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Vibellius

(119 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
V. is a gens name recorded particularly in Campania. [German version] [1] Decius V. Led Campanian troops the Romans had relocated to Regium in 282 or 280 BC. The garrison later set up an independent government there in alliance with like-minded people in Messana [1] in Sicily. After the Romans' victory in 270 BC all survivors were executed (Pol. 1,7; Diod. 22,1,2-3; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20,4-5; Cass. Dio fr. 40,7-12). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Cerrinus V. Taurea One of the leading men from Capua, the subject of anecdotal and often quite contradict…

North and South

(364 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] (νότος/ nótos, Latin auster, and βορέας/ boréas, Latin aquilo). Whereas the Nile's north-south-axis provided Egypt with a main compass direction, north and south were considered by the Greeks and Romans ‘as edges and border regions in an oikoumene thought of as an east-west ellipse and organised into climate zones’ ([1. 311]). The north and south winds, in contrast, were even regarded by some authors as chief winds (Strab. 1,2,21). Although there were old trade relationships far into the …

Tuccius

(91 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] T., M. As a curule aedile in 192 BC he conducted many cases against profiteers and used the fines to lavishly decorate public buildings (Liv. 35,41,9-10). As praetor in 190 he was allotted Apulia et Bruttii as his area of responsibility and this office was twice extended (Liv. 37,2,1; 37,50,13; 38,36,1). In 186 he was one of the tresviri at the renewal of the colonies of Sipontum and Buxentum (Liv. 39,23,3-4). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] T. Cerialis See M. Tullius [II 1] Cerialis. Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)

Orchius

(90 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] In 182 BC, O. proposed the first attested Roman lex sumptuaria (“law against luxury”). It limited the number of people who could attend a banquet (Macrob. Sat. 3,17,2). Like other laws of this period, this one too was meant to regulate the competition between political opponents. M. Porcius Cato [1] had to fight against mitigation of the law. (Fest. 280-82 L.). It was superseded in 161 BC by the tougher lex Fannia (see Fannius [I 6]; luxus ). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography E. Baltrusch, Regimen morum, 1989, 77-81.

Tautalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ταύταλος/ Taútalos; in Diod. Sic. 33,1,4 according to Posidon.: Taútamos). Successor to Viriatus as supreme commander of the Lusitani, in 139 BC he capitulated to the Romans, who in return awarded his people land to secure their existence (App. Hisp. 320-321). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)

Orient and Occident

(656 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] The designations 'Orient (Or.)' and 'Occident (Oc.)', as regions of the world, are based on the compass directions in which they are located. These in turn were named after sunrise (ἀνατολή/ anatolḗ, 'sunrise', cf. 'Anatolia'; Lat. sol oriens) and, by analogy with this, sunset (δύσις/ dýsis, Lat. sol occidens). Homer had already used these phenomena to determine a primary east-west axis for recording and describing the world (Od. 10,190-192), which differed from that used in Egypt that was based on the direction of the flow of …

Migration

(797 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] Migration denotes the more than temporary transfer of the residence of individuals and groups to another location. A uniform concept was lacking in antiquity, which elaborated only individual aspects of the associated concept: sedentarism was considered the norm. This resulted in a fundamental contrast to nomadism ( Nomads), which was conceived as anti-civilization. Phenomena such as synoikismos and Colonization were perceived as the constitution, enhancement or expansion of one's own cultural space, i.e., as fundame…

Oikoumene

(939 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἰκουμένη/ oikoumén ē, Lat. oecumene) is a participle originally referring to (γῆ, 'earth') and designating 'the inhabited part of the earth' in contrast to the uninhabited portion. The oldest preserved evidence (Xenophan. fr. 41 DK) already links the word to the collective subject 'we' ( sc. human beings) and thus relates oikoumene to a 'humankind' that is not further specified. Accordingly, the oikoumene is not only a geographic entity, but first of all a social realm established by its inhabitants' ability, at least in principle, to fo…

Orient und Okzident

(573 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[English version] Orient (Or.) und Okzident (Ok.) heißen als Weltgegenden nach den Himmelsrichtungen, in denen sie liegen. Diese wiederum sind nach dem Sonnenaufgang (ἀνατολή/ anatolḗ, “Aufgang”, vgl. “Anatolien”; lat. sol oriens) und in Analogie dazu nach dem Untergang (δύσις, lat. sol occidens) benannt. Durch diese Phänomene war schon für Homer eine ost-westl. Hauptachse der Welterfassung und -beschreibung bestimmt (Od. 10,190-192), die sich etwa von der in Äg. üblichen unterschied, die an der Fließrichtung des Nil ausgerichtet war. …

