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Separatism

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Political Separatism is a breakaway movement either politically or ecclesiastically. In French séparatisme also denotes the separation of church and state. Politically, separatism involves the efforts to detach a state or a federation of states and either to make them independent or to incorporate them into a neighboring state. Germany after World War I saw a movement between 1919 and 1924 for a free Rhenish state. The term “separatism” replaced older ones such as Sonderbündelei (“special clustering,” after Sonderbund, “special federation,” used in the 19th century by R…

Reform Councils

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term and Prior History The term “reform councils” in the broad sense refers to all councils that dealt with the matter of reform in the church and that made reforming decisions. In the narrow sense it refers to the 15th-century councils of Pisa, Constance, Pavia-Siena, and Basel, which viewed it as their chief aim to reform the church “in head and members.” All through the Middle Ages church reform had been linked to councils and synods. Already in the Merovingian age reforming synods had sought to restore the law of God and the church’s order. In the 11…

Antimodernist Oath

(150 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
In 1910 Pope Pius X (1903–14) required all Roman Catholic priests to take the Antimodernist Oath (Motu proprio Sacrorum antistitum) in rejection of the errors of modernism. It also had to be taken before taking higher order (Consecration) or institution to office. Non-Catholics viewed its introduction as evidence of Roman Catholic backwardness and intolerance. In the long run, the oath could not suppress the problems raised by modernism. In 1967 a new Professio fidei became obligatory, replacing the oath with a general confession of the church’s teaching. Hans SchneiderBibliography…

Councils of the Church

(4,143 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term “Council,” as well as the originally synonymous “synod” (from Lat. concilium and Gk. synodos, both meaning “assembly”), refers to gatherings of church representatives for the purpose of discussing matters of faith and order, reaching decisions, and issuing decrees. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church use the term “council” mainly for gatherings of bishops. Modern usage, which distinguishes national and provincial synods from ¶ general councils, developed at a later date, with its beginnings in the Middle Ages. The Orthodox Church recognizes only the s…

Gallicanism

(429 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Since the debate about papal infallibility in the 19th century, the term “Gallicanism” has been used for the theological doctrines and political practice of the state church in France (Church and State). In the late Middle Ages national and ecclesiastical interests (Conciliarism), joining forces in opposition to the universal claims of the papacy and curial centralism, had secured a wide measure of autonomy for the French church. Les libertés de l’Église gallicane (The freedoms of the Gallican church; 1594), compiled by P. Pithou, and the Preuves (Evidences; 1639) of P. Dupuy gai…

Huguenots

(659 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
The name “Huguenots” for French Protestants at home and abroad derives from the transferring of a local story from Tours concerning Hugh Capet (d. 996) to the Protestants who met by night. It does not derive etymologically from Iguenots (= Eidgenossen, “confederates,” i.e., part of the Swiss Confederation) but is a diminutive of Hugo. It was used by others from about 1555 and adopted by the Protestants, especially emigrants, as a term for themselves after 1685. The rise of the party name marks the transition from the Protestant movement to a church that, under the inf…

Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse

(3,539 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Definition Religiöse S. B. sind kollektive Akteure mit relig. Motiven und Zielen, die einen partiellen oder umfassenden Wandel der Verhältnisse in der Religion (eventuell auch in der Gesellschaft) herbeiführen wollen (vgl. Religiöse Reformbewegungen) oder versuchen, bestehende Zustände zu verteidigen und Veränderungen zu verhindern oder rückgängig zu machen (Widerstands-Bewegungen). Schneider, Hans 2. Geschichte der Begriffe 2.1. Allgemein Abgeleitet von der B. im physikalischen Sinn (zeitliche Ortsveränderung eines Beobachtungsobjekts) wird der Be…

