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Siteresion

(110 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (σιτηρέσιον/ sitērésion, 'maintenance money'). In Greece from the middle of the 5th cent. BC money was paid out for maintenance to citizens serving as equestrians, foot soldiers or oarsmen on warships. Hence the terms μισθός/ misthós, τροφή/ trophḗ, σῖτος/ sîtos and siteresion were used synonymously in the 5th century BC. From the 4th cent. BC onwards a clearer distinction was made between soldiers' pay and contributions for maintenance (= siteresion) (Xen. An. 6,2,4; Dem. Or. 4,28 f.; 50,53; Aristot. Oec. 1353a 19-23). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1…

Lamachus

(165 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμαχος; Lámachos). Athenian, carried out a successful expedition in c. 436/5 BC against the tyrant of Sinope (Plut. Pericles 20,1). As stratēgós in 424, L. lost ten warships in a storm off Heraclea (Thuc. 4,75,1f.; Diod. Sic. 12,72,4). In early 421, L. was one of the Athenian emissaries who swore to uphold the Peace of Nicias [1] and the Athenian-Spartan symmachía (Thuc. 5,19,2; 24,1). In 416/5, Alcibiades [3], Nicias and L. were elected stratēgoí autokrátores (‘authorized military leaders’) of the Sicilian expedition (Thuc. 6,8,2; And. 1,11; Lys. 13,…

Mnasilochus

(62 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνασίλοχος; Mnasílochos). Athenian, in 411 BC árchōn during the oligarchic regime of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). After two months in office dismissed by the 5000 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 33,1; IG I3 373,2). Probably identical with the Mnesilochus mentioned by Xenophon (Hell. 2,3,2), one of the 30 tyrants of 404/3. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 10324  Traill, PAA 656955.

Leotrophides

(57 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λεωτροφίδης; Leōtrophídēs). Athenian stratēgós, who together with Timarchus defeated the Megarans at Mount Cerata on the Attic-Megaran border in 409 BC (Diod. Sic. 13,65,1f.); probably identical with the chorēgós L. mocked for his leanness in Aristophanes (Av. 1406), Theopomp. Com. fr. 25 and Hermippus fr. 36 PCG. Traill, PAA 607065. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Agoratus

(121 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγόρατος; Agóratos). Metic in Piraeus, son of the slave Eumares. In 409 BC, A. was honoured because of his participation in the murder of the oligarch  Phrynichus (GHI2 85; IG I3 102). In 404, he denounced before the council the opponents of the peace treaty with Sparta negotiated by  Theramenes. They were sentenced and executed for treason. Later A. received citizenship. After 400 he was brought before the court by means of   apagoge by a relative of one of the denounced individuals. Lysias wrote his thirteenth speech for the plaintiff. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Eikoste

(690 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰκοστή; eikostḗ). Duty or tax at the rate of a twentieth (5%). 1. In Athens, the Peisistratidae presumably were the first to impose tax on agricultural yields in order to finance wars, magnificent buildings, and ceremonial sacrifices, according to Thuc. 6,54,5, at the rate of 5%. In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; 16,6, tax is called ‘tithe’ (δεκάτη), (cf. Hdt. 1,64,1). 2. In 413/2 BC, the Athenians imposed import and export tax at the rate of 5% on their symmachoi (allies) in the Delian-Athenian League instead of the   phoroi in order to cover the ris…

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Misthos

(883 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(μισθός; misthós). [German version] I. Definition The word misthós was used in Greece in the meaning of ‘price’ or ‘payment’ for a service performed (wage, salary). Misthós also meant the remuneration for granting the use of movable and unmovable goods (cf. μίσθωσις, místhōsis ). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] II. Archaic and Classical Period Members of the sub-peasant class (thetes, pelátai ), who hired themselves out as agricultural servants to nobles or farmers, lived on the estate, received provisions and after th…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Mnasippus

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνάσιππος/ Mnásippos). Spartan, was sent in 373 BC as naúarchos with a fleet against Cercyra, besieged the city and devastated its territories. The Athenians sent a fleet to the aid of Cercyra in 372, but by the time they arrived M. had already lost control of his mercenaries, owing to arrears in pay, and had been defeated. He fell in battle; Sparta discontinued the operation (Xen. Hell. 6,2,3-26; 31; Diod. 15,47,1-7) [1. 414]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, vol. 5, 1991.

