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Polanyi, Karl

(733 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Österr.-amerikan. Wirtschafts- und Sozialhistoriker. Geb. am 21. 10. 1886 in Wien, gest. am 23. 4. 1964 in Pickering (bei Toronto). Studium in Budapest; ab 1919 in Wien, ab 1933 (Emigration) in England polit. und journalistisch tätig. 1947–1953 Prof. für Wirtschaftsgeschichte an der Columbia Univ. in New York. Werdegang In Wien geboren, wuchs P. als Sohn eines jüd. Unternehmers in Budapest auf. Schon früh war er von sozialistischen Ideen und Theorien beeinflusst. 1919 ging er nach Wien, wo er ab 1924 Artikel für eine Wirtschaftszeitung ( Der Österr. Volkswirt) verfasste. 1933–…

Weber, Max

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Dt. Jurist, Soziologe und Nationalökonom. Geb. am 21. 4. 1864 in Erfurt, gest. am 14. 6. 1920 in München. Schulbesuch in Berlin; 1882–1886 Studium der Jurisprudenz; 1889 Prom., 1892 Habil. in Berlin. 1893 Prof. für Nationalökonomie in Freiburg. 1896–1903 Prof. für Nationalökonomie in Heidelberg; 1919–1920 Prof. in München. Biographie und Werdegang W.s Vater, der Jurist Max W., war ab 1869 besoldeter Stadtrat in Berlin und 1868–1897 nationalliberaler Abgeordneter im preuß. Abgeordnetenhaus sowie 1872–1884 im Dt. Reichstag. W. studierte 1882–1…

De Ste. Croix, Geoffrey

(637 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Engl. Althistoriker. Geb. am 8. 2. 1910 als Geoffrey Ernest Maurice (meist geführt als G. E. M.) De. Ste. C. in Macao, gest. am 5. 2. 2000 in Oxford. Juristische Ausbildung in Bristol; Tätigkeit als Rechtsanwalt, ab 1935 für die Arbeiterbewegung tätig; ab 1940 Kriegsdienst. Ab 1947 Studium der Alten Gesch. am University College London. Ab 1950 Lecturer in Ancient Economic History an der London School of Economics; ab 1953 Fellow am New College Oxford und dort Tutor bis 1977. Werdegang, Werk und Wirkung D. Ste. C., in China als Sohn eines engl. Zollbeamten geboren, entst…

Ehrenberg, Victor

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Dt.-brit. Althistoriker. Geb. am 22. 11. 1891 in Altona, gest. am 25. 1. 1976 in London. 1911 Architekturstudium an der TH Stuttgart; 1912–1914 Studium der Alt.wiss. in Göttingen und Berlin, 1919–1920 in Tübingen; dort 1921 Prom. 1922 Habil. in Frankfurt; 1929 Prof. für Alte Gesch. an der dt. Univ. Prag. 1939 Emigration nach England. 1946 Lecturer, dann Prof. am Bedford College London. Biographie und Werdegang Victor E. war Sohn Otto E.s, der als Bankier eine leitende Position im Hamburger Bankhaus Warburg & Co. innehatte. 1902 ging die Familie nach Kasse…

Hume, David

(545 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Schott. Philosoph, Historiker und Ökonom. Geb. am 7. 5. 1711 in Edinburgh, gest. am 25. 8. 1776 ebda. 1726–1729 Jurastudium an der Univ. Edinburgh, danach private Philosophiestudien. 1735–1737 und 1763–1766 Aufenthalt in Frankreich; ab 1752 Bibliothekar in Edinburgh. Ab 1763 für die engl. Botschaft in Paris, 1767/68 im Außenministerium tätig; danach Privatgelehrter in Edinburgh. Werk und Wirkkung H. war zweiter Sohn des Anwalts und Grundbesitzers Joseph H. Er widmete sich ab 1735 als Privatgelehrter v. a. philos. Studien. 1752 wurde er Bibliotheka…

