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Alexandria

(1,725 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀλεξάνδρεια; Alexándreia). Name of numerous cities founded by Alexander the Great, including nine in eastern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. [German version] [1] in Egypt This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | Zenobia | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Legio | Legio | Limes | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Athletes | Education / Culture | Egypt Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] A. Topography City on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast foun…

Pitane

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Pergamum | Aegean Koine (Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). Town with two ports in Mysian Aeolis (Hdt. 1,149; Str. 13,1,2; 51; 67; Aeolians [2]) situated in modern Çandarlı. P. was regarded as a legendary foundation of the Amazons (Diod. Sic. 3,55,6) and already existed in the Late Geometric Period according to finds in the necropolis (excavations by E. Akurgal between 1959 and 1965, still unpublished; description in [1]). There have not yet been any officia…

Astyra

(229 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄστυρα; Ástyra). [German version] [1] Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad Greek polis on the south-western coast of the Troad (Scyl. 98), a member of the  Delian League. After that, the importance of the settlement declined (Str. 13,1,65). However, A. is still mentioned in the customs tables of Ephesus [2. 63]. The sanctuary of  Artemis Astyra in A. was subordinate to the nearby Antandrus (Str. ibid.; Xen. Hell. 4,1,41). An exact localization of A. has not yet been achieved [1. 267]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973 2 H. Engelmann…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Thebe

(258 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Θήβη/ Thḗbē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Iason [2], 4th cent. BC Daughter of Iason [2] of Pherae; her name refers to Jason's former political soliciting of Boeotian support [1. 286] or her mother's origin in Thebes [2. 50]. In opposition to the tyrannical policies of her cousin and husband Alexander [15] of Pherae, in 364 BC T. encourages Pelopidas to intervene in Thessaly (Plut. Pelopidas 28 f.) and in 359 is supposed to have incited her brothers Tisiphonus and Lycophron [3] to assassinate Alexander…

Mysia

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μυσία/ Mýsía). [German version] A. Geography and ethnography Region in the northwest of Asia Minor, named after the Thracian tribe of the Mysi, which had probably migrated there by the 12th cent. BC. Their precise origin is unknown, but like the Phryges they may have migrated from the area of the lower Danube. If we may equate the Thracian Mysi with the later Moesi, then the site of their original settlement can be located south of the Danube in the area of northern Thrace (only in Hdt. 1,171,6 do we read that the C…

Aeolians

(2,474 words)

Author(s): Gschnitzer, Fritz (Heidelberg) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] [1] Name of one or more Greek tribes (Αἰολεῖς; Aioleîs). Gschnitzer, Fritz (Heidelberg) [German version] A. Etymology A. (Sg. Aioleus), older form Aiwolēwes (Sg. Aiwoleus), is the name of one or several Greek tribes and its (their) members, of which the first mention is probably in a late Mycenean text found in Cnossus (Ws 1707) and then next in Hesiod (Op. 636; fr. 9 M.-W.). The name of the tribe and the mythological personal name   Aeolus are both derived from the adjective αἰ()όλος, which was already in use in Mycenean times (as the name of a bull a3-wo-ro/ Aiwolos/KN Ch 8…

Percote

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περκώτη; Perkṓtē). City in the Troas, to be identified with today's Bergaz Köyü between Abydus and Lampsacus at the mouth of the Practius (today Bergaz Çayı). P. was probably founded in the 1st half of the 5th cent. BC by the neighbouring city of Palaepercote (Str. 13,1,20), already mentioned by Homer (Hom. Il. 2,831; 2,834; 11,229). Themistocles received P. as a fief from the Persian king (Neanthes FGrH 84 F 17a; Phanias FHG 2,296; Ath. 1,54). P. was a member of the Delian League with a contribution of 1,000 drachmai. In 387 BC, the Spartan Antalcidas was hiding f…

Gergis

(272 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γέργις; Gérgis, Gérgitha, Gergíthion, Gérgithos). City in the Troad, not located at the foot of the Balli Dağı as formerly assumed but at the Karıncalı on the Kursak deresi [1. 349]. According to Ath. 6,256 C, it was founded by the descendants of the Troes (Teucri) under the leadership of a Gergithes. In the context of Xerxes' campaign, Herodotus mentions the Gérgithes Teukroí (7,43), to whom he had referred earlier as the successor tribe of the Teucri (Hdt. 5,122). Ceramic finds from Karıncalı go back to the 6th cent. BC. G. is not mentio…

