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Meletus

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Μέλητος; Mélētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, c. 415 B.C. Athenian. In the year 415 BC he was denounced for having participated in the profanation of the mysteries and the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the). He fled from Attica and was condemned to death in absentia (And. 1,12f.; 35; 63). Possibly the same as M., the great-grandson of the Alcmaeonid Megacles [4] (IG II2 1579,19). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9825 Traill, PAA 639290. [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Andocides, 400 B.C. Athenian; along with Socrates and others he was ordere…

Tamias

(870 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ταμίας/ tamías, pl. ταμίαι/ tamíai). Administrator of temple coffers or state coffers. In Athens the tamiai of Athena (ταμίαι. τῆς θεοῦ, tamíai tȇs theoû) held the most important treasury office. The ten tamiai were appointed by lot from the property class of the pentakosiomédimnoi , one from each phylḗ . At the beginning of their year of office, in the presence of the council ( boulḗ ) the tamiai were handed the gold-ivory image of Athena, the bronze statues of Nike, covered in silver and gold leaves, the votive offerings and the balance of cash …

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Melon

(118 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μέλων; Mélōn). A Theban. Together with Pelopidas and other conspirators, he prepared from Athens for the overthrow of the oligarchy at Thebes in 379 BC. Having secretly returned, they killed the polémarchoi and Leontiades [2], one of the leading figures among the oligarchs (Xen. Hell. 5,4,2-9; Plut. Pelopidas 8-12; Plut. de genio Socratis 576a; 587d; 596d; 597a). They freed the political prisoners and proclaimed freedom, were honoured in the people's assembly and elected as boeotarchs (Plut.…

Pheidon

(487 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φείδων; Pheídōn). [German version] [1] Ph. the Corinthian From Corinth, legislator, early 7th cent. BC According to Aristot. Pol. 1265b 12-16, he was one of the 'oldest legislators' who is said to have been the originator of a law in which the number of houses had to equal the number of citizens; it appears therefore to have served to protect the owners of plots of land and to maintain the balance of land ownership ratios ( klḗros ). Like the similar law of Philolaus [1], the law is probably authentic; it was possibly still in use in the time of the Bacchiadae regime (early 7th cent. BC). Hölkeskamp…

Athenodoros

(368 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀθηνόδωρος; Athēnódōros). [German version] [1] Mercenary commander, in Persian service around 360 BC Mercenary commander, from the Athenian cleruchy Imbrus. In Persian service around 360 BC, then in the service of the Thracian king  Berisades, to whom he became related by marriage. In the battle for the rulership in Thrace, A. won for the allied Berisades and  Amadocus the Athenians as symmachoi against  Cersebleptes. Because of this, the Athenian strategos Chares was able to secure the division of the rulership in Thrace as well as the Athenian possessions on th…

Charixenus

(231 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Χαρίξενος; Charíxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Aetolian League in 281/0 and 270/69 BC C. from Trichonium (Aetolia). In 288/7 BC, 281/0 and 270/69 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 5, 14, 54) [1. 267 note 4]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Strategos of the Aetolian League, 3rd cent. BC Aetolian; son of Cydrion. In 260 BC hipparch (IG IX2 18,18); 255/4, 246/5, 241/0 and 234/3 strategos of the Aetolian League (IG IX2 3 B). In the latter role, in 246/5 he invited Greek cities to celebrate the newly organized festival of the  Sote…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Conon

(985 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κόνων; Kónōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, after 411/10 BC repeatedly stratēgós Athenian, in 413 BC commander in Naupactus, after 411/10 repeatedly stratēgós. C. was bottled up in 406 by the Peloponnesian fleet in the port of Mytilene and lost 30 ships (Xen. Hell. 1,6,14-23; Diod. Sic. 13,77-79). After Athens' victory at the  Arginusae he was freed. Since he did not participate in the battle, he was not deposed and sentenced to death like the other generals (Xen. Hell. 1,6,38-7,1). He escaped the destruction of …