Rostovtzeff, Michael Iwanowitsch

(2,380 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Russ.-amerikan. Althistoriker. Geb. am 10. 11. 1870 in Schitomir bei Kiew, gest. am 20. 10. 1952 in New Haven (Connecticut, USA). Schulbesuch in Kiew; Studium ebda. und in St. Petersburg; Lehrer am Gymnasium in Zarskoje Selo. Ab 1903 Prof. für Latein an der Univ. St. Petersburg; 1918 Emigration nach England; Lehrtätigkeit am Queens College, Oxford; 1920 Prof. in Madison (Wisconsin, USA); 1925–1944 Prof. für Alte Gesch. und Arch. an der Yale Univ. (New Haven, Connecticut). Biographie und Werdegang R. stammte aus einer russ. Familie, deren sozialer Aufstieg seit dem 18. …

Büchsenschütz, Albert Bernhard

(441 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Dt. Althistoriker. Geb. am 6. 9. 1828 in Berlin, gest. am 29. 1. 1922 ebda. 1848–1851 Studium der Philologie an der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Berlin, 1851 Prom. Danach Lehrer, 1875–1897 Direktor am Berliner Friedrich-Werderschen Gymnasium. Werdegang, Werk und Wirkung B., Sohn eines Lehrers, besuchte das Cöllnische Gymnasium in Berlin, studierte seit 1848 an der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Philologie und promovierte 1851 zu den Orphischen Hymnen. Innerhalb von nur zwei Jahren (1868–1869) veröffentlichte er drei Bücher: neben der Sch…

Rodbertus, Karl

(542 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Dt. Wirtschaftshistoriker und Ökonom. Geb. am 12. 8. 1805 in Greifswald als Johann Karl R., gest. am 6. 12. 1875 in Jagetzow (Pommern). 1823–1827 Studium der Rechtswiss. in Göttingen und Berlin; 1828–1830 im preuß. Staatsdienst. Ab 1835 als Besitzer des Rittergutes Jagetzow wiss. und polit. Publizist. Werdegang, Werk und Wirkung R., Sohn eines Prof. für Röm. Recht, beschäftigte sich nach dem Studium in Göttingen und Berlin sowie nach dem Rückzug aus dem Staatsdienst v. a. mit sozialpolit. Fragen; zur Lösung der sozialen Probleme seiner Zeit…

Die Altertumswissenschaften von Petrarca bis zum 20. Jh.

(22,868 words)

Author(s): Kuhlmann, Peter | Schneider, Helmuth
A. Wissenschaftsgeschichte und Altertumswissenschaften – Zur Konzeption des Bandes In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat die Wissenschaftsgeschichte als Disziplin neben der Geschichte der Philosophie, der Literaturgeschichte und der Kunstgeschichte deutlich erkennbar an Bedeutung gewonnen, wobei die Aufgabe wissenschaftshistorischer (= wiss.histor.) Forschungen nicht allein in der Darstellung vergangener Erkenntnisfortschritte in den verschiedenen Wissenschaften bestand, sondern auch allgemein in der Analys…

Finley, Moses I.

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Amerikan.-brit. Althistoriker. Geb. am 20. 5. 1912 in New York, gest. am 23. 6. 1986 in Cambridge. 1937–1939 Mitarbeiter am Institut für Sozialforschung in New York; 1948–1952 Lecturer und Assistant Prof. an der Rutgers Univ. in New Jersey; 1950 Prom. an der Columbia Univ. in New York. Ab 1954 in Cambridge (England); 1970–1979 Prof. of Ancient History an der Cambridge Univ. 1979 geadelt (Sir Moses). Biographie und Werdegang F. wurde 1912 in New York als Moses Israel Finkelstein geboren; er entstammte einer jüd. Familie, die bedeutende Rabbiner hervorgebracht…