Oikumene

(800 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[English version] (οἰκουμένη, lat. oecumene) ist ein urspr. auf gḗ (γῆ, “Erde”) bezogenes Ptz. und bezeichnet “die bewohnte Erdzone” im Gegensatz zu den unbewohnten. Schon das älteste erh. Zeugnis (Xenophan. fr. 41 DK) verbindet das Wort mit dem Kollektivsubjekt “wir” (sc. Menschen) und bezieht O. also auf eine sonst nicht weiter spezifizierte “Menschheit”. O. ist demnach nicht nur geogr., sondern zunächst sozialer Raum, der durch die zumindest grundsätzlich vorausgesetzte Möglichkeit der Bewohner konsti…

Orchius

(78 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[English version] Brachte 182 v.Chr. die erste bezeugte röm. lex sumptuaria (“Gesetz gegen Luxus”) durch. Sie begrenzte die Zahl der Teilnehmer beim Gastmahl (Macr. Sat. 3,17,2). Wie andere Gesetze dieser Zeit sollte auch dieses die Chancen des polit. Konkurrenzkampfes regeln. M. Porcius Cato [1] mußte gegen seine Abschwächung kämpfen (Fest. 280-82 L.). Es wurde 161 v.Chr. durch die schärfere lex Fannia abgelöst (s. Fannius [I 6]); luxus . Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography E. Baltrusch, Regimen morum, 1989, 77-81.

Migration

(682 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[English version] bezeichnet das mehr als nur kurzfristige Verlegen des Aufenthaltes von einzelnen oder von Gruppen an einen anderen Ort. Ein einheitlicher Begriff fehlt im Alt., wo von der zugehörigen Vorstellung nur einzelne Aspekte entwickelt worden sind: Man verstand Seßhaftigkeit als Norm. Daraus ergab sich eine grundsätzliche Opposition zum Nomadentum (Nomaden), das als Antizivilisation begriffen wurde. Erscheinungen wie synoikismós und Kolonisation wurden als Konstitution, Steigerung oder Erweiterung des eigenen Kulturraumes, …

Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes

(7,177 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Schmitt, Arbogast
Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] A. The Fundamental Argument of the Querelle (CT) In the European history of ideas, several ages have tried to explain what is specifically different about them by means of a direct confrontation with the Antiquity (i.e. as they conceive it). It was even more common in certain areas for what was considered 'modern' in a period to be directly set against and apart from what was considered 'ancient' . A particular focus in historical research has been on the  Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes (QAM). In a poem dedicated to the 'Siècle de…

Stertinius

(262 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Three bearers  of the Italic gens name S. are known from the late Republic. [German version] [1] S., L. Held a pro-consular imperium over Hispania Ulterior By popular vote a pro-consular imperium over Hispania Ulterior was transferred to him for 199 BC (Liv. 31,50,10-11 and [1]), and he returned in 196 with such great booty that he was able to have three arches built in Rome (Liv. 33,27,3-4); In 196 he was a member of a commission to re-organize Greece (Pol. 18,48,2 and [2]). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] S., C. Praetor of Sardinia in 188 BC Praetor of Sardinia in 188 BC …

Titinius

(466 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Comedy writer, end of the 3rd / beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Roman comedy writer, in the general opinion of scholars a contemporary of Plautus (second half of the 3rd/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC), according to [7], however, from the late 2nd cent. BC. In the latter case, it is not T. but Afranius [4] who would have been the archegetes of the Roman national comedy ( fabula togata ); T. would have been responsible for its flourishing. In 15 plays proved to be his he distinguished himself, according to Varro [2] (in Char. 315…

Oceanus

(1,756 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
(Ὠκεανός/ Ōkeanós, Latin Oceanus). [German version] I. Myth Divine representative of the world river, later world sea, that flows in a ring around the earth. In Homer's Iliad O. lives with his wife Tethys on the boundaries of the earth (Hom. Il. 14,200ff.) and is the only god who does not take part in the meeting on Olympus (ibid. 20,7). He is the origin of the gods and of absolutely everything (ibid. 14,201 = 302; 246); from him flow the seas, the rivers, the springs and the wells (ibid. 21,195ff.). Nevertheless he is subordinate to the power of Zeus (ibid. 14,244-248; 21,198f.). Hera's tale of…

