the old name of  Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse offers the name of Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Adrastus Son of Adrastus [1] who deliberately threw himself on the pyre with him (Hyg. Fab. 242). The same motif can be found in the story about Capaneus' and Evadne's fate. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Father of Capaneus With Astynome, H. fathered  Capaneus (Apollod. 3,63 Wagner; Hyg. F…

Prometheia

(115 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Προμήθεια/ Promḗtheia). Attic festival of unknown date in honour of Prometheus, at which there were torch races from his altar in the Academy through the Kerameikos to an unrecorded finish (Paus. 1,30,2; Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 135). A torch race modelled on that of the P. was introduced or reorganised at the Hephaistia (Hephaestus II) in 421/20 BC (IG I3 82,32-35). Each phyle entered a team and a gymnasiarch (Isaeus 7,36) for the music agon of the men's and boys' choirs (IG II2 1138; Ps.-Xen. Ath. Pol. 3,4); their performance costs are given as 12 minai (Lys. 21,3). Scherf, J…

Hersilia

(241 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Daughter of the noble Sabine Hersilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1). During the rape of the Sabine women, she is the only married woman who is abducted (Cass. Dio 56,5,5 is a reflection of this: H. teaches the Roman women tà gamiká, ‘what forms part of marriage’), she stays with her daughter, who was also abducted (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,45; Macrob. Sat. 1,6,16), and marries, according to some sources, a certain Hostilius in Rome and so becomes the grandmother of King Tullus  Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1; Plut. Romu…

Pandareus

(297 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πανδάρεος, -εως; Pandáreos, -eōs). Son of Merops [5], from a city named Miletus (schol. V Hom. Od. 19,518); according to Paus. 10,30,2, from Cretan Miletus [3]. His descent from Hermes and Merope (schol. B Hom. Od. 19,518) probably derives from the motif of theft: P. steals the golden hound posted by Zeus to guard his sanctuary in Crete and takes him to Tantalus for safekeeping; through Hermes, Zeus demands the hound back and has Tantalus killed by being cast from Mt. Sipylus for de…

Quadriformis

(124 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('four-formed', also Quadrifrons, 'four-faced'). Sobriquet of Janus (Ianus) whose statue, which looked in four directions, is supposed to have been taken to Rome after the conquest of Falerii [1] in 241 BC (Serv. Aen. 7,607; Macrob. Sat. 1,9,13). Under Domitian it was moved to the Forum Transitorium (Mart. 10,28,5 f.); there is an illustration of the cult image on an as of Hadrian [1. 621 no. 21]. Varro uses quadrifrons as a cosmological symbol of the quattuor partes mundi ('the four directions of the world', fr. 234 Cardauns) [2. 63]. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Biblio…

Lymphae

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (also Lumphae: Prisc. Institutio de arte grammatica 2,36,22). Italian name for water goddesses. The name should be regarded as close, from the point of view of content and language, like Oscan diumpaís, to Greek nýmphai ( Nymphs) [1] to which it is partly used as a parallel: CIL V 3106 (Vicetia), Aug. Civ. 4,34; Paul. Fest. 107,17 L. As an equivalent of Greek nymphólēptos, ‘raging’, Latin lymphatus is created (Varro, Ling. 7,87; Paul. Fest. 107,17-20 L.). The cult worship of the lymphae attested by inscriptions - e.g. CIL III 6373 (Salonae), XI 1918 (Perusia) …

Hippalektryon

(161 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἱππαλεκτρυών; Hippalektryṓn, ‘horse rooster’). Fantastic  monster, a combination of cock and horse. The earliest literary record is Aesch. Myrmidones fr. 134 Radt. The references in Aristophanes (Pax 1177; Av. 800; Ran. 932, as in Aesch. with the epithet xouthós, ‘golden, yellow’) are parodies of tragedies. In Hesychius and Photius s.v. and in the scholia to Aristophanes, the creature has a bird's head - this is the exact opposite of the archaeological findings (a cock's hindquarters with two cock's legs, front of a …

Gegeneis

(175 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, ‘Earth Born ’). [German version] [1] Epithet of the Giants Epithet of the Aloads (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482),  Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), the Spartans (Eur. Bacch. 264), Argus [I 5] (Aesch. PV 567), and the  giants (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). As a noun = giants (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lycoph. 1408; explained in Diod. Sic. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Mythical people Mythical people living near Cyzicus, mentioned by Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 with schola). Dei(l)ochus of Proconnesus called them ἐγχειρογάστορες ( Enche…

Protesilaos

(346 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (Πρωτεσίλαος, lat. Protesilaus; etwa “Erster im Volke”, vgl. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; myth. Ausdeutung durch seinen Tod vor Troia bei Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; bei Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Sohn des Iphikles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) oder des Aktor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); als Mutter werden Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) oder Diomedeia (Hyg. fab. 103) genannt; wie sein Bruder Podarkes [1] (Hom. ebd.) Freier der Helene [1] (Hes. fr. 199,5 M.-W.). Anführer des Kontingents der Phthiot…