Weber, Max

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German jurist, sociologist and economist. Born Erfurt 21. 4. 1864, died Munich 14. 6. 1920. School in Berlin; 1882–1886 studied law; 1889 doctorate, 1892 habil. in Berlin. 1893 prof. of economics at Freiburg. 1896–1903 prof. of economics at Heidelberg; 1919–1920 prof. in Munich. Biography and career W.’s father, the jurist Max W., was a paid city councillor in Berlin from 1869, and between 1868 and 1897 he was a National Liberal member of the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus, and from 1872 to 1884 of the German Reichstag. W. studied law at Heidelberg, Berlin and Göttingen from 1882 to…

Hume, David

(604 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Scottish philosopher, historian and economist. Born Edinburgh 7. 5. 1711, died there 25. 8. 1776. 1726–1729 studied law at Univ. of Edinburgh, thereafter private study of philosophy. 1735–1737 and 1763–1766 in France. From 1752, librarian at Edinburgh. Worked from 1763 for the British Embassy in Paris, then 1767/68 at the Foreign Office. Thereafter private scholar in Edinburgh. Works and influence H. was the second son of the advocate and landowner Joseph H. From 1735, he worked as a private scholar, devoting himself mostly to the study of philosophy. In…

Polanyi, Karl

(800 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Austrian-American economic and social historian. Born Vienna 21. 10. 1886, died Pickering (near Toronto) 23. 4. 1964. Studied at Budapest; in Vienna from 1919, then politically and journalistically active in Britain from (emigration in) 1933. 1947–1953 prof. of economic history at Columbia Univ. in New York. Career Born in Vienna, P. grew up in Budapest, the son of a Jewish businessman. He imbibed socialist ideas and theories from a young age. In ¶ 1919, he went to Vienna, where he wrote articles for a financial newspaper ( Der Österreichische Volkswirt) from 1924. Between 1933 and …

Ehrenberg, Victor

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German-British ancient historian. Born Altona (Hamburg) 22. 11. 1891, died London 25. 1. 1976. Studied architecture at TH Stuttgart 1911; 1912–1914 studied classics at Göttingen and Berlin, 1919–1920 atTübingen. Doctorate Tübingen 1921. 1922 habil. in Frankfurt; 1929 prof. of ancient history at the German Univ. of Prague. Emigrated to Britain 1939. 1946 lecturer, then prof. at Bedford College, London. Biography and career Victor E. was the son of Otto E., a leading banker at the Hamburg banking house of Warburg & Co. In 1902, the family moved to Kassel, wh…

Rostovtzeff, Michael

(2,530 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
Also Mikhail Rostovtsev/Rostovtseff. Russian-American ancient historian. Born Mikhail Ivano-vich Rostevtsev, Zhitomir (Kiev), 10. 11. 1870, died New Haven, Connecticut, 20. 10. 1952. School in Kiev. Studied there and St. Petersburg. Taught at the Gymnasium in Tsarskoye Selo. Prof. of Latin at Univ. of St. Petersburg from 1903; 1918 emigration to Britain. Taught at Queen’s College, Oxford; 1920 prof. at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. 1925–1944 prof. of ancient history and archaeology at Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut. Biography and career The social rise since the …

Rodbertus, Karl

(588 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German economic historian and economist. Born Johann Karl R., Greifswald 12. 8. 1805, died Jagetzow (Pomerania) 6. 12. 1875. 1823–1827 studied law at Göttingen and Berlin; 1828–1830 worked for Prussian civil service. From 1835, as owner of the manor of Jagetzow, working as scholarly and political writer. Career, works and influence R., the son of a prof. of Roman law, concerned himself mainly with issues of social policy, both after his studies at Göttingen and Berlin and following his resignation from the civil service. Seeking solutions to the…

Büchsenschütz, Albert Bernhard

(490 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
German ancient historian. Born Berlin 6. 9. 1828, died there 29. 1. 1922. 1848–1851 studied philology at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Berlin, doctorate 1851. Thereafter teacher, then 1875–1897 Director of Friedrich-Werderschen Gymnasium, Berlin. Background, work and influence B., the son of a teacher, attended the Cöllnisches Gymnasium in Berlin, studied philology at Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. from 1848 and obtained his doctorate in 1851 with a dissertation on the Orphic Hymns. He published three books in a period of just two years (1868–1869)…

Finley, Moses I.