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Pentekoste

(333 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ, the 'fiftieth') was a duty at the rate of two per cent. There is evidence of pentekostaí in many Greek cities, such as Athens, Epidaurus, Troezen, Cyparissia, Ceos, Delos, Cimolos (SEG 44,710 Z.31), Erythrae, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, in the Hermias region and in the cities of Upper Egypt, as an import and export duty raised ad valorem on all goods. Before ships were loaded or unloaded goods had to be declared to the πεντηκοστολόγοι ( pentēkostológoi). In Athens the tax on foreign trade amounted to one per cent until the Peloponnesia…

Callimedon

(176 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλιμέδων; Kallimédōn). Athenian, son of Callicrates, pro-oligarchic politician. He was forced to leave Athens before 324 BC because of his pro-Macedonian position. In Megara he participated in the anti-constitutional activities of the Athenian émigrés, which is why Demosthenes [2] had an   eisangelia issued against him (Din. 1,94). During the  Lamian War C. stayed with  Antipater [1], upon whose orders he attempted to prevent the Peloponnesian states from joining the Hellenic League (Plut. Demosthen…

Chabrias

(366 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χαβρίας; Chabrías). Important Athenian general and mercenary leader. Taking part in  Thrasybulus' campaigns in Thrace during the Corinthian War, at the beginning of 389 BC he succeeded  Iphicrates as general in the Peloponnese. In 388 he set off for Cyprus with Athenian forces to support King Evagoras against Persia. On the way there, victory against the Spartans on Aegina (Xen. Hell. 5,1,10-13). When the King's Peace (386) made it impossible for him to remain in Cyprus, C. entere…

Peloponnesian War

(1,544 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A. Definition The term PW is primarily used to describe the military confrontation between Athens and its allies on the one hand (Delian League) and Sparta and its confederates on the other (Peloponnesian League) between 431 and 404 BC. The term PW ( Peloponnēsiakòs pólemos) occurs first in Diodorus Siculus [18] (12,37,2; 13,107,5 etc.); it was already familiar to Cicero (Cic. Rep. 3,44: magnum illud Peloponnesiacum bellum), but probably dates back to Ephorus or a Hellenistic chronicler [3. 60 n. 65; 5. 294f.]. Thucydides speaks of the 'War of t…

Apotimema

(178 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποτίμημα; apotímēma). In cases of wardship the archont transferred the orphan's wealth after an evaluation to the guardian or tenant, who provided a collateral-like surety, the apotimema, for it. The procedure secured the ward's direct access to the mortgaged items at a later time and by granting the apotimema permitted the guardian or tenant to free himself from further demands by the ward. Likewise, the husband provided an apotimema for the dowry received in endowments, so that he was freed from the obligation of reversal in case of a marriage…

Phratria

(502 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(φρατρία/ phratría, 'brotherhood'). [German version] A. Origin and definition In older research the Greek phratries were thought to be associations of kin dating from the migration period (Doric migration Colonisation II). According to more recent research they supposedly derive from neighbourly organizations, which first took on increasing significance in the Archaic period (after the 8th cent. BC). Yet the fact that the term phrátēr already no longer means 'natural brother' in the epics of the 8th cent. BC suggests that phratries as fictional associatio…

Macartatus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μακάρτατος; Makártatos). [German version] [1] Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or Athenian, fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as a cavalryman against the Lacedaemonians The Athenians M. and Melanopus fell in battle in 458/7 or c. 410 BC as cavalrymen in the battle against the Lacedaemonians and Boeotians in the border territory between Tanagra and Eleon. Pausanias (1,29,6) saw a stele dedicated to the two of them in the Kerameikos. A remnant of the base of this stele appears to have been found (IG I3 1288). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9658 Traill, PAA 631475. …

