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Evanthes

(57 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Εὐάνθης; Euánthēs). It is not known when he wrote his hymnos to Glaucus, in which he portrayed him as a son of Poseidon and the nymph Nais, and in which the god of the sea fell in love with  Ariadne, after Theseus had abandoned her (Ath. 7, 296c). Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography SH 194.

Chersias

(141 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Χερσίας; Chersías). From Orchomenus; Plutarch in his ‘Banquet of the Seven Sages has C. taking part in the conversations as a poet (Mor. 156f), contemporary and close friend of  Periander, tyrant of Corinth (end of the 7th/beginning 6th cent. BC). Two hexameters by the poet (Paus. 9,38,9), in which the city's hero Aspledon is described as the son of Poseidon and Midea, are supposed to attest to the accuracy of local tradition in the Boeotian city of the same name. Pausanias' expli…

Boeus

(85 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Βοιός; Boiós). Mentioned by both Ath. 9,393e and Antoninus Liberalis as the author of an Ὀρνιθογονία ( Ornithogonía), a didactic poem in at least two books from the 3rd cent. BC about men being transformed into birds. The work was used by Ovid and imitated, or translated into Latin, by his older contemporary, Aemilius Macer (two books). Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. S. Hollis (ed.), Ovid, Metamorphoses Book VIII, 1970, xvii, 33 G. Lafaye, Les Métamorphoses d'Ovide et leurs modèles Grecs, 1904, 51-53 CollAlex 23-25.

Aglaosthenes

(45 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Author of Ναξιακά ( Naxiaká) treating the childhood of Zeus. A. is perhaps the Agathosthenes named by the schol. Lycoph. 704 and 1021 as a paradoxographer. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography FHG 4, 1868, 293-294 C. Robert (ed.), Eratosthenis Catasterismorum Reliquiae, 1878, 8, 26, 243.

Christodorus

(265 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Χριστόδωρος; Christódōros) from Coptus. Son of Paniscus; lived at the time of Anastasius I (491-518). Author of Πάτρια ( Pátria), i.e. poems about the early histories of different cities (Thessalonica, Nakle, Miletus, Tralles, Aphrodisias and Constantinople). As well as Λυδιακά ( Lydiaká), C. wrote an epic Ἰσαυρικά ( Isauriká) about Anastasius' Isaurian wars. Extant is his ἔκφρασις ( Ekphrasis) of the 80 statues in the baths of Zeuxippus in Constantinople, destroyed by fire during the Nika revolt of AD 532 (Anth. Pal. 2,1-416)…

Aglais

(40 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Daughter of Megacles (3rd cent. BC);she played on the trumpet at the first πομπή ( pompé) the πομπικὸν μέλος ( pompikòn mélos) held in Alexandria. Ath. 10,415ab mentions her greediness (see also Ael. VH 1,26). Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)

Anubion

(59 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Writer of an astrological didactic poem in elegiac form, of which only a paraphrase in prose and some verses in a work ascribed to  Manetho, namely the Ἀποτελεσματικά ( Apotelesmatiká) have survived. It is proven that  Firmicus Maternus has used this poem.  Didactic poem Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography CCAG II, 202-212 CCAG VIII 2, 57 und 62.

Didymarchus

(60 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Διδύμαρχος; Didýmarchos). Author of ‘Metamorphoses’ in at least three books, which seem to have included the  Battus myth. Rather than a heavenly origin for Pan he prefers the version with Pan as the son of  Gaia (Theoc. schol. 1, 3-4). Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography SH 20 & 175 U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Antigonos von Karystos, 1881, 172, n. 5.