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
American-British ancient historian. Born 20. 5. 1912 in New York, died Cambridge 23. 6. 1986. 1937–1939, worked at Institute for Social Research in New York; 1948–1952 lecturer and assistant prof. at Rutgers Univ. in New Jersey; 1950 doctorate at Columbia Univ., New York. At Cambridge (England) from 1954; 1970–1979 prof. of ancient history at Cambridge Univ. Knighted 1979. Biography and career F. was born Moses Israel Finkelstein in 1912 in New York. He came from a Jewish family that had produced leading rabbis, and he received a Jewish education himself …

De Ste. Croix, Geoffrey

(676 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
British ancient historian. Born Geoffrey Ernest Maurice (usually G. E. M.) De Ste. C. in Macao 8. 2. 1910, died Oxford 5. 2. 2000. Legal training at Bristol; worked as a lawyer, then active in the Labour movement from 1935; war service from 1940. Studied ancient history at Univ. College London from 1947. Lecturer in ancient economic history from 1950 at the London School of Economics; fellow of New College, Oxford from 1953 and tutor there until 1977. Career, works and influence D. Ste. C., born in China, the son of a British customs official, came from a Huguenot family that…

Economy

(6,870 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Rüpke, Jörg | Schneider, Helmuth | Otto, Eckart | Penslar, Derek | Et al.
[German Version] I. The Concept – II. Economic Systems and their Theories – III. Economy and Religion I. The Concept The term economy encompasses the totality of all individual actions and social interactions that serve to produce goods (commodities or services [Service sector]) for the purpose of satisfying human needs (Consumption). As a rule, the “production” of commodities means that human labor and …

Late Antiquity

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth
[German Version] Ever since C.-L. de Montesquieu and E. Gibbon, Roman history of the 4th and 5th centuries has been viewed primarily as a history of decadence and decline. The centuries preceding the fall of the Roman Empire in the West were interpreted consistently as a period of deterioration that affected architecture, art, and literature as well. In 1764 Johann J. Joachim Winckelmann spoke of a deterioration of sculpture and painting in the period after Commodus, and J. Burckhardt was referring explicitly to architecture, art, and literature when he used such terms as aging, senilit…

Interest

(3,846 words)

Author(s): Grundmann, Stefan | Bayer, Stefan | Schneider, Helmuth | Kessler, Rainer | Strohm, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Legal Aspects – III. Economics – IV. Non-Christian Antiquity – V. Bible – VI. Christianity – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. Concept Interest is payment in exchange for a right of use or exploitation, typically on a temporary basis and always agreed for a fixed period of time. Money later gained increasing importance as an object of lending and now occupies a dominant position, although other items or rights remain possible as objects of lending, as for example rent. In economics (see III below), this mutual commitment between the conferral…

Italy

(7,951 words)

Author(s): Beck, Rolf K. | Schneider, Helmuth | Paoli-Lafaye, Elisabeth | Ricca, Paolo | Veltri, Giuseppe
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Sociology I. General Since 1861 (the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy), Italy has been the name of the first unified nation on the Italian peninsula since the Lombard invasion in 568. Following a referendum in 1946, Italy became a republic (Repubblica Italiana) with a bicameral parliament. The president is the representative chief of state; the government is headed by the prime minister. Since 1870, with the dissolution of the Papal States, the capital has been Rome (population 2.7 million in 2000). Italy has an area of 187,179 km2, with…

Social and Economic History

(4,439 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] A. The Enlightenment's Assessment of Ancient Society (CT) Although ancient society played a prominent role in Enlightenment discourse, clarification of historical fact was not always the primary consideration in the treatment of any particular theme; rather, Greek or Roman society was described and cited in various theoretical contexts as a model or classified historically to justify or refute particular philosophical, political or economic positions. Influenced b…

Gold

(3,476 words)

