Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Schneider, Ute" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Schneider, Ute" )' returned 7 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Book fair

(876 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
1. The fairs of Frankfurt and Leipzig The sale of manuscripts at the general goods fair of the conveniently-located town of Frankfurt is already attested for the 14th century. Printed books are known to have been sold there by the pioneer publisher Peter Schöffer of Mainz from the 1460s. Although the trade was mainly itinerant (Book trade), the Frankfurt Messe was already attracting paper merchants and printer-publishers from northern and southern Germany (e.g. Basel, Lübeck, Nuremberg) in the last third of the 15th century. Book sales rapidly became a …
Date: 2019-10-14

Index librorum prohibitorum

(822 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
From the 16th century until well into the 20th, the  Index librorum prohibitorum was an authoritative list of books and pamphlets to guide Catholic Church censorship. As an instrument of censorship after the fact (of publication), it listed printed material which Catholics were forbidden to trade, purchase, own, or read, usually on pain of excommunication. The Reformation employed the still relatively new technology of printing to propagate its ideas, using books and printed ephemera, primarily in the verna…
Date: 2019-10-14

Incunabula

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
1. Definition and distribution The term incunabula (Latin, “swaddling clothes,” “cradle”) or cradle books denotes all the printed materials produced in Europe from the invention of printing with movable type by Gutenberg c. 1440-1450 through December 31, 1500. This date was already defined arbitrarily as the end of the incunabula period in the 17th century by the dean of the Münster cathedral, Bernhard von Mallinckrodt, in his  De ortu ac progressu artis typographicae dissertatio historica (1640; “Historical Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the Art of Pr…
Date: 2019-10-14

Honorarium

(873 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
Until well into the 18th century, in the book trade an honorarium (from Latin  honorarium, “gift of honor”) –  in the sense of a sum of money paid in cash to an author for his intellectual work – was paid by publishers only in exceptional cases. In Germany a few authors received a  Bogenhonorar based on the number of pages in a book. More often, however, the honorarium was a “gift,” a testimonial, which until the period of the Enlightenment (18th century) had solely commendatory character. Authors (as well as musicians, painters, etc.) usual…
Date: 2019-10-14

Book trade

(876 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
1. Organizational forms The manufacturing book trade (encompassing both the print shop, see printing, and the publishing house) and the retail book trade (product range) were not yet clearly distinct in the first centuries of the early modern period. Hybrid forms continued to exist even in the 18th century. The first profession to emerge as a phenomenon of the book industry, during the time of the incunabula (from ca. 1480-1500) was the Buchführer, precursor to the bookseller. The Buchführer would sell books, printed ephemera, and brochures, either on behalf of a printe…
Date: 2019-10-14

Book market

(886 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute
Gutenberg’s invention of printing using moveable metal type around 1440/50 spread from Mainz, reaching over 250 European cities by 1500. Printing shops were established especially in commercial and academic centers and episcopal towns: ca. 1460 in Strasbourg and Bamberg, 1465 in Subiaco (Rome), 1466 in Cologne, 1468 in Augsburg and Basel, 1469 in Venice, 1470 in Naples, Nuremberg, and Paris, 1471 in Florence and Milan, 1473 in Lyon, Ulm, and Utrecht, 1474 in Valencia and Krakow, 1475 …
Date: 2019-10-14

Censorship

(5,070 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Ute | Beutel, Albrecht | Otto, Martin
1. General considerations Censorship (Lat. censura; “examination,” “judgment”) is now understood as the “authoritative monitoring of human utterances” [18. 3] and serves for communication monitoring, generally for the stabilization of a state or church system. This monitoring is realized by means of various different practical measures: by preventive censorship, which requires the submission for examination of manuscripts by relevant institutions before printing begins, or subsequent or repressive censorship, whi…
Date: 2019-10-14