Atarneus

(293 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀταρνεύς; Atarneús). Located in the region of the same name on the coast opposite to  Mytilene, north-east of the modern Dikili, A. was an Ionian polis in Aeolis (Aeoleis) (Plin. HN 37,156), according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄταρνα ( Átarna) on the border between  Lydia and  Mysia. Like Assus, the town was centred around a hill of about 200 m in height, upon which the acropolis was situated (modern Kaléh Agili). The safety of the town was ensured by a triple walled circle, dating from the Hellenistic period, parts of whic…

Grynium

(212 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Γρύν(ε)ιον; Grýn(e)ion). Aeolian town in the north of Cyme. According to Herodotus, G. was one of the 11 old Aeolian towns (1,149). Further testimonies: Ἀχαιῶν λιμήν (‘Achaean harbour’), Scyl. 98; cf. portus Grynia, Plin. HN 5,121. As a member of the  Delian League G. paid 1/3 talent. At the end of the 5th cent. BC Gongylus of Eretria, to whom Darius had given the town as a seat for his dynasty (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6), ruled here and in Myrina. In 335 BC Parmenion conquered G. and sold…

Lyrnessus

(116 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λυρνεσσός; Lyrnessós). Settlement in the Mysian-Trojan border region not localized exactly. Attempts to locate it are based especially on Homer (Il. 2,690f.; 19,60; 20,92; 20,191; Str. 13,1,7; 61) and Pliny (HN 5,122), in whose time L. was destroyed. Older localizations: near Antandrus [1. 217-221], near Havran [2. 301], recently on the Ala Dağ [3. 70f.]. According to Hom. Il. 2,689ff. and 19,60, L. was destroyed by Achilles, who also killed king Mynes and abducted Briseis. Now in detail [3. 66-71]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Troy, 1912 2 H. …

Perperene

(183 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Περπερήνη/ Perperḗnē). City in Aeolian Mysia, probably on the road from Adramyttion to Pergamum near modern Aşağıbey (localization of [1] confirmed by [2]; plan in [2. vol. 1, 297]). Coin minting attests to the existence of P. from the 4th cent. BC (cf. [2. vol. 2, 308-325]). Thucydides did not, as Steph. Byz. (s.v. Παρπάρων/ Parpárōn) would have it, die in P. but probably in Hellanicus [1] around 400 BC (Suda s.v. Π.). At the time of Pliny the Elder (1st cent. AD), P. appears to have belonged to the conventus of Pergamum (HN 5,122,3; 5,126,9). The coins attest to a…

Marpessus

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μάρπεσσος/ Márpessos; Marmessos, Marmi(y)ssos). Town in the Troad, regarded as the home of the Hellespontine Sibyl (Paus. 10,12,3). Its location is derived from Paus. ibid. (‘240 stadia from Alexandria [2] Troas ’) and Lactant. Div. inst. 1,6 ( circa oppidum Gergithum). After Leaf [1. 106] calculated this to be in the area of Ballı Dağı, a definite location seems now to have been established by Cook [2. 281-283] at Dam Kale near Zerdalli, approx. 8 km north of Gergis. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923 2 J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1…

Rhyndacus

(106 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥύνδακος/ Rhýndakos). River in the Troad, not regarded as a single body today (Koca Çay, Kocasu Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı). It rises in Mysia Abbaïtis and flows through Phrygia (Phryges). It formed the frontier between Mysia and Bithynia, forms lacus Apolloniatis (Uluabat Gölü), exiting the lake at the northwest and flowing into the Propontis south of the island of Besbikos (modern Imralı Adası). During the Roman Period, it formed the boundary between the provinces of Asia [2] and Bithynia. In 73 BC, Licinius [I 26] Lucullu…

Aegae

(587 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] [1] Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Aegeae, Αἰγαί, Αἰγέαι [ Aigaí, Aigéai]). Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings near present-day Vergina. Starting point for the Macedonian conquering of Pieria and  Bottiaea and main seat of the king until  Pella was expanded for this purpose in the 4th cent. BC. From then onwards the site…

Pedasus

(231 words)

Author(s): Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Πήδασος; Pḗdasos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of the nymph Abarbaree and of Laomedon's illegitimate son Bucolion; together with his brother Aesepus, he is killed by Euryalus [1] (Hom. Il. 6,20ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) [German version] [2] Horse of Achilleus [1] Horse of Achilles [1], captured during the conquest of Thebes (at the foot of the Placus in the Troad); while being led into battle by Patroclus as an ancillary horse alongside Achilles' divine horses, it is killed by Sarpedon (Hom. Il. 16,152ff. and 467ff.). Stoevesandt, Magdalene (Basle) Bibliograph…