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Euryptolemus

(129 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Εὐρυπτόλεμος; Euryptólemos). Cousin and close friend of Alcibiades [3] and related to the younger Pericles. In 408 BC, E. and  Diotimus [1] were sworn witnesses to the contract in Chrysopolis between Pharnabazus and Alcibiades and were members of an Athenian delegation to Susa. As a result of a shift in the Persian court in favour of the Spartans, the delegation was detained for quite some time (Xen. Hell. 1,3,12f.; 1,4,1-7). In the Arginusae trial E. argued, first by   paranómōn graphḗ , which he was obliged to withdraw, and then in a publ…

Leogoras

(365 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας; Leōgóras). [German version] [1] Father of the orator Andocides [1], 5th cent. BC Father of the orator Andocides [1], member of an old Athenian noble family, tracing its roots back to Telemachus and Hermes and linked by marriage to the Alcmaeonids (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. was mocked by Aristophanes [3] because of his debauched and profligate way of life. In 426/5 BC he led a legation to the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (IG I3 61, l. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). In 415, L. successfully used a paranomon graphe to clear himself fr…

Estimation

(294 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] In many ancient political communities, the right of full citizenship, the active or passive right to vote, the assignment to certain arms of service, and the act of splitting the cost of financial services by the state between the citizens, were all contingent upon economical ability and thereby indirectly dependent upon social status. These rights and duties were assigned on the basis of an estimation. Ancient political theory regarded the requirement of meeting certain qualifica…

Lycon

(669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Sharples, Robert (London) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Λύκων; Lýkōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, late 5th cent. BC Athenian, supported the rebellion of Pissuthnes against the Great King around 420 BC. Bribed by Tissaphernes, L. fell away from Pissuthnes and received several cities as territory under his rule in recompense (Ctesias FGrH 688 F 15,53). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Prosecutor of Socrates Prosecutor of Socrates (Pl. Ap. 23e; 36a); satirized by comedians (Eupolis fr. 61; 232; Metagenes fr. 10 PCG; schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 1169) because of his poverty, foreign origin, …

Ergocles

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐργοκλῆς; Ergoklês). Athenian strategos. In 404/3 BC, he joined the democrats in Phyle. In 390/89, he operated as a strategos together with Thrasybulus in the Hellespont and on the coast of Asia Minor. After his return, he was indicted for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of authority and sentenced to death; his assets were confiscated (Lys. 28). Since the embezzled money was never found, there were suspicions that Philocrates, trierarch and treasurer under E., had taken possession of this money (Lys. 29). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)

Eikoste

(690 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εἰκοστή; eikostḗ). Duty or tax at the rate of a twentieth (5%). 1. In Athens, the Peisistratidae presumably were the first to impose tax on agricultural yields in order to finance wars, magnificent buildings, and ceremonial sacrifices, according to Thuc. 6,54,5, at the rate of 5%. In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 16,4; 16,6, tax is called ‘tithe’ (δεκάτη), (cf. Hdt. 1,64,1). 2. In 413/2 BC, the Athenians imposed import and export tax at the rate of 5% on their symmachoi (allies) in the Delian-Athenian League instead of the   phoroi in order to cover the ris…

Banks

(2,042 words)

Author(s): Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Andreau, Jean (Paris)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Banks as institutions whose specific task consists of arranging payment transactions, accepting deposits and granting credits, did not exist in the Ancient Orient. There is evidence of deposit and credit operations in ancient oriental societies of differing quantity and intensity, both in the domain of palace and temple economy and in individual private legal and economic transactions, but they were always subordinate to the respectively dominating redistributive an…