Hellusii

(88 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] Bei Tac. Germ. 46,4 Name eines Fabelvolkes mit menschlichem Antlitz und tiergestaltigem Körper. Eine Etym., die auf einen Tiernamen zurückgeht, liegt somit nahe; vorgeschlagen wurde eine german. Entsprechung zu griech. ἐλλός, armen. eln, litau. élnis “Hirsch(kalb)” [1. 534-537]. Ob dieses Fabelvolk von skandinavischen Völkern oder eher von Seehunden mit ihrem menschenähnlichen Antlitz kündet, sei dahingestellt [1. 537]. Sicher nicht in Verbindung sind sie zu bringen mit den Helisii, einem Stammesteil der Lugier (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Scherf, Johannes (Tüb…

Prometheia

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (Προμήθεια). Att. Fest unbekannten Datums zu Ehren des Prometheus, an welchem Fackelläufe stattfanden, die von dessen Altar in der Akademie (Akademeia) über den Kerameikos zu einem uns nicht überlieferten Ziel führten (Paus. 1,30,2; Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 135). Nach dem Vorbild der P. wurde an den Hephaistia (Hephaistos II.) der Fackellauf 421/20 v. Chr. eingeführt oder neu geregelt (IG I3 82,32-35). Jede Phyle stellte eine Mannschaft und einen Gymnasiarchen (Isaios 7,36) für den musischen Agon der Männer- und Knabenchöre (IG II2 1138; Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 3,4…

Ganyktor

(202 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ). Gestalt aus dem Wettkampf Homers und Hesiods; seine Rolle und genealogische Einordnung werden verschieden angegeben: [English version] [1] Sohn des Königs Amphidamas von Chalkis Sohn des Königs Amphidamas [5] von Chalkis (Certamen Z. 63), als solcher vielleicht auch Schiedsrichter im Dichterwettstreit (Vita Hesiodi Z. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des Lokrers Phegeus aus Oinoë Sohn des Lokrers Phegeus aus Oinoë, Bruder des Amphiphanes. Mit diesem zusammen tötet er Hesiod wegen der Verführung ihrer Schwester Kti…

Moriai

(182 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (μορίαι). In Athen die Bezeichnung für die der Athena heiligen Olivenbäume, über deren Erhaltung der Areopag ( áreios págos ) durch Aussendung von gnṓmones, speziellen Aufsehern, wachte (Lys. or. 7,25). Die m. und sogar ihr Stumpf, der durch eine Umfriedung ( sēkós) geschützt wurde, waren unverletzlich, was mit der hohen regenerativen Kraft des Olivenbaumes (vgl. Hdt. 8,55) zusammenhängen mag. Auch die Spartaner sollen sie nach schol. Soph. Oid. K. 701 bei der Verwüstung Attikas geschont haben. Vergehen gegen die m. wurden mit dem Tode bestraft (Aristot. At…

Pandareos

(277 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (Πανδάρεος, -εως). Sohn des Merops [5], aus einer Stadt Milet (schol. V Hom. Od. 19,518), nach Paus. 10,30,2 dem kretischen Miletos [3]. Seine Abkunft von Hermes und Merope (schol. B Hom. Od. 19,518) gründet wohl auf dem Diebstahlmotiv: P. stiehlt den von Zeus als Wächter über seinen Kultbezirk in Kreta eingesetzten goldenen Hund und bringt ihn Tantalos zur Verwahrung; Zeus fordert durch Hermes den Hund zurück und läßt Tantalos, der dessen Besitz leugnet, vom Sipylosgebirge ersch…

Laios

(664 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος). [English version] [1] myth. thebanischer König Mythischer thebanischer König, Sohn des Labdakos, Enkel des Polydoros und Urenkel des Kadmos (Hdt. 5,59); der Name seiner Mutter wird nicht genannt. Er lebt vier Generationen vor dem Troianischen Krieg (sein Ururenkel Tisamenos bei Ausbruch des Krieges minderjährig: Paus. 9,5,13). Im Alter von einem Jahr verliert er den Vater (Apollod. 3,40), die Vormundschaft übernimmt Lykos, der Bruder von L.' Urgroßvater mütterlicherseits, Nykteus (Paus. 9,5,5)…