Author(s): Riederer, Josef (Berlin) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. General [German version] A. Gold and gold deposits Gold is a soft precious metal that can be shaped well mechanically and so can be worked easily into sheets and wires, but it has a relatively high melting point at 1063°C that makes casting difficult. It is relatively rare in nature where it is present in the form of gold aggregates in solid rock from which it is extracted through mining methods, or it is present in the form of gold particles or grains in sandy deposits of weathered primary rock, from…

Hunting

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Galter, Hannes D. (Graz) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Archaeological finds attest to battues with traps in the Middle East from the 7th millennium BC onwards. On the other hand, there is only a little cuneiform evidence of the occupation of the hunter, e.g. in the  Gilgamesh Epic (TUAT 3. 676, I iii 9ff.). Wild cattle, wild goats, wild donkeys, gazelles, lions,  elephants and many other animals were hunted. As hunting weapons, people used traps, nets and snares as well as bows and arrows, throwing-sticks, lances, sword…

Materialism

(955 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] The concept of materialism does not appear until the first half of the eighteenth century, and is first used polemically in the context of the criticism of materialist thought in Enlightenment philosophy, as antithesis of idealism or spiritualism (Kant). Here, only those teachings will be designated as materialism which (a) represent a monism which holds that all being can be reduced to one or more material principles, while (b) that which appears to be non-material is either an e…

Drainage

(646 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] The meagre productivity of ancient agriculture rendered the effective use and cultivation of any suitable land imperative for growing grain, viticulture, and planting olive trees. Hills and mountain slopes in Greece were prepared for cultivation through terracing, and drainage measures were used to gain virgin land or to protect land from flooding after the winter rains. The requirements were different in Greece and Italy: in the Greek interior, there are fairly large plains in which lakes are formed by surface inflow; run-off is often subsurface ( katavothra) and …

Nutrition

(3,630 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Englund, Robert K. (Berlin)
[German version] I. General With respect to human history, nutrition, generally defined as the intake of substances for the sustenance, procreation and growth of living organisms, should not in any way be understood or investigated only as a physiological process, but must be seen in the context of a multiplicity of economic, social, cultural and religious factors. The choice of foodstuffs in a society is made not only with regard to their nutritional value, but also based on social and religious va…

Technology

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin)
[German version] I. Definition of technology Technology describes the ensemble of tools, devices and procedures used for the acquisition and transformation of materials, the production and transportation of foodstuffs and consumables, the erection of structures, the provision of infrastructure, and the storage of information. The devices and procedures employed in different areas of technology are not independent of one another; rather, they constitute a technological complex with many interdependenci…

Simon

(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…

Univira

(219 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] The idea that in a woman's life she should be married to only one man was considered a traditional ideal of Roman society; correspondingly only women who had been married just once were admitted to the cult of Pudicitia (Val. Max. 2,1,3; Liv. 10,23,3-10). Although in the late Republic and the early Principate the number of divorces increased and remarriages of divorced women and widows was normal, this ideal retained its validity (Catull. 111,1 f.). Propertius emphasizes in his el…

Traffic

(1,288 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
The overcoming of distances by people and goods, using means of transport on transport routes. [German version] I. The Ancient Orient The oldest means of transport are people, beasts of burden and boats. They were used for short- and long-distance traffic alike, for individual items and for bulk transport. It was not only in the nomadic context (Nomads) that donkeys and later camels were employed unharnessed for their stamina as beasts of burden, and their ability to travel long distances with little food. In Egypt,…

Vexillatio

(223 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] From the late 1st cent. onwards, rather than entire legions (Legio) being sent to reinforce Roman troops in a theatre of war, smaller units were usually dispatched to the scene; these were formed for the specific occasion, and their members drawn from individual legions or auxiliary units (Auxilia). Thus, for the siege of Jerusalem during the Jewish War, the legions stationed in Egypt provided 2,000 soldiers and the frontier troops on the Euphrates 3,000 (Jos. BI 5,43 f.). Such units, called vexillationes, normally comprised 1,000 (ILS 2726) or 2,000 men. They…