Theomnestus

(215 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Θεόμνηστος/ Theómnēstos). [German version] [1] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian, accused by Lysitheus of cowardice after the battle of Corinthus (in 394 BC) in an action of dokimasia ( epangelía dokimasías) or 'scrutiny'. By being convicted T. was unable to appear as a rhetor in the People's Assembly, but managed to have the verdict quashed by means of an action for false witness against Dionysius. Against a renewed accusation of cowardice raised by Theon T. proceeded with an action of defamation ( díkē kakēgorías; Kakegoria ) and succeeded. He was then cha…

Cleitophon

(67 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Κλειτοφῶν; Kleitophôn). Athenian, a disciple of  Socrates (Pl. Resp. 1,328b; 340a-b). Plato's dialogue C . is named after him. C. proposed to consider Cleisthenes' constitution for the planned changes in 411 BC. In 404 he represented the pátrios politeía viewpoint together with  Theramenes and others ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,3; 34,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 8546 M. Chambers, Aristoteles. Staat der Athener, 1990, 277 Rhodes 375-377.

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Argyrologoi nees

(92 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἀργυρολόγοι νῆες; argyrológoi nêes). With the onset of the Peloponnesian War the Athenians sent out special ships to collect overdue tribute (φόροι; phóroi) and additional renders from members of the Athenian League. The ships were commanded by generals (Thuc. 2,69,1; 3,19,1; 4,50,1; 4,75,1; Aristoph. Equ. 1070 f.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 24,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,8; 1,1,12). The word ἀργυρολογεῖν ( argyrologeîn) is also in general use for the collection of monies (Xen. Hell. 4,8,30; Aeschin. Ctes. 159).  Athenian League Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 S. …

Diomedon

(191 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Διομέδων; Diomédōn). [German version] [1] Commander under Antiochus III As the commander of Seleucia on the Tigris under Antiochus III, he fled from Molon, the advancing rebel satrap of Media (Pol. 5,48,12). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. As strategos, he brought reinforcements to the Athenian troops in Asia Minor in 412-11 BC, regained control over seceding Lesbos together with Leon, and was victorious against the Rhodians (Thuc. …

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Nautikon daneion

(465 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναυτικὸν δάνειον/ nautikòn dáneion; sea loan). The ND was a loan ( dáneion) granted to a long-distance merchant ( émporos) or ship's owner ( naúklēros) at interest (ναυτικὸς τόκος, nautikós tókos) for the duration of a commercial voyage - either for a one-way voyage (ἑτερόπλουν δάνειον, heteróploun dáneion) or for a round trip (ἀμφοτερόπλουν δάνειον, amphoteróploun dáneion) - for which the ship or its freight was the bond ( hypothḗkē [1]). Egyptian documents show that guarantors assumed liability for the fulfilment of the agreement. The loan agreement ( syngraphḗ

Naukleros

(290 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύκληρος; naúklēros). A naúklēros was a ship-owner or also a captain conducting internal or overseas trade with his own or a leased ship (cf. Hdt. 1,5,2; 4,152,1; Xen. Oec. 8,12). He also offered other traders cargo space for sea transport; the naúklēros was thus not always distinct from the émporos . From the end of the 4th cent. BC, the naúklēroi, who were predominantly foreigners, often formed their own associations, often cultic (Associations); trading societies with their own capital separate from the private wealth of participants …

Metaneira

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα; Metáneira). [German version] [1] Wife of the Eleusinian king Keleos Wife of the Eleusinian king Celeus (according to schol. Eur. Or. 964 of Hippothoon), mother of Demophon [1] and of several daughters. Metaneira takes Demeter, who is looking for Persephone, into her house and entrusts her little son, Demophon, to her care. However she unwittingly disturbs the goddess who is trying to make the child immortal in the fire, and Demeter pulls away from him (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fast. 4,507ff., in …

