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Calendar

(5,291 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Schostak, Désirée | Messerli, Alfred | Sieglerschmidt, Jörn
1. Term The word calendar derives from the name of the first day of the month in Ancient Rome (Latin Kalendae). From Latin kalendarium (‘debt-book’), it later came to refer to the whole system of reckoning time (Time, reckoning of). All known calendars are based on the alternation of day and night, the recurrent phases of the Moon (OE mona = “Moon”; monađ = “month”), and the course of the seasons through the solar year.Wolfgang Behringer 2. Chronology: early manifestations In all cultures, astronomical phenomena (Astronomy) determine the chronological units of year, month,…
Date: 2020-01-13

Dietary laws, Jewish

(1,299 words)

Author(s): Schostak, Désirée
1. Content Jewish religious law (Halakha; Judaic law) makes a distinction between foods which are permitted (Hebr. kasher, i.e. “ritually acceptable”, hence “kosher”), and foods which are not permitted. The extremely complex stipulations of Jewish dietary laws ( kashrut) can in the main be derived from three fundamental biblical principles: (1) prohibition of consumption of certain (so-called unclean) animals or foodstuffs produced from them (e.g. milk, eggs); (2) prohibition of the consumption of blood (Lev 7,26f.; 17,10-14); (3) p…
Date: 2019-10-14