Monopoly

(579 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] I. Greece Although the terms μονοπωλία/ monopōlía and μονοπώλιον/ monopṓlion are documented only since the late 4th cent. BC (Aristot. Pol. 1259a 21-23; Hyp. fr. 43 Jensen), monopolies existed much earlier. According to Aristotle, the poleis set up monopolies for certain goods, especially in times of financial difficulty; such measures belonged to the art of acquiring ( chrēmatistikḗ ). We know of monopolies on sales and exports: private individuals, cities or rulers controlled the trade in certain goods in order to…

Boeotarchs

(170 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] The most important office in the Boeotian League. The College of Boeotarchs, elected by the 11 districts for one year's service, consisted of 11 Boeotarchs before 386 BC, of seven after 364 and of eight at times in 338. Larger cities nominated two boeotarchs, and Thebes, after the capture of Plataea (427 and 373), four. Their extensive powers included, i.a., probouleutic functions for the League's assembly and services as emissaries, but the most important was military command of …

Gryllus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Γρύλλος; Grýllos). [German version] [1] Father of Xenophon Athenian; father of  Xenophon. Traill, PAA 281935. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Xenophon, 4th cent. BC Son of  Xenophon, born after 399 BC. G. was brought up with his brother Diodorus in Sparta. In 362 both fought in the Athenian army as allies of Sparta; G. died fighting on horseback in a skirmish before the battle of Mantinea and was greatly honoured for this (Xen. Hell. 7,5,15-17; Diog. Laert. 2,52-55; Paus. 8,9,5). In Athens a pai…

Theramenes

(497 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Θηραμένης/ Thēraménēs). Important Athenian politician and commander in the late 5th cent. BC; son of Hagnon [1]; teacher of Isocrates. T. participated in the oligarchic overthrow of Athens in 411, was a member of the council of 400 ( T etrakósioi ) and stratēgós . He opposed efforts to end the war against the Peloponnesian Alliance through granting serious concessions and played an essential role in tearing down the fortification of Eetionia which had been built under the oligarchs and which was suppose…

Phanosthenes

(95 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Φανοσθένης; Phanosthénēs) of Andros. He was named próxenos ( proxenía ) and euergétēs of the Athenians, probably because of his services in introducing shipbuilding timber; he was later granted Athenian citizenship and was selected as stratēgós for 407/6 BC. After the defeat at Notion, Ph. succeeded Conon [1] at the siege of Andros, intercepting two ships from Thurii which were attempting to join the Spartan fleet (Plat. Ion 541d; Xen. Hell. 1,5,18f.; IG I3 182). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography H.A. Reiter, Athen und die Poleis des Delisch-Attisch…

Menexenus

(101 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος; Menéxenos). [German version] [1] Son of Socrates A son of Socrates, still a child when his father died (Plat. Apo. 34d; Phd. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26). See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32 PA 9975 Traill, PAA 644865. [German version] [2] Pupil of Socrates Pupil of the Sophist Ctesippus, a relative, and of Socrates, at whose death he was present (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phd. 59b). Plato named his dialogue ‘M.’ after him. See Socratics. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bib…

Eisphora

(546 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰσφορά; eisphorá). In Athens, the eisphora was an extra-budgetary, direct wealth-tax imposed on wealthy Athenians during financial crises, primarily during wars, by order of the public assembly. According to Aristot. Ath. Pol. 8,3, an eisphora supposedly existed already in the Solonic period. However, the wording of the law cited there mentions only a general collection of taxes through the   naukraroi . According to Thuc. 3,19,1, an eisphora was imposed in 428/7 BC for the first time (πρῶτον) in the amount of 200 talents due to the high costs of war. Since an eisphora