Jansenismus

(2,188 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Allgemein Der J., benannt nach Cornelius Jansen d. J. (1585–1638), war die bedeutendste innerkath. Oppositions- und Reformbewegung des 17./18. Jh.s ( Religiöse Reformbewegungen). Er war v. a. in Frankreich und den Niederlanden verbreitet, fand aber auch in Spanien, Portugal, Italien und Österreich Anhänger. Der J. zielte ursprünglich auf eine Reform der Theologie und Frömmigkeit unter Rückgriff auf den Kirchenvater Augustinus, doch entstanden in den einzelnen Ausbreitungsgebieten und Entwicklungsphasen verschiedene Ausprägungen. Infolge der päpst…

Bibelgesellschaft

(755 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Anfänge B. (engl. Bible Societies) als Organisationen zur Verbreitung der Bibel sind erst im 18./19. Jh. entstanden. Doch die Aufgabe der Bibelverbreitung in der Volkssprache resultiert schon aus dem reformatorischen Verständnis der Bibel als einziger Autorität in christl. Glaubensfragen und des Priestertums aller Getauften, das allein auf die Bibel angewiesen ist ( Reformation). Mit der durch den Buchdruck ermöglichten Verbreitung von Luthers Bibelübersetzung, die in außerdt. protest. Ländern zu gleichen Unternehmungen anregte, begann die Entwicklung…

Böhmisten

(827 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Die Anhänger der Lehren des schlesischen Theosophen und Mystikers Jakob Böhme wurden schon in der polemischen Literatur (Polemik) des 17. Jh.s »B.« genannt. Die B. formierten sich weder zu einer religiösen Sondergemeinschaft noch bildeten sie eine klar abgrenzbare philosophische Schule aus. Mit Gedanken Böhmes verschmolzen von Anfang an andere Traditionen, so dass der »Böhmismus« ein schillerndes Phänomen darstellt. Böhme wirkte zum einen durch seine Theosophie. In den Umbrüchen der Frühen Nz. schien manchen Zeitgenossen wie auch späteren Lesern, dene…

Conciliarism

(738 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
“Conciliarism” is the theory that general councils represent the supreme church court, specifically, that they are superior to the pope. Its roots lie in the discussions of medieval canonists (Canon Law), ¶ especially concerning papal immunity and responsibility. The heresy clause in the Decretum Gratiani (ca. 1140) states the principle that the pope can be judged by no one as long as he does not deviate from the faith (40.6). An extension of the concept of heresy included simony and persistence in schism. In the 12th century this line of thought led to a broad discussion of …

Bible Society

(818 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Beginnings Bible Societies, organizations for the dissemination of the Bible, first came into being in the 18th/19th century. However, the task of Bible distribution in the vernacular is a natural consequence of the Reformation understanding of the Bible as sole authority in matters of Christian faith and the priesthood of all baptized people, which is dependent only on the Bible (Reformation). The printing-facilitated dissemination of Luther’s Bible translation, which stimulated similar undert…
Date: 2019-10-14

Jansenism

(2,127 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. General observationsJansenism, named after Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), was the most important opposition and reform movement within the Catholic Church of the 17th and 18th centuries (Religious reform movements). It was especially prevalent in France and the Netherlands but also found support in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Austria.Jansenism was originally aimed at reforming theology and piety based on the work of the Church Father St. Augustine, but it took various forms in its different areas of influence and phases of development. A…
Date: 2019-10-14

Behmenism

(906 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Adherents to the teachings of the Silesian theosophist and mystic Jakob Böhme were already called “Behmenists” ( Böhmisten) in the polemical literature (Polemic, theological) of the 17th century. The Behmenists neither formed a special religious community of their own nor did they constitute a clearly definable philosophical school. From the very beginning, Böhme’s ideas merged with other traditions so that “Behmenism” represents a shifting phenomenon.Böhme’s impact came first through his theosophy. In the turmoil of the early modern period, many contemporar…
Date: 2019-10-14