Okeanos

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Basel) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
(Ὠκεανός, lat. Oceanus). [English version] I. Mythos Göttl. Repräsentant des die Erde ringförmig umfließenden Weltstroms, später auch des Weltmeers. In Homers ‘Ilias wohnt O. mit seiner Gattin Tethys an den Grenzen der Erde (Hom. Il. 14,200ff.) und nimmt als einziger Gott nicht an der Versammlung im Olymp teil (ebd. 20,7). Er ist der Ursprung der Götter und überhaupt aller Dinge (ebd. 14,201 = 302; 246); aus ihm fließen das Meer, die Flüsse, Quellen und Brunnen (ebd. 21,195ff.). Dennoch ist er der Macht des Zeus unterlegen (ebd. 14,244-248; 21,198f.). Heras Erzählung vom Streit des…

Voconius

(439 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Naso, Q. In 66 BC, V. was the judge in a lawsuit against A. Cluentius [2] Habitus (Cic. Clu. 147 f.), hence presumably an aedile in 67. Before 60, V. was a praetor (Cic. Flac. 50). His relationships to a certain V., who was governor in 49 (Cic. Att. 8,15,3) and to Naso, augur presumably in 45 ( ibid. 12,17) are unclear. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Saxa, Q. As people's tribune ( tribunus [7] plebis) in 169 BC, with the support of M. Porcius Cato [1] he had a plebiscitum passed ( lex Voconia ) according to whi…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepted in Ro…

Metilius

(623 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name, probably of Latin origin with Etruscan parallels (the patrician gens in Dion Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 is invented), historically attested no earlier than the 3rd century BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Between 220-219 BC Creator of a lex Metilia In 220-219 BC, at the instigation of the censors C. Flaminius [1] and L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus, a l ex Metilia was passed on the professional status of fullers ( fullones) (Plin. HN. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Its exact purpose, its creator and his office remain…

Ninnius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer from a distinguished Campanian family seem to have offered Hannibal accomodation in Capua in 216 BC Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer belonged to a distinguished Campanian family. They seem to have offered Hannibal sumptuous accommodation in Capua in 216 BC (Liv. 23,8). Punic Wars Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im 2. Punischen Krieg, 1975, 30-31. [German version] [2] N. Crassus Republican writer, translator of the Iliad in Latin Republican writer, who translated the ‘Iliad into Latin…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which…

Veturius

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in the time between 334 and 321 with V. [I 1], and in the time of the 2nd…

Ninnius

(244 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
[English version] [1] Pacuvius und Sthenius N. Celer aus angesehener kampanischen Familie sollen 216 v.Chr. Hannibal in Capua Quartier geboten haben Pacuvius und Sthenius N. Celer gehörten zu einer angesehenen kampanischen Familie und sollen 216 v.Chr. Hannibal mit großem Aufwand in Capua Quartier geboten haben (Liv. 23,8). Punische Kriege Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography …

Metilius

(558 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Röm. Gentilname wohl latinischer Herkunft mit etr. Parallelen (erfunden ist die patrizische gens bei Dion Hal. ant. 3,29,7); historisch erst im 3. Jh. Chr. bezeugt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Zwischen 220-219 v.Chr. Urheber einer lex Metillia, Identität mit dem Volkstribunen von 217 v. Chr. fraglich 220-219 v.Chr. wurde auf Veranlassung der Censoren C. Flaminius [1] und L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus eine lex Metilia über den Berufsstand der Walker (

Mamilius

(579 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin. Name der alten Herrscherfamilie aus Tusculum (hsl. häufig mit Manilius und Manlius verwechselt). Da die Stadt als Gründung des Telegonos, des Sohnes des Odysseus und der Kirke, galt, führten sich die Mamilii spätestens seit dem frühen 2. Jh.v.Chr. über Mamilia, die Tochter des Telegonos, auf Odysseus zurück (Mz.: RRC 149; 362; lit. seit augusteischer Zeit: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 4,45,1). Im 5. Jh.v.Chr.…

Publicius

(869 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name of a Roman plebeian family, known from the 3rd cent. BC onwards, but not politically significant. During the Late Republic the name was often assumed by public slaves ( servi publici) after manumission as a token of their former status. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Praetor between 69 and 66 BC; after that, presumably governor in Asia…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Otacilius