Castration of animals

(328 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] ( castratio) was a frequent procedure in ancient agriculture, designed to adapt the characteristics of male animals to the requirements of human beings. In horses and cattle, the castration served the purpose of altering the temperament of the animal without impairing its viability (Xen. Cyr. 7,5,62). Aristotle describes the effects of castration in his zoological writings, drawing attention to how the mutilation of a small part of the body affects an ani- mal's entire appearance. …

Pigs

(1,385 words)

Author(s): Nissen | Reeg, Gottfried | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Near East and Egypt The Near East is part of the original range of the wild pig ( Sus scrofa L.), which was evidently used in various places for breeding the domestic pig; the earliest examples date from the 7th millennium BC [6. 73]. The pig (Sumerian šaḫ(a); Akkadian šaḫû [3]) was of some significance during most periods and in most regions of the Near East, probably esp. as a provider of meat. The few pictorial representations usually depict wild pigs. Pigs are mentioned from the beginning of written records in Mesopotamia…

Fiscus

(396 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] In the time of the late Republic the word fiscus on the one hand referred to a container for storing money, on the other hand it already referred to public funds that were placed at the disposal of a promagistrate in the province (Cic. Verr. 2,3,197). Furthermore fiscus also meant the private assets of a Roman citizen. In the Principate period the fis cus was the cashier's office of the princeps; as he alone could dispose of the fiscus, he could also exercise considerable influence over politics by using these finances. This already applies to Augustus who …

Wealth, distribution of

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. General The study of the distribution of wealth in a society should offer information about the various types of wealth and their economic significance in a national economy and about the share of individuals or social groups in the overall national wealth. Because quantitative information on the economy and private wealth is only available in an extremely limited scope for Antiquity, the statistical methods of modern economics cannot be applied in the field of ancient economic h…

Hyginus, C. Iulius

(841 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Life and Work a) A philologist and polymath of the Augustan era from Spain or Alexandria; a freedman of Augustus who served as the prefect of the Palatine library after 28 BC while simultaneously engaging in extensive teaching activities (for biography, cf. Suet. Gram. 20). Nevertheless, he had to be supported his whole life by Clodius [II 6] Licinus and died in poverty. Ov. Tr. 3,14 is addressed to him. His substantial œuvre includes works of philology (comm. to the Propempticon Pollionis of  Helvius [I 3] Cinna; discussion of selected passages of  Vergili…

Rations

(515 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East In the Ancient Near Eastern oikos or palace economy, the majority or (large) parts of the population were integrated into the institutional households of temples and/or palaces as direct dependents (the extent varied according to region and period). They were provided with the rations of natural produce (grain, oil, wool) guaranteeing them the level of subsistence necessary for their reproduction. In Mesopotamia, these rations of produce were in part supplemented, and in certain periods replaced, by the allocation of areas of land ( c. 6 ha.) as…

Lead

(759 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] Metal of low hardness, high specific weight (11.34) and low melting point (327°C); the most important lead-ore to be found in nature is galena (galenite; PbS), due to its silver content of up to 1% of greater economic significance in antiquity, mainly for the extraction of silver. The silver of Laurium, for instance, was extracted by mining and smelting galena. Important deposits outside of Attica were located mainly in Spain, Sardinia and Britain. In antiquity, lead and tin were considered two types of one metal; in Latin, lead was called plumbum nigrum, tin plumbum cand…

Technology, History of

(4,496 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] A. The Technology of Classical Antiquity as a Research Area (CT) Classical scholarship did not recognize ancient technology as the subject of a special discipline in its own right until late. Up to about 1980, investigations into problems of ancient technology by Classical historians, archaeologists and linguists were relatively rare, and only a few essays and monographs were generally devoted to the field; there were no general treatments of a scholarly standard, no…

Fowling

(509 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] (ὀρνιθευτική/ ornitheutikḗ, ἰξευτικά/ ixeutiká; Latin aucupium). As is shown by the large number of casual references, fowling was probably very widespread in Antiquity, and in rural regions was esp. common. In literary texts, fowling regularly appears in connection with hunting and fishing, as in Sophocles [1], who introduces fowling to illustrate the supremacy of humans over animals (Soph. Ant. 342-347). Plato [1] deals with fowling among the regulations for hunting, but rejects it a…