Philadelphier

(164 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Philadelphier, eine Richtung im myst. Spiritualismus des 17./18.Jh. 1670/1694 gründete die Visionärin J. Lead(e) in London mit anderen engl. Anhängern J. Böhmes die »philadelphische Sozietät«. Die sieben Sendschreiben der Apk auf ebensoviele Perioden der Kirchengesch. deutend meinten sie, jetzt beginne die Zeit von »Philadelphia« (Apk 3,7ff.) mit der Sammlung der wahren Kinder Gottes zur endzeitlichen Gemeinde. Zu den Religionsparteien (Konfessionen) und deren Lehren (bloßen »Mei…

Quietismus

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] I. Begriff Der Begriff Q. (vgl. lat. quies, »Ruhe, Stille, Schweigen«) ist eine urspr. polemische Bez. für eine Richtung der Mystik im Katholizismus des 17./18.Jh., deren Spiritualität auf die »Seelenruhe« als höchstes Ziel ausgerichtet war. Bei den Auseinandersetzungen in Italien um sein Hauptmerkmal, die »orazione di quiete« (»Gebet der Ruhe«), sind nach 1680 zunächst der Name »Quietisten« für deren Verfechter, dann, wohl im Zusammenhang der lehramtlichen Verurteilung 1687, die Abstraktbildung »Q.« entstanden. II. Geschichte Der Q., der in der 2. H…

Marburg, University of

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] Founded by Philip of Hesse in 1527 as the first Protestant university in Germany, the University of Marburg (renamed the Philipps-Universität in the 20th cent.) was a product of the Reformation in Hesse; it also met a territorial need and served to consolidate Philip's sovereignty. The establishment of a studium universale, without the customary papal privilege, took place in the context of an educational program promoting Humanism and the Reformation. Imperial approval – and hence recognition of university status – had to wait u…

Quietism

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] I. The Term The term quietism (from Lat. quies, “rest, quiet, silence”) was originally a polemical term for a particular school of ¶ Catholic mysticism. in the 17th and 18th centuries, whose spirituality was directed toward ataraxia (“tranquility”) as its highest goal. During the conflicts in Italy over its characteristic feature, orazione di quiete (“quiet prayer”), after 1680 the name quietists became attached to its advocates. A little later, probably in the context of the papal condemnation in 1687, the abstract term quietism was coined. II. History Quietism r…

Rothe, Johannes

(260 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Dec 2, 1628, Amsterdam – 1702, Friedrichstadt), millenarian prophetic preacher. Rothe was born into a patrician merchant family. After university studies and years of travel, during which he came under the influence of L.F. Gifftheil, he appeared in various Dutch cities as an inspired itinerant preacher called by God. In England his proclamation of a “fifth monarchy” (Dan 2:44; Fifth Monarchists) was interpreted as political propaganda for Charles II and prompted his arrest in 16…

Tennhardt, Johannes

(277 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1661, Dobergast, Saxony – Sep 12, 1720, Kassel), radical Pietist itinerant preacher. After dropping out of secondary school, Tenn­hardt, the son of a prosperous farmer, worked as a barber and then after 1688 as a wigmaker in Nuremberg. As a young man, he was already an avid reader of mystical works, an interest that shaped his later religiosity, which involved repeated visions. In 1704, after the death of his wife, in a vision he experienced a call to be God’s “chancery cl…

Inspiration Communities

(256 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] are communities which arose out of radical Pietism and still exist today. As early as around 1690, ecstatic, visionary and prophetic phenomena became manifest in the Pietist movement. After the appearance of ecstatic prophets from the Camisards, who came to Germany via England and the Netherlands, German prophets and prophetesses as well started to appear as “mediums”; in 1714, they sparked an enthusiastic “inspirational awakening,” primarily among the radical Pietists, which was …

Verschoor, Jakob

(259 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1648, Vlissingen – 1700, Middelburg), Dutch Reformed separatist. Already during his study of theology at Leiden, F. Spanheim the Younger was suspicious of his student’s views. In 1673, without passing his examinations, he began to organize “exercises” (conventicles) in Vlissingen, which he later continued in other towns. Since his views aroused distrust and he was even suspected of being an adherent of B. Spinoza, his attempts to find a church appointment were unsuccessful. Versc…