Satnioeis

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σατνιόεις; Satnióeis). River in Troas (Hom. Il. 6,34; 14,445; 21,87), modern Tuzla Çayı, rises on the southwestern slopes of the Ida [2], near Gargara. It was on the S. that Homer's city of Pedasus [3] is supposed to have been (cf. Str. 13,1,50). At Assus the S. is only about 2 km from the sea; it then proceeds west and reaches the sea between Hamaxitus and Larisa [5] near Gülpınar. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. S, RE 2 A 1, 79 f.  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 250-253  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 245 f.

Halisarna

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἁλίσαρνα; Halísarna). [German version] [1] Small city in the border region of the regions Mysia and Troas Small city, dynastic seat in the border region of the regions of Mysia and the Troad. In Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6; An. 7,8,17) H. is mentioned in connection with the Spartan-Persian war 400-396 BC. The dynast Procles named there is the descendant of the Spartan king Damaratus, who was exiled there at the beginning of the 5th cent. BC and received H. along with Pergamum and Teuthrania from Darius I as a gift (Paus. 3,7,8). The exact location and further history are unknown. Schwertheim, El…

Scepsis

(119 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars | Delian League (Σκῆψις/ Skêpsis, Σκᾶψις/ Skâpsis). Aeolian settlement in the Troad, modern Kurşunlu Tepe, on the upper Scamander, according to Str.  13,1,52 founded by Hector's son Scamandrius. In the 5th cent. BC S. was probably colonised by Milesian settlers. By Antigonus [1] it was incorporated into Alexandria [2] Troas, and by Lysimachus [2] made independent again (Str. 13,1,52). Allegedly the libraries of Theophrastus and Aristoteles…

Macestus, Mecestus

(140 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Μέγιστος; Mégistos). Aside from the Rhyndacus and the Tarsius, the largest river in northern Mysia (cf. Str. 12,8,11; Plin. HN 5,142; Pol. 5,77,8), modern Simav Çayı that like the Tarsius flows into the Rhyndacus north of Miletupolis. Attalus [4] I was encamped on the M., north of the Pelecas Mountains with the Galatian Aegosages on his campaign against Achaeus [5], when he experienced a lunar eclipse on 1 January 218 BC. A relief of Apollo Mekastenos is probably also reminiscent of this river [1]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. W. Hasluck, Unpublished …

Troad

(719 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τρῳάς/ Trō(i)ás, gen. -ádos, fem. adj. 'Trojan', sc. 'land'), territory in the northwest of Asia Minor. It covered the region of the present-day Biga Peninsula (Biga Yarımadası). Its boundaries and nomenclature fluctuated in antiquity. The confused ancient testimonies on its frontiers are well summarized in [1. 526-531]. In general, reliance is mostly placed on Strabo (12,4,6; 13,1,1-4), who essentially refers to Homer (Homerus [1]): the T. was bounded to the north, west and south by …

Rhodius

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥόδιος/ Rhódios). River in the Troad (Hom. Il. 12,20), modern Koca Çay. It rises in the Ida [2] mountains and flows into the Hellespont between Abydus and Dardanus (Str. 13,1,28). The towns of Gordus and Cleandrea were in its source region (Str. 13,1,44). Coins from Dardanus that date to the Roman period show the river god R. (SNG Danish Nat. Mus., Troas, no. 310). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s. v. R. (2), RE 1 A, 956  W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 207 f.  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 55.

Rhoeteum

(208 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ῥοίτειον; Rhoíteion). Coastal town in Troas in the foothills of the same name, probably founded by Astypalaea (Str. 13,1,42), about 4 km to the southwest of Ophryneum, 9 km south of Kepez on the Baba Kalesi [1. 79 f., 87-89]. In 480 BC Xerxes marched past R. (Hdt. 7,43). In 425/4 BC R. paid eight talents in the Delian League (ATL 1,393; 544; 2,82; 4,108). Its favourably sited harbour seems to have made R. rich (Thuc. 4,52; 8,101; Dio…

Assos

(680 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Persian Wars | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἄσσος; Ássos). The location of what was to become A. -- a trachyte rock (up to 234 m in height) on the south-western coast of the Troad, modern Behramkale -- had been inhabited from the Bronze Age onwards. For that reason, attempts have been made to localize the Homeric  Pedasus within the settlement area of the Leleges [3. 245f.]. The Aeolian colony of A. was a Methymnian foundatio…

Abarnias

(93 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Abarnis, Abarnos, Ἀβαρνίας; Abarnías). Abarnias is the name given by ancient authors to the coastline 5 km north-east of  Lampsacus (Apoll. Rhod. 1,932; Orph. A. 489) [1. 93 f.] which belonged to the territory of this polis. During the battle of  Aegospotami (405 BC), the main sails of the Spartan fleet were stored there (Xen. Hell. 2,1,29). Steph. Byz. (s.v. A.) is the only source also to refer to a polis of the same name. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923. G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Abarnis, RE 1, 17.