Arctinus

(111 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Miletus, poet of the epic cycle. An Aithiopis in five books, which takes up the action from the end of the Iliad, is ascribed to him. This epic deals with the last deeds of Achilles, his victory over the Amazon Penthesilea and the leader of the Aethiopians, Memnon, his death by the hands of Paris and Apollo and his burial. In the two books of the epic Ἰλίου πέρσις ( Ilíou pérsis) A. describes, episodically, the events which lead to the destruction of Troy. He is also regarded as the author of a  Titanomachy. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography EpGF 61-66, 80, 165 M…

Euboeus

(108 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Εὔβοιος; Eúboios). Poet of parodies from Paros. According to Ath. 15,698a, he was a contemporary of Philippus and particularly despised the Athenians. Alexander of Pleuron praised him together with  Boeotus of Syracuse in an elegy (Ath. 15,699c). From preserved fragments it appears that E. parodied the elevated tone of the epic in Homeric hexameters while making craftsmen his subject (Ath. 15, 699a). The influence of this type of epic  parody on the poesis ludibunda may be traced through to Horace. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography SH 410-412 A. Mein…

Danais

(39 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Δαναίς; Danaís) or Danaídes (Δαναίδες; Danaides). The title of a 6,500 hexameter epic dealing with the fate of the  Danaids and their flight from the sons of Aigyptos to Argus. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography EpGF 141.

Antagoras

(165 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Ἀνταγόρας; Antagóras) of Rhodes. Writer of a Thebais; like his contemporary  Aratus [4], he was summoned to the Macedonian court by Antigonus Gonatas. Diog. Laert. (4,26 and 2,133) connected him with the philosopher Crantor and mentioned his friendship with Menedemus. The epitaph for Crates, and Polemon, who died c. 270 or 266/265 BC (Anth. Pal. 7,103), suggest an interest of A. in the Academy. The two distichs of an inscription which were written for a bridge built in 321/320 on the road between Athens and Eleusis (Anth. Pal. 9,147; Syll.3 1048), need not have been …

Diophilus, Diophila

(77 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Preserved on the POxy. 20, 2258C fr. 1 in addition to the fragments of the Plokamós Bereníkēs by Callimachus are nine hexameters of an astrological poem which have thematic and linguistic links to Aratus and Callimachus. An exact identification of the author's name (Diophilos/Diophila) is not possible. The verses were quoted on the papyrus as they also concern the ‘Lock of Berenice’. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography R. Pfeiffer, Callimachus 1, 1949, 118-120 SH 179-181

Asius

(64 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] of Samos. Son of Amphiptolemus; author of genealogical epics from various legendary cycles in the style of the Hesiodic ‘Ehoiai’. In addition to several hexameter fragments, two distichs are extant (Ath. 3,125bd). A fragment (Ath. 12,525e) of roughly seven hexameters describes the luxury of the Samians and their tendency to τρυφή ( tryphḗ). Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography EpGF 88-91 IEG 2, 46.

Eugam(m)on

(170 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Εὐγάμ(μ)ων; Eugám(m)ōn). Epic poet of Cyrene to whom is attributed the two-volume  Telegonia. According to Eusebius (in Jer. Chron. 102,1 Helm), the epic was written during the period of the 53rd Olympiad = 568-565 BC and is supposed (Clem. Al. strom. 2,442,4f.) to have been identical to a book of  Musaeus about the Thesprotians: E. allegedly drew upon this without naming his source (Paus. 8,12,5 likewise mentions a Thesprotís). The Telegonia described the post-Odyssean journeys of Odysseus to Elis, to Thesprotia because of the prophecy of Tiresias…

Epikichlides

(68 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Ἐπικιχλίδες; Epikichlídes) is the title of an erotic poem attributed to Homer (Ath. 14,639a). Menaechmus associates it with the word for thrush (κίχλη, kíchlē), which suggests a travesty or parody, set in the animal kingdom, of the Homeric epics (cf.  Batrachomyomachia). The title may perhaps refer to kichlismoí, which denotes exuberant laughter. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Die Ilias und Homer, 1916, 18, n. 2.