Beissel, Georg Conrad

(158 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (not: Johann; Mar 1, 1691, Eberbach/Neckar – Jul 6, 1768, Ephrata, PA), a radical pietist (Pietism). In the Palatinate as well as in the counties of Ysenburg and Wittgenstein, the itinerant baker came into contact with Pietistic groups, especially inspiration communities and Anabaptists (Church of the Brethren), and …

Ronsdorf Sect

(140 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The Ronsdorf Sect grew out of a Philadelphian society (Philadelphians) in Elberfeld. Its central figures were the merchant Elias Eller (1690–1750) and the baker’s daughter Anna v. Buchel (1702–1743; from 1733 Eller’s wife), who as “Mother of Zion” received ecstatic revelations (Inspirationist communities) regarding the imminent millennial kingdom (Millenarianism). Their son Benjamin (1734–1735) was to be the messiah. Even pastors, for example F.D.E. Schleiermacher’s grandfather Da…

Poiret, Pierre

(318 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Apr 15, 1646, Metz – May 21, 1719, Rijnsburg, near Leiden), French mystic. After attending school, Poiret became a tutor in French at the court of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in Bouxwiller, Alsace. From 1664 he studied theology at Basel, Hanau, and Heidelberg. After ordination in 1669, he served as an assistant minister in French Reformed churches of the Palatinate (Otterberg, Frankenthal, Mannheim). From 1672 to 1676 he was pastor in Annweiler. During these years he had his …

Daut, Johann Maximilian

(158 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (died after 1736), radical Pietist. A cobbler's apprentice, he was expelled from his home city, Frankfurt am Main, in 1709, because of his polemics against the church and authority, led an irregular life as a wandering prophet (Wittgenstein region, Leiden and Altona). In view of the impending judgment of God, he called “false and unrepentant C…

Rijnsburg Collegiants

(290 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The Rijnsburg Collegiants were a Dutch religious group of the 17th and 18th centuries. When, after the Synod of Dort, the ministers of the Remonstrants (Arminians) were banned, the church elder Gisbert van der Codde and his brothers (Jan the elder, Arie, and Jan the younger) set up meetings for worship ( collegia) without a minister, in 1619 in Warmond and in 1621 in Rijnsburg, with reading of Scripture, prayer, and open preaching. In the course of the 17th century, these meetings were amplified by further collegia in other towns; the most important, in Rotterdam a…

Werner, Johannes

(157 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1598–1659?), itinerant prophet. In 1629 Werner, a peasant from Bockendorf in Saxony, felt called by a vision to spend the next years prophesying and commenting on the “changes in the Holy Roman Empire” coming during the Thirty Years War. He condemned Saxony’s “betrayal” in the 1635 Peace of Prague. After 1636 he marched with the Swedish army; even after the Peace of Westphalia (Westphalia, Peace of), he accompanied military units until his death. He called for war against the Cat…

Martin V, Pope

(177 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Odda Colonna; born 1368; pope Nov 11, 1417 – Feb 20, 1431), protonotary apostolic, made cardinal in 1405. His election (under special pro-¶ visions) as pope at the Council of Constance ended the Great Western Schism (I) (Papacy: II). Martin's efforts to reform the church (concordats; expert advice on reform) and inhibit conciliarism (Conciliar theory) and Gallicanism served to increase papal authority. He efficiently reorganized the disordered Papal States and pursued the rebuilding of Rome. His campai…

Zaberella, Francesco

(164 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (de Zabarellis; Aug 10, 1360, Padua – Sep 26, 1417, Constance), important canonist, cardinal. After studying at Bologna, he taught at Bologna, Florence (Dr.utr.iuris), and Padua. In 1410 he became bishop of Florence and in 1411 was made a cardinal. To resolve the Great Western Schism, he urged a council; he was one of the most important figures in the preparation and successful completion of the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of). He played an important role in formulating the decree Haec sancta (Conciliar theory) and deposing the antipope John ¶ XXIII. He als…