(584 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Originally an Oscan nomen gentile. The family belonged to the urban nobility of Benventum; the sources show it gaining kinship with one of the leading Roman noble families through the marriage, probably c. 300 BC, of one of its daughters, Otacilia, to a relative of the gens Fabia (Fabius) (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). This no doubt contributed to the rapid rise of family members O. [I 2] and O. [I 3] to the consulship. …

Servilius

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family (epigraphically also Serveilius), said to have migrated to Rome from Alba Longa under king Tullus Hostilius [4] (Liv. 1,30,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7). The oldest branches are the Ahalae and Fidenates in the 5th and 4th cents. BC; the Caepiones and Gemini, from whom the Vatiae (Isaurici) descended, appear in the 3rd cent. The last prominent member of the Servilii Caepiones was the murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, son of Servilia [1], and himself adopted into the family.…

Sicinius

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, often confused with Siccius; members of the family frequently appear as people's tribunes in the 5th cent. BC, but the family is otherwise insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] …

Petillius

(858 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (also Petilius), known at Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Two people's tribunes of 187 BC was the name of two related (cousins?) people's tribunes of the year 187 BC. They accused (at the instigation of Cato [1]?) L. Cornelius [I 72] Scipio before the Senate of the misappropriation of state funds ( peculatus) during the war against Antiochus [5] III and demanded an explanation. L.'s brother P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio declared the accusations to be absurd, an…

Quinctilius

(2,074 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family, derived from the praenomen Quintus; in inscriptions and MSS also Quintilius. In the annalistic tradition the family was one of Rome's oldest, supposed to have arrived in Rome under the king Tullus Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7; cf. Liv. 1,30,2, though he has Quinctii); of a consul recorded in 453 BC and a consular tribune in 403 nothing further is known. In the historical period, members of the family are known from the end of the 3rd cent. on (bearing the inherited cognomen Varus), but they achieved no lasting noble status. The most promin…

Sextilius

(473 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, historically attested at Rome from the 3rd cent. BC. The name was a common one, but its bearers were politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in 69 BC. Distinguished himself in the Armenian war (Plut. Lucullus 25,4-6; App. Mithr. 381-385), but fell into Parthian hands in 68 (Cass. Dio 36,3,2 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Praetor before 67 BC, together with his colleague Bellinus, he was kidnapped by pirates (Plut. Pompeius 24,6). Fündling,…

Oppius

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Oskisches Praenomen, dann weitverbreiteter Gentilname; in Rom bereits für das 5. Jh.v.Chr. lit. erwähnt (O. [I 5]), histor. aber erst seit dem 2. Jh. belegt. Erfindung ist der Tusculaner Opiter O., der dem Mons O. in Rom den Namen gegeben haben soll (Varro bei Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] O., C. Urheber eines Gesetzes 215 v. Chr. zur Beschränkung der Demonstration von Reichtum Beschnitt 215 v.Chr. mit einem Gesetz die Möglichkeiten von Frauen, Reichtum zu demonstrieren (Liv. 34,1,1-3 u.a.; MRR 1, 25…

Otacilius

(526 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Urspr. oskischer Gentilname. Die Familie gehörte zum Stadtadel von Beneventum und gelangte nach der Überl. durch die Heirat einer Tochter Otacilia mit einem Angehörigen der gens Fabia (Fabius) wohl um 300 v.Chr. in verwandtschaftliche Beziehung zu einer der führenden röm. Familien der Nobilität (liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 174 L). Dies förderte sicherlich auch den raschen Aufstieg der Familienmitglieder O. [I 2] und O. [I 3] zum Consulat. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] O. Crassus Praefekt des Pompeius in Lissos 48 v. Chr. Praefek…

Quinctilius

(1,906 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. patrizischen Familie, vom Praen. Quintus abgeleitet, inschr. u. hsl. auch Quintilius. Nach annalist. Trad. gehörte die Familie zu den ältesten Roms und soll unter König Tullus Hostilius nach Rom gekommen sein (Dion. Hal. ant. 3,29,7; vgl. Liv. 1,30,2, dort aber Quinctii); bekannt sind ein cos. 453 v. Chr. und ein Consulartribun 403, ohne daß weitere Nachr. vorliegen. In histor. Zeit sind Angehörige seit dem Ende des 3. Jh. bekannt (mit dem erblichen Cogn. Varus), ohne dauerhaft in die Nobilität zu gelangen. Das prominenteste Mitglied ist P. Q. [II 7] Varus ( cos. ord. 13…