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Phares

(225 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάραξ/ Phárax). [German version] [1] Spartan military officer (end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Spartan, in 405 BC second in command at Aigos potamos (Paus. 6,3,15). As a naúarchos (naval commander) he took part in operations with Dercylidas in Caria in the early summer of 397 (Xen. Hell. 3,2,12-14) and intercepted the Athenian legates to Persia who were executed in Sparta (Hell. Oxyrh. 10,1 Chambers). In 396 he besieged Conon [1] in Caunus with 120 ships (Diod. 14,79,4f.) [1]. In 390 as próxenos ( Proxenía ) of the Thebans he supported the Boeot…

Misthos

(883 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(μισθός; misthós). [German version] I. Definition The word misthós was used in Greece in the meaning of ‘price’ or ‘payment’ for a service performed (wage, salary). Misthós also meant the remuneration for granting the use of movable and unmovable goods (cf. μίσθωσις, místhōsis ). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] II. Archaic and Classical Period Members of the sub-peasant class (thetes, pelátai ), who hired themselves out as agricultural servants to nobles or farmers, lived on the estate, received provisions and after th…

Timagoras

(184 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Τιμαγόρας/ Timagóras). [German version] [1] Greek painter and poet from Chalcis, c. 450 BC Greek Classical period painter and poet (?) from Chalcis; known only from Plin. HN 35,58, who gives an account of a painting competition during the Pythian Games in Delphi ( c. 450-440 BC), which T. won against Panaenus. The scale and appearance of his works are unknown. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography N. J. Koch, Techné und Erfindung in der klassischen Malerei, 2000, 229 G. Lippold, s. v. T. (7), RE 6 A, 1074 P. Moreno, s. v. T., EAA 7, 1966, 855. [German version] [2] From Athens, envoy t…

Kapelos

(298 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (κάπηλος; kápēlos). The kapelos was a Greek merchant at the local market, selling various goods including foods; he also served wine, vinegar, or other beverages. The specifications added to the word kapelos (e.g. ἐλαιο-, οἰνο-, σιτο-κάπηλος; oil, wine, grain kapelos) show how diverse retail in Athens was in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Specialized kápēloi were concentrated in specific areas of the market or in specific streets. Female vendors (καπηλίς, kapēlís) are attested as well (cf. Dem. Or. 57,30ff.). The καπηλεῖον ( kapēleîon) was a permanent booth or store…

Dracontides

(167 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Δρακοντίδης; Drakontídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, son of Leogoras from the deme Thorae; in 446/5 BC epistátēs, in 433/2 stratēgós and in that capacity one of the commanders of a relief fleet for Cercyra in the autumn of 433 (cf. Thuc. 1,51,4; on the corruption of the text at that point see [1. 95]). D. was a bitter opponent of Pericles and in 430 aided in his removal (Plut. Pericles 32,3) [2]. Davies 4551. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography 1 S. Hornblower, Commentary 1, 1991 2 F. J. Frost, Pericles and Dracontides, in: JHS 84, …

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Callistratus

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Καλλίστρατος; Kallístratos). [German version] [I 1] Tragedian Tragedian (TrGF I 38), whose ‘Amphilochus and ‘Ixion (DID A 2b, 80) won him second place at the Lenaea of 418 BC; probably not identical with the didáskalos (‘director’) of  Aristophanes [3]. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) Bibliography P. Geißler, Chronologie der altatt. Komödie, 1969, 6f. PCG IV, p. 56. [German version] [I 2] Important Athenian politician, elected strategos in 378/7 BC Important Athenian politician and outstanding orator, nephew of  Agyrrhius and kēdestḗs (probably fat…

Phrynichus

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Φρύνιχος/ Phrýnichos). [German version] [1] P. from Athens Tragedian, around 500 BC Tragedian. According to Suda φ 762 (TrGF I 3 T 1) he achieved his first victory in 511/508 BC and died on Sicily (T 6). He is said to have been the first person to bring female roles to the stage and to have 'invented' the trochaic tetrameter (T 1), which probably means that he introduced the metre into the tragic genre. He was famous on account of the quality ('sweetness') of his sung parts (Aristoph. Vesp. 219), whose len…