Horch, Heinrich

(275 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Dec 1 [?], 1652, Eschwege – Aug 5, 1729, Kirchhain), Reformed theologian and radical Pietist (Pietism). After studying in Marburg (1670f., 1674ff.) and Bremen (1671–1674; influenced by T. Undereyck) and on study tours, Horch became assistant pastor (deacon) in Heidelberg in 1683, pastor and court preacher in Kreuznach in 1685, and pastor of the German-Reformed congregation in Frankfurt am Main in 1689. His teaching activity as professor of theology in Herborn (1690–1697) manifest…

Rock, Johann Friedrich

(168 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Oct 25, 1678, Oberwälen, Württemberg – Mar 2, 1749, Gelnhausen), major prophet of the Inspirationist communities. While traveling as a journeyman leather worker, Rock was converted to Pietism in Berlin. After returning home in 1702, he joined a revivalist circle in Stuttgart that was tending towards Separatism. Under pressure from the authorities, he emigrated in 1707 with E.L. Gruber to the county of Ysenburg, where he worked as a court saddler. In 1714 he came under the influen…

Carl, Johann Samuel

(205 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1676?; baptized Aug 16, 1677, Öhringen/county of Hohenlohe – Jun 13, 1757, Meldorf/Holstein), doctor and radical pietist. The son of a pharmacist and already influenced by Pietism in his formative years, he became the doctor in his home town after studying medicine in Halle (pupil of Georg Ernst Stahl) and Strasbourg. Deported because of his radical pietistic activities, Carl found positions as ¶ a personal physician at the courts of pietistic high nobility in Büdingen (1708–1728), Berleburg (1728–1736) and Copenhagen (1736–175…

Crocius

(392 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] 1. Ludwig (Mar 29, 1586, Laasphe – Dec 7, 1655, Bremen). After studying at Herborn, Marburg, and Basel (Dr.theol. 1609), the Reformed theologian Ludwig Crocius became a pastor in Bremen and professor at the Gymnasium Illustre, of which he later became headmaster. With M. Martini and Heinrich Isselburg, he participated in the Synod of Dort as a delegate from the Bremen church. He was a prominent representative of the school of Bremen theologians fou…

Giessen, University of

(627 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The University of Giessen is one of the post-Reformation/confessional institutions. As a reaction to the introduction of the Reformed confession in the Hessian University of Marburg (Marburg, University of), Count Ludwig V of ¶ Hessen-Darmstadt established a Lutheran Paedagogium in Giessen in 1605 which was elevated to university status in 1607 by imperial privilege (Ludwigs-Universität, Ludoviciana). Owing to claims of traditional and legal succession, it was moved in 1624/1625 to occupied Marburg during the Thirty Years War and reop…

Arndt, Johann

(477 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1555, Ballenstedt or Edderitz, Anhalt – May 11, 1621, Celle). From 1575 to 1581 (?), this pastor's son studied in Helmstedt, Wittenberg (?), and in Basel and Strasbourg (without earning an academic degree) artes liberalis and medicine (influenced by Paracelsism, Paracelsus), but he did not complete a regular theological curriculum; after his ordination in 1583, he began pastoring in Anhalt …

Tschesch

(149 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Tschesch, Johann Theodor (Dietrich)  v. (18.3.1595 Voigtsdorf, Schlesien – 22.2.1649 Elbing), myst. Spiritualist. Nach dem Jurastudium in Marburg trat er 1619 in die Dienste Kurfürst Friedrichs V. von der Pfalz, danach schlesischer Herzöge. Für sein Leben bestimmend wurde die durch einen Unfall veranlaßte Bekehrung (1621): inhaltlich die Hinwendung zu einem Spiritualismus, der myst. Erbe mit reformatorischen Einsichten zu verknüpfen suchte (J. Tauler und Luther als »duo centra uniend…