Boio

(50 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Βοιώ; Boiṓ) Paus. 10,5,8 quotes four verses from a hymn of the Delphic woman B. in which she names the Hyperboreans as the founders of the oracle and praises Olen as the first prophet of Apollo who wrote down his sayings in hexameters. Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)

Dioscorus

(318 words)

Author(s): Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διόσκορος; Dióskoros). [German version] [1] Patriarch of Alexandria Patriarch of Alexandria (444-451). In terms of ecclesiastical politics, he aimed to achieve the highest standing for his patriarchy and in terms of theology he promoted the teaching of the pre-eminence of the divine nature of Christ (moderate  Monophysitism). When the radical Monophysite  Eutyches was sentenced in 448, D. took his side and, with the help of the Emperor Theodosius II, asserted his will at the ‘Robber Synod’ of Ephesus (…

Archytas

(1,232 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ἀρχύτας, Archỳtas) [1] of Tarentum Pythagoraean philosopher [German version] A. Life Important Pythagorean philosopher of the ‘mathematical’ orientation, politician of Tarentum, a friend of Plato's. His life and his teachings are known in little more than outline because of insufficient records; his true works, with the exception of a few fragments, are lost, as is Aristoxenus' biography, Aristotle's treatise on A.'s philosophy and his comparison of Plato's Timaeus and A. (no. 94 in Diog. Laert. 5,25 = no. 85 in Hesychius' catalogue). A. is described as the so…

Aristeas

(297 words)

Author(s): Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epic poet of the island of Proconnesus in the Propontis. The Suda places him in the period of Croesus and Cyrus. In his epic Ἀριμάσπεια ( Arimáspeia), A. tells of his travels into the land of the Scythes and of the Issedones, who lived further north. According to Hdt. 4,13-15, it was the Issedones who told A. about the one-eyed Arimaspeans, about the griffins who guarded the gold, and about the Hyperboreans. A. added to this description of mythical and historical peoples and places an explanation for th…

Diotimus

(622 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Διότιμος; Diótimos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Corcyra 433/2 BC Athenian, son of Strombichides, from Euonymon (his family is known into the 3rd cent.). Strategos in Corcyra in 433/32 BC (Thuc. 1,45,2; IG I3 364,9); 439-32 nauarchos at Neapolis (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98); he may have led a legation to Susa (Str. 1,3,1). Perhaps identical with D. in Ath. 10,436e. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Fraser/Matthews (1) Davies, 4386. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos c. 390 BC Athenian strategos. Commander of the Athenian mercenary force near Corinth in 390/…

Aegimius

(325 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Αἰγιμιός; Aigimiós). [German version] [1] Mythical progenitor of the Dorians in the Oete mountains Son (or father) of Dorus, father of Dyman and Pamphilus (Hes. fr. 10a 7). Progenitor of the Dorians in the Oete mountains (Pind. Pyth. 1,64;5,72; Str. 9,427 after Ephoros, FGrH 115 F 15). He adopted Hercules' son Hyllus after the death of his father, in addition to his own sons, to show his appreciation of Hercules' help. The three Dorian phyles were given the names Hylleis, Pamphiloi, Dymanes, after them. Othe…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Antiphon

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris)
(Ἀντιφῶν; Antiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian, who towards the end of the Peloponnesian War equipped two triremes. He was executed 404/403 BC by the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,3,40; Traill PAA, 138325). He is probably identical with an A., for whose daughter  Lysias gave an oration (Traill PAA, 138320; cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 120 = Plut. Mor. 833A-B). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian (middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, was removed from the list of citizens. Thereafter he allegedly promised  Philippu…

Antimachus

(718 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ἀντίμαχος; Antímachos). [German version] [1] Trojan, opponent of Antenor Trojan, opponent of  Antenor. When, before the war, Menelaus and Odysseus demanded the return of Helen in Troy, he advised, contrary to custom and tradition, killing the envoys (Hom. Il. 3,205; 11,138). Later, bribed by Paris, he prevented the handing over of Helen, then under consideration by the Trojans (Hom. Il. 11,123 ff.). His three sons were killed by the Greeks (Hom. Il. 12,188). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Two Indo-Greek kings in the 2nd cent. BC Two Indo-Greek kings in the 2nd c…

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [German version] [2] Politician from C…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…
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