Androclidas

(156 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνδροκλείδας; Androkleídas). Prominent politician in Thebes. Belonged to the group around  Ismenias, who in 395 BC with Persian money was supposed to involve Sparta in a war, in order to force  Agesilaus [2] to pull out of Asia Minor and to weaken the friends of Sparta around  Leontiades in Thebes. On the advice of A., Thebes helped the Locrians in the war against the Phocians, which caused Sparta to become involved (Hell. Oxy. 20,1-2; 21 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 3,5,1-5; Plut. Lys. 27). When Sparta occupied the Cadmea in 382 and Leontiades had Ismenias taken prisoner, c. 300 …

Hekatoste

(358 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ἑκατοστή; hekatostḗ). In antiquity  taxes of 1% were called hekatoste: 1. There were numerous forms of hekatoste in Athens (Aristoph. Vesp. 658), like the ἑκατοστὴ ἡ ἐν Πειραιεῖ ( hekatostḗ hē en Peiraieí) mentioned in Ps.-Xen. Ath. pol. 1,17, and the port customs duty documented in IG I3 182 l.15. According to Theophrast (F 650 Fortenbaugh; Stob. 44,20 Wachsmuth-Hense) the buyer of a piece of land had to pay a 1% sales tax. Ancient and Byzantine lexica mention ‘certain hekatoste’ among the sales taxes (ἐπώνια; epṓnia) (Anecd. Bekk. I 255,1). Three fragmentary in…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Thrasyllus

(670 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θράσυλλος; Thrásyllos). [German version] [1] Athenian commander in the Peloponnesian War (also Θράσυλος; Thrásylos). From Athens, served as a hoplite in the armed forces on Samos in 411 BC and was significantly involved there in the overthrow of an oligarchic revolution (Thuc. 8,73). Together with Thrasybulus [3], he organized the resistance against the oligarchs in Athens ( tetrakósioi [2]) and, through an oath, obliged the Athenian forces and the Samians to defend their democracy and continue the war (Thuc. 8,75,2). After being elected stratēgoí (Thuc…

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Mnasippus

(88 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Μνάσιππος/ Mnásippos). Spartan, was sent in 373 BC as naúarchos with a fleet against Cercyra, besieged the city and devastated its territories. The Athenians sent a fleet to the aid of Cercyra in 372, but by the time they arrived M. had already lost control of his mercenaries, owing to arrears in pay, and had been defeated. He fell in battle; Sparta discontinued the operation (Xen. Hell. 6,2,3-26; 31; Diod. 15,47,1-7) [1. 414]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W.K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, vol. 5, 1991.

Phayllus

(158 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Φάϋλλος/ Pháÿllos). [German version] [1] Phocian strategos (4th cent. BC) A Phocian (Phocis) stratēgós, who was dispatched with 7000 soldiers to support Lycophron [3] of Pherae against  Philip [4] II of Macedonia during the third of the Sacred Wars in 353 BC, but suffered a defeat. After the death of his brother Onomarchus he assumed supreme command over the Phocians as stratēgòs autokrátōr and kept Philip from Thermopylae with Spartan, Athenian and Achaean help and mercenaries, whom he rewarded with treasures from Delphic temples. P. took the war to Boeo…

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Eurymedon

(520 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen)
(Εὐρυμέδων; Eurymédōn, ‘far-prevailing’ [2]). The name of several heroes, usable in hexameters. [German version] [1] King of the Giants King of the  Giants, by his daughter Periboea grandfather of Nausithous the son of Poseidon, ancestor of the Phaeacian kings. E. brought himself and his people to ruin (Hom. Od. 7,58-60 with schol. and Eust.). According to  Euphorion fr. 99 Powell (schol. Hom. Il. 14,295-296) he raped Hera, whereupon she bore  Prometheus. For this Zeus later hurled E. into the Tartarus. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 F. Vian, s.v. E.1, LIMC 4.1, 105 2 Kamptz 84, …

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…
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