Verschoor

(240 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Verschoor, Jakob (1648 Vlissingen – 1700 Middelburg), niederländischer ref. Separatist. Schon während des Studiums der Theol. in Leiden beargwöhnte F. Spanheim d.J. die Ansichten des Studenten. Ohne Examen begann er 1673 in Vlissingen mit der Veranstaltung von »Übungen« (Konventikeln), die er später an anderen Orten fortsetzte. Da er wegen seiner Anschauungen Mißtrauen weckte, bisweilen auch als Anhänger B. de Spinozas verdächtigt wurde, blieben seine Bewerbungen um Predigerstelle…

Rock

(148 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Rock, Johann Friedrich (25.10.1678 Oberwälen, Württemberg – 2.3.1749 Gelnhausen), Hauptprophet der Inspirationsgemeinden. Auf der Wanderschaft als Sattlergeselle in Berlin für den Pietismus gewonnen, hielt sich R. nach der Heimkehr 1702 zu einem Erwecktenkreis in Stuttgart, der zum Separatismus tendierte. Unter dem Druck der Behörden emigrierte R. 1707 mit E.L. Gruber in die Grafschaft Ysenburg, wo er als Hofsattler arbeitete. 1714 geriet er unter den Einfluß der Inspirierten, wurd…

Rijnsburger Kollegianten

(243 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Rijnsburger Kollegianten, niederländische rel. Gruppierung im 17. und 18.Jh. Als die Pfarrer der Remonstranten (Arminianer) nach der Dordrechter Synode verbannt wurden, richteten der Kirchenälteste Gisbert van der Codde und seine Brüder (Jan d. Ä., Arie, Jan d.J.) 1619 in Warmond, 1621 in Rijnsburg gottesdienstliche Versammlungen (collegia) ohne Pfarrer ein, die in Schriftlesung, Gebet und offenen Beiträgen (»freie Prophetie«) bestanden. Im Laufe des 17.Jh. kamen weitere Kollegie…

Rothe

(234 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Rothe, Johannes (2.12.1628 Amsterdam – 1702 Friedrichstadt), prophetisch-chiliastischer Prediger. R. entstammte einer patrizischen Kaufmannsfamilie. Nach Studien- und Reisejahren trat er, beeinflußt von L.F. Gifftheil, seit 1652 in niederländischen Städten als von Gott berufener inspirierter Wanderprediger auf. In England, wo seine Verkündigung einer »fünften Monarchie« (Dan 2,44; Quintomonarchisten) als polit. Propaganda für Charles II. gedeutet wurde, kam er 1654 in Haft. Nach A…

Werner

(144 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Werner, Johannes (1598–1659?), Wanderprophet. Der Bauer aus Bockendorf, Sachsen, fühlte sich 1629 durch eine Vision berufen, in der Folgezeit die »Veränderungen des Hl. Röm. Reiches« während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges prophetisch anzukündigen und zu kommentieren. So verurteilte er z.B. Sachsens »Verrat« im Prager Frieden (1635). Seit 1636 zog er mit dem schwedischen Heer und begleitete auch Truppenteile über den Westfälischen Frieden hinaus bis zu seinem Tod. Er forderte zum Kamp…

Nikolaus V.

(144 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Nikolaus V., Papst 6.3.1447 – 24.3.1455 (Tommaso Parentucelli, geb. 15.11.1397 Sarzana, Ligurien). Nach Studien in Florenz und Bologna seit 1426 an der Kurie, 1443 Vizekämmerer, 1444 Bf. von Bologna, 1446 (in Anerkennung seiner Verdienste im Kampf gegen das Konzil von Basel) Kardinal, 1447 als Kompromißkandidat zum Papst gewählt. N. förderte nachhaltig Wiss. und Künste (Beginn des Renaissancepapsttums). Mit Friedrich III. schloß er 1448 das Wiener Konkordat (für die Beziehungen zw…

Zabarella

(145 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] (de Zabarellis), Francesco (10.8.1360 Padua – 26.9.1417 Konstanz), bedeutender Kanonist, Kardinal. Nach dem Studium in Bologna lehrte er ebd., in Florenz (Dr. utr. iuris) und Padua. 1410 wurde er Bf. von Florenz, 1411 Kardinal. Zur Überwindung des Abendländischen Schismas empfahl Z. den Konzilsweg und gehörte zu den wichtigsten Persönlichkeiten bei der Vorbereitung und erfolgreichen Durchführung des Konzils von Konstanz; eine wichtige Rolle spielte er bei der Formulierung des Dekre…