Publicius

(804 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(auch Poblicius, Poplicius, Populicius). Name einer röm. plebeiischen Familie, seit dem 3. Jh. v. Chr. bekannt, aber polit. nicht bedeutend. In der späten Republik wurde der Name gerne von Staatssklaven ( servi publici) nach der Freilassung als Zeichen ihres früheren Standes angenommen. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., Q. Zwischen 69 und 66 v. Chr. Praetor, dann vermutlich Statthalter in Asia War zw. 69 und 66 v. Chr. Praetor, danach verm. Statthalter der Prov. Asia (Cic. Cluent. 126; Cic. ad Q. fr. 1,2,14?; MRR 2,143; 150). Bartels, …

Petillius

(776 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Name einer röm. plebeiischen Familie (auch Petilius), seit dem 2. Jh.v.Chr in Rom bekannt. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., Q. Zwei Volkstribune des Jahres 187 v. Chr. hießen zwei miteinander verwandte (Vettern?) Volkstribune d.J. 187 v.Chr. Sie bezichtigten (auf Betreiben Catos [1]?) L. Cornelius [I 72] Scipio vor dem Senat der Veruntreuung öffentlicher Gelder ( peculatus) im Krieg gegen Antiochos [5] III. und verlangten Rechenschaft. L.' Bruder P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio erklärte die Anschuldigungen für…

Naevius

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, perhaps derived from the praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.); popular etymology derives it from naevus, ‘birthmark’ (Arnob. 3,14). The antiquity of this name in Rome, which is also widely attested in inscriptions, is suggested by the name of porta Naevia in the Servian city wall (Varro, Ling. 5,163; cf. Liv. 2,11,8). However, the family emerged politically only in the 2nd cent. BC. The most important bearer of the name is the poet N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatist and epic poet, 3rd cent. BC Roman drama…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Postumius

(2,687 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman patrician gentilic name (from the praenomen Postumus ), found in the highest offices from the 5th cent. BC on and politically significant until the 2nd cent. BC. As dictator in 499 or 496 BC, an A. P. is supposed to have decided the battle at Lacus Regillus (Liv. 2,19-20). The Albi or Albini (Regillenses), who withdrew from politics with P. [I 9]'s military failure in the Jugurthine War at the end of the 2nd cent. BC, are his descendants. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., C. Etruscan haruspex, even consulted by Sulla Etruscan haruspex ( haruspices

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applied only subsequently to the early Republican members. The political zen…

Naevius

(1,683 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Ital. Personenname, vielleicht vom Praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.) abgeleitet, volksetym. von naevus, “Muttermal” hergeführt (Arnob. 3,14). Für das hohe Alter des Namens in Rom, der auch inschr. weit verbreitet ist, spricht die Bezeichnung porta Naevia in der servianischen Stadtmauer (Varro ling. 5,163; vgl. Liv. 2,11,8). Die Familie selbst trat polit. erst im 2. Jh. v.Chr. hervor. Bedeutendster Namensträger ist der Dichter N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatiker und Epiker, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Röm. Dramatiker und…

Postumius

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Köln) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Gentilname einer röm. patrizischen Familie (vom Vornamen Postumus ), seit dem 5 Jh. v. Chr. in den höchsten Ämtern und bis ins 2. Jh. v. Chr. polit. bedeutend. Ein A. P. soll als dictator 499 oder 496 v. Chr. die Schlacht am Lacus Regillus entschieden haben (Liv. 2,19-20). Von ihm leiteten sich die Albi bzw. Albini (Regillenses) ab, die mit dem mil. Versagen von P. [I 9] im Iugurthinischen Krieg am E. des 2. Jh. v. Chr. aus der Politik ausschieden. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P., C. Etr. Eingeweideschauer, auch von Sulla aufgesucht Etr. Eingeweideschauer ( haruspex; har…

Minucius

(2,064 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name eines röm. Geschlechts. Die überl. patrizischen Namensträger des 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. sind in ihrer Historizität umstritten, auf jeden Fall ist die frühe Familiengeschichte spätrepublikan. Ausschmückung. Auf diese Minucii führten sich die späteren Angehörigen (seit dem 3. Jh.v.Chr.) zurück. Prominentes Cognomen ist Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] und [I 5 und 6]), vom ersten plebeischen Augur M. [I 7] herrührend, erst nachträglich den frührepublikan. Angehörigen beigegeben. Der polit. Höhepunkt der Fa…
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