Laches

(266 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λάχης; Láchēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships Athenian stratēgós from a wealthy family, sent to Sicily in 427 BC with 20 warships to protect the cities allied to Leontini (Thuc. 3,86) against Syracuse, he successfully led a number of campaigns out of Rhegium against the Aeolian Islands, Mylae, Inessa and the Locrians (Thuc. 3,88; 90; 99; 103; Diod. Sic. 12,54,4f.). After his return in the winter of 426/5 (Thuc. 3,115), he was prosecuted with…

Erasinides

(160 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐρασινίδης; Erasinídēs). Athenian strategos. In 409 BC he petitioned that Thrasybulus of Calydon be honoured with a golden wreath for the killing of the oligarch Phrynichus (IG I3 102). Elected strategos in the spring of 407, in 406 E. was encircled with Conon at Mytilene, but was able to fight his way through by ship to Athens (Xen. Hell. 1,6,16-22). E. commanded a squadron at the sea-battle at the Arginusae, and subsequently urged a rapid attack on the Spartan fleet lying off Mytilene (Xen. Hell. 1,6,29-38;…

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Melon

(118 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μέλων; Mélōn). A Theban. Together with Pelopidas and other conspirators, he prepared from Athens for the overthrow of the oligarchy at Thebes in 379 BC. Having secretly returned, they killed the polémarchoi and Leontiades [2], one of the leading figures among the oligarchs (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9; Plut. Pelopidas 8-12; Plut. de genio Socratis 576a; 587d; 596d; 597a). They freed the political prisoners and proclaimed freedom, were honoured in the people's assembly and elected as boeotarchs (Plut.…

Charixenus

(231 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίξενος; Charíxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Aetolian League in 281/0 and 270/69 BC C. from Trichonium (Aetolia). In 288/7 BC, 281/0 and 270/69 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 5, 14, 54) [1. 267 note 4]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Strategos of the Aetolian League, 3rd cent. BC Aetolian; son of Cydrion. In 260 BC hipparch (IG IX2 18,18); 255/4, 246/5, 241/0 and 234/3 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 3 B). In the latter role, in 246/5 he invited Greek cities to celebrate the newly organized festival of the  Sote…

Euryptolemus

(129 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Εὐρυπτόλεμος; Euryptólemos). Cousin and close friend of Alcibiades [3] and related to the younger Pericles. In 408 BC, E. and  Diotimus [1] were sworn witnesses to the contract in Chrysopolis between Pharnabazus and Alcibiades and were members of an Athenian delegation to Susa. As a result of a shift in the Persian court in favour of the Spartans, the delegation was detained for quite some time (Xen. Hell. 1,3,12f.; 1,4,1-7). In the Arginusae trial E. argued, first by   paranómōn graphḗ , which he was obliged to withdraw, and then in a publ…

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of splitting the cost of financial services by the state between the citizens, were all contingent upon economical ability and thereby indirectly dependent upon social status. These rights and duties were assigned on the basis of an estimation. Ancient political theory regarded the requirement of meeting certain qualifica…

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his assets were confiscated (Lys. 28). Since the embezzled money was never found, there were suspicions that Philocrates, trierarch and treasurer under E., had taken possession of this money (Lys. 29). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Callixenus

(112 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Καλλίξενος; Kallíxenos). Athenian, successfully pleaded in the Council in 406 BC for a sentencing of the generals because they failed to rescue shipwreck victims after the battle of the Arginusae; his request to have the generals executed when found guilty was submitted to the popular assembly. After  Euryptolemus was forced to drop a suit of unlawfulness ( Paranomon graphe), the generals were sentenced to death. Later when proceedings were initiated against the accusers, C. fled …

Rhinon

(186 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ῥίνων; Rhínōn). Attic politician, who was a member (Paredros) of the Hellēnotamíai in 417/6 BC and after the fall of the Thirty (Triakonta) was one of the committee of the Ten (Deka), which in 403 achieved reconciliation with the democrats in Piraeus and their return to the city. After democracy was restored, R. accounted for his actions in office and was elected stratēgós for 403/2 and treasurer of the goddess Athena and the other gods for the year 402/1 (ML 77,26 f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 38,3 f.; Aristot. fr. 611 Rose2; Isoc. Or. 18,6; 18,8; IG II/II2 1371). Aeschines [1]…