Artes liberales

(2,330 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Schneider, Jakob Hans Josef (Tübingen RWG)
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] Artes liberales (CT) The Artes Liberales (AL) describe a group of usually seven of study, ‘worthy of a free man’ (Seneca epist. 88; i.e.: grammar, logic/dialectics, rhetoric and arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy). They originate from the Greek educational programme of the enkyklios paideia, which were passed on to the Latin Middle Ages through the encyclopaedias of Martianus Capella, Cassiodorus, and Isidor of Seville. They are usually divided up into groups of three and four; since Boethius the group of four is ( De arithmetica

Bücher-Meyer controversy

(2,128 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) The debate that went on between 1893 and 1902 over the basic features of the economy in Classical Antiquity is referred to in more recent scholarly historical literature, both in Ancient History as well as the history of the discipline, as the Bücher-Meyer Controversy (BMC). The origin of this discussion was the publication in 1893 of a book entitled Die Entstehung der Volkswirtschaft  (‘Industrial Evolution, 1907) by the economist Karl Bücher promulgating the view that a dominance of a home economy…

Barrels (wooden)

(229 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] While in the Mediterranean, liquids such as wine and oil were generally stored in large clay jars (ίθος, dolium) and transported in animal skins or amphorae, we find the increasing use of wooden barrels for the storing and transporting of wine in the western provinces and northern Italy from the early Principate onwards (Upper Italy: Str. 5,1,8; 5,1,12; Alps: Plin. HN 14,132). Numerous reliefs and funerary sculptures show wine barrels being transported on heavy, horse-drawn wagons (funerary reliefs in Langres and Augsburg), or oar-driven shi…

Gynaecocracy

(553 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] (γυναικοκρατία; gynaikokratía). The term gynaecocracy (‘Rule of women’, from Greek γυνή/ gynḗ, ‘woman’ and κρατεῖν/ krateín, ‘to rule’; cf. gynaikokrateísthai, ‘to be ruled by women’) is first attested in philosophical texts from the 4th cent. BC. The use is almost always polemical. In Aristotle the gynaecocracy becomes a theme in the context of criticism of the politeía (constitution) of the Spartans and was considered as the prerequisite for greed and an extremely unequal distribution of land (Aristot. Pol. 1269b 12-1270a 31; cf. als…

Oils for cooking

(2,001 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the Ancient Orient and Egypt, oil was not only part of human nutrition (e.g. the daily rations for the population dependent on central institutions), but was also used as body oil, for making scent, for embalming (in Egypt), for medicinal purposes, in craft production, as lamp oil and in the cultic and ritual sphere (e.g. unction for rulers in Israel: 1 Sam 10,1; 16,3; not in Mesopotamia). Depending on the regionally varying agronomic and climatic conditions, oil was obtained from a number of plants: whereas numerous olei…

Screw

(531 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] The screw appears among the five simple mechanical instruments listed in the Mechanics of Hero I of Alexandria (1st cent. AD), next to the rotating axle, lever, pulley and wedge (Hero, Mēchaniká 2,5). It is not mentioned either in the description of surgical instruments in Hippocrates (Hippoc. Perì agmôn 31) or in Aristotelian mechanics. Since there is no indication of the use of the screw before Archimedes [1], it can be considered one of the most significant technical inventions of the Hellenistic period. It appears that the principle of the screw was first us…

Lifting devices

(629 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
[German version] Ever since large temples were built of stone in Greece (early 6th cent. BC), architects have been faced with the problem of lifting heavy blocks of stone, for the walls or the architrave, and column drums as far as the building plan demanded. In doing so, loads of significant weight often had to be dealt with, because stone, after all, weighs approximately 2.25 t/m3, and marble c. 2.75 t/m3. In the Archaic age, blocks for the architrave weighed between 10 and 40 t. At first, the stones were put into place via a ramp, as is recorded for the constru…
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