Sigeum

(270 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Σίγειον/ Sígeion, Latin Sigeum). Promontory (Σιγειὰς ἄκρα/ Sigeiàs ákra, Str. 13,1,31; 46) and city at its southern end (for the geography see [3. 173 ff.]) in the Troad; its location to the north of modern Yenişehir near Kumkale [2. 180-185] appears to be verified by inscriptions and coins. S. was founded by Mytilene and shared with Rhoeteum the territory of Ilium (Troy) until the latter was refounded (Str. 13,1,42). Conflicts between Athe…

Adramyttium

(482 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Pergamum | Persian Wars (Ἀδραμύττιον; Adramýttion or Ἀτραμύττιον; Atramýttion). The polis of A. was discovered and identified in the 19th cent. to the west of the village of Kemer on Cape Karatas (modern Ören) opposite  Lesbos. The early history is subject to contradictory evidence (regarding an earlier settlement). It is also unclear whether Thracian or Lydian initiative had led to its foundation. Steph. Byz. s. v. A. names  Adramys, a brother of the Lydian king  Croesus, as its founder [1. 185 f.]. Within the Ly…

Colonae

(356 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Κολωναί; Kolōnaí). [German version] [1] Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle Attic mesogeia deme belonging to the Leontis phyle, provided two bouleutaí, on Mount Pentelicon [1. 37217] near Hecale [2. 64f.] or near Michaleza [3. 131]. The Demotikon is Κολωνεύς and also Κολωνῆθεν.  Colonus Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. J. Bicknell, Akamantid Eitea, in: Historia 27, 1978, 369-374 2 W. E. Thompson, Notes on Attic Demes, in: Hesperia 39, 1970, 64-67 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986, 61f., 131. Traill, Attica 6, 47, 62, 69, 110 no. 70, 125, table 4. …

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Teucer Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus [1], first mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,814; her burial mound was displayed outside Troy as Batieia (Strab. 12,8,6). She was regarded as an Amazon in ancient times. Extensive raids are mentioned in Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] City in southw…

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Callicolone

(174 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλικολώνη; Kallikolṓnē). Place 40 stades east of Troy, the settlement mound of Karatepe east of Sarıçalı (also Sarçalı) [3. 110f.]. There, above the river Simois, Ares allegedly called the Trojans to battle (Hom. Il. 20,51; Str. 13,1,35). According to schol. Hom. Il. 20,3, it was also the location of the contest of the three goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite (judgement of  Paris). Whereas Forchhammer only discovered few traces of habitation and some foundations [1. 26], Virc…

Neon Teichos

(247 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Νέον τεῖχος; Néon teîchos). [German version] [1] Fortified town on the northern coast of the Propontis Fortified town on the northern coast of the  Propontis, south of  Bisanthe (Ps.-Scyl. 67). It was founded by  Bisanthe or by  Samos, and from the end of the 5th cent. BC it was  in the hands of the Odrysae. NT was said  to have belonged  to Alcibiades [3] temporarily (Nep. Alcibiades 7,4). Seuthes offered  Xenophon the gift of N. together with  Bisanthe and Ganos (Xen. An. 7,5,8). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography U. Kahrstedt, Beiträge zur Geschichte der thraki…

Cadi

(137 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάδοι; Kádoi). A city first named by Pol. 33,12,2 near today's Gediz in the headwaters of the Hermus, where the Roman board of ten met with  Attalus [5] II in 155/4 BC. According to Ptol. 5,2,16, C. is located in the border region of Mysia, Phrygia and Lydia. The origin of the city is unknown, probably non-Greek. It is possible that C. was inhabited by Macedonian veterans since the time of Alexander the Great (Plin. HN 5,111). Since Str. 12,8,12 assigns C. to the Phrygía Epíktētos, it is likely that the region of C. came under the rule of Pergamum in 188 BC. C. s…