Gegeneis

(159 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γηγενεῖς, “Erdgeborene”). [English version] [1] Beiname der Giganten Beiname der Aloaden (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,482), des Orion (Apollod. 1,25 Wagner), der Sparten (Eur. Bacch. 264), des Argos [I 5] (Aischyl. Prom. 567) und der Giganten (Batr. 7; Soph. Trach. 1058f.; Eur. Phoen. 1131). Als Substantiv = Giganten (Aristoph. Nub. 853; Lykophr. 1408; begründend Diod. 4,21,7). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Fabelvolk Fabelvolk, bei Kyzikos beheimatet, von Apoll. Rhod. (1,941-3; 989-91 mit schol.) erwähnt. Von Dei(l)ochos aus Prokonnesos als…

Hippalektryon

(144 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ἱππαλεκτρυών, “Roßhahn”). Fabulöses Mischwesen, aus den Körperteilen von Hahn und Pferd zusammengesetzt. Lit. frühestes Zeugnis ist Aischyl. Myrmidones fr. 134 Radt; die Erwähnungen bei Aristophanes (Pax 1177; Av. 800; Ran. 932, wie Aischyl. mit dem Epitheton xuthós, “bräunlich”, “blond”) sind Tragödienparodie. Bei Hesychios und Photios s.v. und den Scholien zu den Aristophanesstellen besitzt das Wesen einen Vogelkopf; dem steht der arch. Befund (Hinterteil eines Hahnes mit zwei Hahnenbeinen, Vorderteil eines Pfer…

Lymphae

(153 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (auch Lumphae: Prisc. institutio de arte grammatica 2,36,22). Ital. Bezeichnung für Wassergöttinnen. Der Name ist inhaltlich und sprachlich wie osk. diumpaís eng zusammenzunehmen mit griech. nýmphai (Nymphen) [1], zu dem er teilweise parallel verwendet wird: CIL V 3106 (Vicetia), Aug. civ. 4,34; Paul. Fest. 107,17 L. Zu griech. nymphólēptos, “rasend”, wird als Entsprechung lat. lymphatus gebildet (Varro ling. 7,87; Paul. Fest. 107,17-20 L.). Die inschr. belegte kultische Verehrung der L. - so CIL III 6373 (Salonae), XI 1918 (Perusia…

Pyanopsia

(164 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (Πυανόψια). Attisches, dem Apollon gewidmetes Fest, das am 7. Tag des Monats Pyanopsiṓn (Ende Oktober) gefeiert wurde. Dabei wurde ein Brei aus Bohnen zubereitet (griech. pýanos, “Bohne” und hépsein, “kochen”, daher auch der Festname), was aitiologisch mit der Heimkehr des Theseus verknüpft wurde (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). Eine Knabenprozession hängte die Eiresiṓnē, mit Erstlingsgaben behangene und mit Wollbinden geschmückte Ölbaumzweige, an die Häuser und den Tempel des Apollon (schol. Aristoph. Equ. 729 und Plut. 1054). …

Mulciber

(150 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] Inschr. (CIL XI 5741 aus Sentinum) und lit. (u.a. Plaut. Epid. 34, Ov. met. 2,5 und Sil. 4,668) belegter Beiname des Vulcanus. Ant. Herleitungen des Namens gehen, neben abwegigeren Konstrukten (Serv. Aen. 8,724: quod mulcatus pedes; Don. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8: quod mutilatus; Don. in Ter. Ad. 1,2,10: a mulctando), meist auf die vernichtende Macht des Feuers, die mit dem Verb mulcere gemeint ist (so Serv. Aen. 8,724; Macr. Sat. 6,5,2; Don. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8), zurück; auf Vulcanus als Schmiedegott weist die Ableitung bei Fest. 129 L. a molliendo scilicet ferro. Daß sich in…

Hipponoos

(98 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος). [English version] [1] Name des Bellerophontes Nach schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf alter Name des Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse bietet den Namen Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des Adrastos Sohn des Adrastos [1], der sich mit ihm freiwillig auf den Scheiterhaufen warf (Hyg. fab. 242). Dieses Motiv findet sich sonst in der Geschichte vom Schicksal des Kapaneus und der Euadne. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [3] Vater des Kapaneus Von Astynome Vater des Kapaneus (Apollod. 3,63 Wagner; Hyg…

Quadriformis

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (“Viergestaltig”, auch Quadrifrons, “viergestirnt”). Beiname des Ianus, dessen nach vier Seiten blickende Statue nach der Eroberung von Falerii [1] 241 v. Chr. nach Rom gebracht worden sein soll (Serv. Aen. 7,607; Macr. Sat. 1,9,13). Unter Domitian kam sie auf das Forum Transitorium (Mart. 10,28,5 f.); auf einem As Hadrians findet sich eine Abbildung des Kultbildes [1. 621 Nr. 21]. Varro symbolisiert kosmologisch als quadrifrons die quattuor partes mundi (“die vierfache Ausrichtung der Welt”, fr. 234 Cardauns) [2. 63]. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliograp…
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