Pisa, Konzil von

(150 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] (1409). Nach dem Scheitern verschiedener Versuche, das abendländische Schisma (Papsttum: II.) beizulegen, kündigten die meisten Kardinäle beider rivalisierenden Päpste (Gregor XII. [1406–1415] in Rom, Benedikt  XIII. [1394–1417/1423] in Avignon) diesen den Gehorsam auf und beriefen gemeinsam ein Konzil nach P. Es verurteilte beide Päpste (ohne über deren Rechtmäßigkeit zu entscheiden) wegen halsstarrigen Verhaltens und setzte sie ab. Doch da sich diese nicht unterwarfen und weite…

Poiret

(287 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Poiret, Pierre (15.4.1646 Metz – 21.5.1719 Rijnsberg bei Leiden), franz. Mystiker. Nach dem Schulbesuch wurde P. Französischlehrer am gräflich hanau-lichtenbergischen Hof in Buchsweiler (Bouxwiller, Elsaß), studierte seit 1664 in Basel, Hanau und Heidelberg Theol., wurde nach der Ordination 1669 in franz.-ref. Gemeinden der Pfalz Hilfsprediger (Otterberg, Frankenthal, Mannheim) und 1672–1676 Pfarrer (Annweiler). In diese Jahre fallen die ersten Kontakte zum Pietismus in Frankfurt …

Ronsdorfer Sekte

(134 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Ronsdorfer Sekte, entstanden aus einer philadelphischen Sozietät (Philadelphier) in Elberfeld. Im Mittelpunkt standen der Kaufmann Elias Eller (1690–1750) und die Bäckerstochter Anna v. Buchel (1702–1743; seit 1733 Ellers Ehefrau), die als »Zionsmutter« ekstatische Offenbarungen (Inspirationsgemeinden) über das bevorstehende Tausendjährige Reich (Chiliasmus) empfing. Ihr Sohn Benjamin (1734–1735) sollte der Messias sein. Sogar Pastoren, z.B. F. Schleiermachers Großvater Daniel (1…

Tennhardt

(247 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Tennhardt, Johannes (2.1.1661 Dobergast, Sachsen – 12.9.1720 Kassel), radikalpietistischer Wanderprediger. Der Sohn eines reichen Bauern, der nach abgebrochener höherer Schulbildung als Barbier, dann seit 1688 in Nürnberg als Perückenmacher arbeitete, hatte sich schon in seiner Jugend mit myst. Schrifttum beschäftigt, das auch seine spätere Religiosität prägte. Nach dem Tod seiner Frau erlebte er 1704 in einer der sich fortan oft wiederholenden Visionen die Berufung zum »Kanzliste…

Philadelphians

(184 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] This is a movement within the 17th-18th century mystical Spiritualism. The Philadelphian Society was founded in London between 1670 and 1694 by the visionary J. Leade with other English followers of Jacob Böhme. Applying the seven letters of Revelation to seven periods of church history, they believed that the time of “Philadelphia” (Rev 3:7ff.) was now beginning, with the gathering of the true children of God into the eschatological community. The Phila-¶ delphians kept a “non-party” distance from religious parties (confessions) and their teachings (…

Mel, Conrad

(190 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Aug 14, 1666, Gudensberg near Kassel – May 3, 1733, Hersfeld). Mel studied in Rinteln, Bremen and Groningen, and was influenced by covenant theology and the Reformed Pietism of T. Undereyck. In 1690 he became preacher in Mitau (Kurland), 1692 in Memel, 1697 court preacher, and, from 1702, also professor in Königsberg. Here he held conventicles and, influenced by G.W. Leibniz, devised plans for missionary work among the heathen. In 1701 he became a member of the Prussian Akademie …
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