Ida

(439 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἴδη, Ἰδαῖον ὄρος; Ídē, Idaîon hóros). [German version] [1] Highest mountain range in Crete Highest mountain range in Crete, modern Psiloritis, with the peak Timios Stavros (2,456 m). Still heavily forested in antiquity (cf. the name I. = ‘wooded mountains’), predominantly with cypresses (Eur. Hipp. 1253; Theophr. Hist. pl. 3,2,6; 4,1,3; Plin. HN 16,142). Used early on for mining metals (FGrH 239,11; Diod. Sic. 5,64,5) and agriculture (Theophr. De ventis, fr. 5,13 Wimmer; [1]). The cave considered the birthpl…

Cebren

(263 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέβρην; Kébrēn). Town in the Troad, located on two hills, Çal Dağı and the Fuğla Tepesi near Akpınarköyü on the middle reaches of the Scamander. On the opposing bank of the river lay Scepsis with whom C. was in perpetual dispute. C. was the residence of one of Priam's illegitimate sons (Hom. Il. 16,738; Str. 13,1,33). It had been founded by Cyme (Ephor. FGrH 239 F 22); earliest pottery finds point to the 7th cent. BC [1. 333]. Cook,…

Cana

(94 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Κάνη, Κάναι; Kánē, Kánai). Frequently mentioned foothills (ἀκρωτήριον, Hdt. 7,42,3; Diod. Sic. 4,53,2; 13,97,4,1; Str. 10,1,5; 13,1,68; Καινὴ ἄκρα, Ptol. 5,2,6,1) with a settlement and a harbour in north-western Aeolis, at the southern end of the bay of Adramytteum, near the modern Kara Dağ. A decree from Demetrias [1] bestows honours on three citizens of C. (IG IX 2, 1105 I). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 20, 1844f. W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 335-337 Robert, Villes, 18 J. Stauber, Die Bucht von Adramytteion 1 (IK…

Thymbrius

(43 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Θύμβριος; Thýmbrios). Right-bank tributary of the Scamander, modern Kemer Suyu, after which the surrounding plain and possibly also the city of Thymbra are named. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 177-180  J. M. Cook, The Troad, 1973, 110-123.

Lecton

(105 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Λεκτόν, Λεκτός; Lektón, Lektós, Cape Lecton). Western foothills of the Trojan Ida, stretching to the Aegean sea (Hom. Il. 14,283; Hdt. 9,114; Thuc. 8,101; mainly Str. in book 13). The sources merely indicate that Cape L. or a town L. was situated near modern Babakale; no further details can be determined. Close by there was an archaeologically unverifiable altar for the Twelve (Olympian) Gods (Str. 13,1,48), which was erected by Agamemnon according to the legend. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 227 L. Bürchner, s.v. L., …

Aesepus

(98 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Αἴσηπος; Aísēpos). River in  Mysia, modern Gönen Çay, rising at Mount Cotylus in the  Ida mountains (Str. 13,1,43). It is already mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,825; 4,91; 12; 21). In its course to the north-east, it takes in the Caresus. After 500 stades, it flows into the  Propontis near the island of Halone (modern Pasalimani) (Str. 13,1,11). Even in Homer's times, the valley of the A. defined the eastern border of the  Troas (Str. 13,1,9), and was densely populated in its middle reaches (Str. 13,1,45). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the T…

Tragasae

(97 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Τραγασαί/ Tragasaí). Settlement in southeastern Troad at modern Tuzla, to the north of Gülpınar. T. is named after Tragasus, whose daughter Philonomia was married to Tennes [1], the ruler of Tenedus (EM 763,25). Known for its salt springs (Str. 13,1,48), T. lies in the middle of the Plain of Tuzla (in Antiquity Ἁλήσιον πεδίον/ Halḗsion pedíon, 'Salt Plain', Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 34; Plin. HN 31,85). The springs were so profitable that Lysimachus [2] levied a tax on them (Ath. 3,73d). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, 1923, 247 f. J. …

Nea Kome

(108 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] Neither the name nor the location of this settlement, only mentioned under this name by Strabo (13,1,45), can be precisely confirmed. The towns of Ἐνέα κώμη/ Enéa kṓmē (Str. 12,3,23) and Αἰνέα/ Ainéa (Str. 13,1,45) may have been identical with NK.   Néa kṓmē phroúrion Mysías, mentioned by Steph. Byz. s.v. Νέαι/ Néai, and the Nea or Nee mentioned in Plin. HN 2,210 and 5,124 may also be the same place. It must have been somewhere on the Aesepus, on the frontier between the Troad and Cyzicene (Cyzicus). Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography W. Leaf, Strabon on the Troad,…