Corinthian War

(374 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] A war named after the area of military operations around  Corinth; triggered by a border conflict between Locrians and Phocians in 395 BC, and brought to an end by the  King's Peace in 386. Sparta as an ally of the Locrians invaded the Phocians' ally Boeotia, which entered into a military alliance ( symmachia) with Athens. After the Spartan defeat outside  Haliartus in 395 (death of  Lysander), Corinth and Argos joined the Athenian-Theban symmachia (StV II2 225). An allied advance against Laconia in 394 ended with the defeat at the Nemea stream. The Spar…

Cleitophon

(67 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Κλειτοφῶν; Kleitophôn). Athenian, a disciple of  Socrates (Pl. Resp. 1,328b; 340a-b). Plato's dialogue C . is named after him. C. proposed to consider Cleisthenes' constitution for the planned changes in 411 BC. In 404 he represented the pátrios politeía viewpoint together with  Theramenes and others ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,3; 34,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 8546 M. Chambers, Aristoteles. Staat der Athener, 1990, 277 Rhodes 375-377.

Argyrologoi nees

(92 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀργυρολόγοι νῆες; argyrológoi nêes). With the onset of the Peloponnesian War the Athenians sent out special ships to collect overdue tribute (φόροι; phóroi) and additional renders from members of the Athenian League. The ships were commanded by generals (Thuc. 2,69,1; 3,19,1; 4,50,1; 4,75,1; Aristoph. Equ. 1070 f.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 24,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,8; 1,1,12). The word ἀργυρολογεῖν ( argyrologeîn) is also in general use for the collection of monies (Xen. Hell. 4,8,30; Aeschin. Ctes. 159).  Athenian League Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 S. …

Nautikon daneion

(465 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναυτικὸν δάνειον/ nautikòn dáneion; sea loan). The ND was a loan ( dáneion) granted to a long-distance merchant ( émporos) or ship's owner ( naúklēros) at interest (ναυτικὸς τόκος, nautikós tókos) for the duration of a commercial voyage - either for a one-way voyage (ἑτερόπλουν δάνειον, heteróploun dáneion) or for a round trip (ἀμφοτερόπλουν δάνειον, amphoteróploun dáneion) - for which the ship or its freight was the bond ( hypothḗkē [1]). Egyptian documents show that guarantors assumed liability for the fulfilment of the agreement. The loan agreement ( syngraphḗ

Naukleros

(290 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύκληρος; naúklēros). A naúklēros was a ship-owner or also a captain conducting internal or overseas trade with his own or a leased ship (cf. Hdt. 1,5,2; 4,152,1; Xen. Oec. 8,12). He also offered other traders cargo space for sea transport; the naúklēros was thus not always distinct from the émporos . From the end of the 4th cent. BC, the naúklēroi, who were predominantly foreigners, often formed their own associations, often cultic (Associations); trading societies with their own capital separate from the private wealth of participants …

Menexenos

(99 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μενέξενος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Sokrates Einer von Sokrates' Söhnen, beim Tod des Vaters noch ein Kind (Plat. apol. 34d; Phaid. 116b; Diog. Laert. 2,26); Sokratiker. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography A.-H. Chroust, A Comment On Aristotle's On Noble Birth, in: WS 85 N.F. 6, 1972, 19-32  PA 9975  Traill, PAA 644865. [English version] [2] Schüler des Sokrates Schüler des mit ihm verwandten Sophisten Ktesippos und des Sokrates, bei dessen Tod er zugegen war (Plat. Lys. 206d; 211c; Plat. Phaid. 59b). Nach ihm hat Platon den Dialog ‘M.’ benannt; Sokratiker. Schmitz, Wi…