Miletupolis, Miletopolis

(190 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Μιλητούπολις/ Milētoúpolis, Μιλητόπολις/ Milētópolis). City in Mysia. M. lay on the ‘lake of M.’ (Μιλητοπολῖτις λίμνη) and has been located near Melde, a town in the neighbourhood of modern Mustafa Kemalpaşa; cf. Tab. Peut. 9,3 (20 milia from Apollonia [6]); Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. (περὶ τῶν Ῥύνδακα). M. was founded by Athens at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC [1. 102ff.], was a member of the Delian League from no later than 410/409 BC (ATL 1,342f.;…

Hamaxitus

(202 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἁμαξιτός; Hamaxitós). Small city in the Troad, located, according to Cook ([1. 231ff.], also incl. older attempts at localisation) on the coast in the Beşik Tepesı area north-west of modern Gülpınar. Presumably founded by the Achaeans, H. was settled by the Cilician residents of Chrysa (Str. 13,1,63). After 427 BC, H. was probably dependent on Mytilene, and, in the Attic lists of tribute quotas, was listed among the Actaeic poleis with a phoros of 4 talents. In c. 400 BC, H. was under the rulership of the dynast Mania before Dercylidas' peaceful capture …

Gambrium

(95 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γάμβρειον; Gámbreion). Xenophon (Hell. 3,1,6f.) mentions G. and Palaigambreion as seats of dynasties that allied with the Spartans in 399 BC. Both places are assumed east of Pergamum near today's Kınık. Nothing is known of its earlier history; there is no reference in the Attic tribute lists. However, coins are attested in the 4th and 3rd cents. An inscription (CIG 3562) mentions a king Alexander of G. in 326-325 BC and a temple for a certain Artemis Lochia, with remains still extant. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. G., RE 7, 691.

Abrettene

(79 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀβρεττηνή; Abrettēnḗ). Region in northern  Mysia, north of Abbaitis and south of Olympene (Plin. HN 5,123; Str. 12,8,9; 11). At the time of the 2nd Triumvirate (43-36/32 BC) Cleon, a leader of the many local bands of brigands, dominated the region. Confirmed in his leadership by the future  Augustus in about 30 BC, he was also a priest of  Zeus Abrettenus [1. 154]. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Schwertheim, Die Inschr. von Hadrianoi und Hadrianeia (IK 33), 1987.

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name. One is mentioned in Hdt. 1,149; it was one of the eleven Aeolian cities, and, according to [1. 216f.], was not located in the Troad. The other is mentioned in the ‘Iliad’ (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) and was supposedly located near Chryse and Thebe -- probably north-west of the bay of Adramytteum; an exact localization has not been possible as yet. Different from that was perhaps…

Lampsacus

(640 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Xenophon | Colonization | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League (Λάμψακος; Lámpsakos). Town in the Troad (Str. 13,1,18f.; Ptol. 5,2,2), named after Lampsace, daughter of the Bebrycian king Mandron; modern Lâpseki, entirely built over in modern times, so that ancient remains are scarce. L. was founded (Eus. chronikoi kanones 95d) in 654/3 BC by Phocaeans [2. 107f.], not by Milesians (Str. 13,1,19). In 560 BC, a dispute broke out with…

Granicus

(96 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Γράνικος; Gránikos). River in Asia Minor which has its source in the Ida mountains (Kaz Dağları) and flows through the Troad along the Mysian border. North of Biga (where the river is known today as Biga Çayı) it flows into the Propontis. It is famous for the battle which Alexander the Great won here against the Persian satrap Memnon in summer 334 BC. The site of the battle is sought today not far from Biga, near the road from Zelia to Lampsacus. Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) Bibliography 1 L. Bürchner, s.v. G. 3), RE 7, 1814f.

Scamander

(203 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] (Σκάμανδρος/ Skámandros, Latin Scamander). River in Troas, modern River Menderes, which rises below the highest peak of the Ida [2]. Together with the Simoeis it forms the Plain of Troy (cf. Hom. Il. 5,77). Below Scepsis and Cebren a road leads along its bank into the interior of Asia Minor. In the Iliad the S. appears as a god; it is named S. only by humans, the gods call it Xanthus (Hom. Il. 20,73). As a son of Zeus (ibid. 14,434) and Idaea it is the father of  Teucer and hence an …
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