Strombichides

(113 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Στρομβιχίδης/ Strombichídēs). Son of Diotimus [1], Attic strategos in 412/1 BC. His operations against Teosin 412 BC were unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,15,1; 8,16,1-2) and he, Onomaclesand Euctemon besieged Chiosin vain (Thuc. 8,30; 8,33,2-34; 8,38; 8,40 f.; 8,55,2-56,1; 8,61-63). From there he went to the Hellespontus in the spring of 411 in order to salvage Athens's lost authority there (conquest of Lampsacus and Sestus, Thuc. 8,62). In 411 he remained true to democracy and was active in the …

Tamia

(66 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμία/ tamía). In a well-to-do Greek house the tamia managed provisions and objects of value stored in the house, usually in a lockable closet ( Tamieion ; Thalamos ). Among the servants she had a special status and enjoyed the trust of the owner of the house (Hom. Od. 2,345; Pind. Ol. 13,7; Xen. Oec. 9,10-13; 10,10; Lib. Or. 16,47). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Tamieion

(163 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμιεῖον, tamieîon). Cash office or strong-room in which monies and objects of value belonging to temples, the polis or private individuals were kept by a bursar or treasurer, a servant of the household (ταμίας/ tamías, ταμία/ tamía). For the Athenian symmachia (Delian League), the Sanctuary of Apollo on Delos was the treasury (κοινὸν ταμιεῖον/ koinón tamieion) for incoming dues (φόροι/ phóroi; Thuc. 1,96,2; Diod. Sic. 11,47,1). In Athens, the ὀπισθόδομος/ opisthódomos was the place in which the financial resources of the polis were kept. Tamieion is also the t…

Apophora

(180 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀποφορά; apophorá). Payment made by independently working slaves to their master (And. 1,38; Hyp. Ath. 9; 19; Theophr. Char. 30,15). Aeschines (1,97) set the amount of the apophora for a trained craftsman at two oboli daily and for the head of the ergasterion (ἡγημών; hēgēmṓn) at three. The revenue exceeding this amount remained with the slave, who was in this way able to earn money to purchase freedom and occasionally even acquire wealth (Xen. Ath. Pol. 1,11). It is impossible to estimate how large the number of independently working slaves was. Possibly, apophora also…

Emporos

(443 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἔμπορος; émporos). In the Odyssey emporos is a passenger travelling on a foreign ship (Hom. Od. 2,319; 24,300f.). The merchant and shipowner trading in goods for profit, however, is called πρηκτήρ ( prēktḗr) or ἀρχὸς ναυτάων ( archós nautáōn) in Od. 8,161-164. In keeping with epic language travellers on land and sea are emporoi in Attic tragedies. Hesiod, however, already uses ἐμπορίη ( emporíē; Hes. Op. 646) to describe trading by ship and Herodotus also uses the word in that sense . In the Classical period emporos was used in particular of a merchant trading ove…

Diagraphein, diagraphe

(253 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (διαγράφειν, διαγραφή; diagráphein, diagraphḗ) . (1) In Attic procedural law, diagraphḗ referred to the deletion of a suit from the court list after the prosecutor had either abandoned the case or failed to pay the court fees, or if the defendant objected to the admissibility of the action either by   paragraphḗ (παραγραφή) or by   diamartyría (διαμαρτυρία). (2) The term diagraphḗ is also used for the registration of shares in mines leased from the polis, with their respective boundaries, in a register (Harpocr. s.v. διαγραφή). (3) Additionally, it is a banking ter…

Charidemus

(227 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίδημος; Charídēmos). [German version] [1] Member of an Athenian delegation, 4th cent. BC Member of an Athenian delegation which in 359 BC requested the help of Philip II in taking Amphipolis (Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 30a). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Mercenary leader from Oreos, 4th cent. BC Mercenary leader from Oreos. Main source Dem. Or. 23, especially 144ff. In 360 C. entered the service of the Thracian King  Cotys I, whose daughter he married. After Cotys' death he endeavoured to establish the minor  Cersobleptes as…
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