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Hymn

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jeremias, Gert
1. OT From the time of W. M. L. de Wette and H. Gunkel, the term “hymn” (Gk. hymnos, corresponding in part to Heb. tĕhillâ) has been used in studies of the Psalms for psalms of praise such as Psalms 8, 19, 29, 33, 46–48, 65, 67–68, 76, 84, 87, 93, 96–100, 103–5, 111, 113–14, 117, 135–36, 145–50, as well as Exodus 15, 1 Samuel 2, Deuteronomy 33, Judges 5, Habakkuk 3, and texts from Amos 4–9 and Isaiah 40–66. Insofar as these passages are not just portions of a larger text but independent texts themselves, a threefold structure may be discerned: (1) introduction or intro…

Monarchy in Israel

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
1. Israelite Monarchies There were various monarchies in ancient Israel (§1). Israel itself was originally made up of tribes, with monarchy not native to it. The monarchy was introduced and adopted only with further developments, dependent in part on the overall political situation in the Middle East. The main source for the history of monarchy in Israel is the OT (Judges; 1-2 Samuel; 1-2 Kings; 1-2 Chronicles; the Prophets). Light is also shed by contemporary annals and inscriptions (see TGI  [3d ed.], ANET , and TUAT  1). We might refer as well to 1 Maccabees and Josephus Ant.  Purely episodic was the setting up of a Canaanite city monarchy at Shechem by Abimelech son of Jerubbaal (Judges 9), which had no basis in the tribal federation. It is an open question whether things were different when monarchy was ascribed to Gideon (8:22–23), as the reference in v. 22 to “the men of Israel” (RSV) might suggest. Saul’s monarchy (ca. 1012–1004 b.c.) was a military monarchy deriving from his function as charismatic leader of the host under pressure from foreign enemies—Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, kings of Zobah, Amalekites, and especially the Philistines (1 Sam. 14:47–48). The new institution was contested (chaps. 8–12). With Saul we find the first beginnings…

Psalms, Book of

(4,866 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Schnitker, Thaddeus A.
1. OT 1.1. Terms and Place in Canon The term “Psalms” or “Psalter” is used for the OT collection of 150 songs and prayers. It comes from the Greek OT (Bible Manuscripts and Editions; Bible Versions). The Codex Alexandrinus has psaltērion, which denotes a stringed instrument and is a rendering of Heb. nēbel, “lyre.” What is meant, then, is a book of songs to be sung with a stringed inst…

Doxology

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Vollenweider, Samuel | Wainwright, Geoffrey | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Form Criticism – II. Theology – III. Liturgy – IV. Music I. Form Criticism 1. Old Testament Derived from the expression δόξαν λέγειν ( dóxan légein; cf. Ps 28:9 LXX), in the OT doxology denotes the liturgical act of paying homage to the deity, which in turn has its roots in the ceremonial of the royal court. Words and gestures express veneration, glorification, and exaltation of the addressee toget…

Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old Testament literature. OT books such as Proverbs, Psalms, Job, Song of Songs, and Lamentations are basically poetry; large portions of the prophetic literature are in verse; the narrative books also contain poetic sections (Proverbs; songs [Song of Songs and Lamentations], Psalms). In the history of biblical exegesis, the rules governing poetry were not studied until the modern period; this study led to the discovery of parallelismus membrorum (R. Lowth, 18th cent.), metrics (late 19th cent.), and the rules governing structure and sound (alliteration, assonance, acrostics; 20th cent.) (see bibl.). The basis for the study of OT poetry is the masoretic tradition (Masoretes) with its system of accents and intonations, along with epigraphic and manuscript traditions, above all the fragmentary texts from Qumran. b. Metrical units. The basic unit of ancient Hebrew poetry is the metrical verse (stich, line, etc.) or colon (line, hemistich). As a rule, the verse consists of tw…

Köhler, Ludwig

(244 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 14, 1880, Neuwied – Nov 25, 1956, Zürich). After studying theology, philosophy, and education at Zürich, Köhler served as pastor in Aeugst and Langnau am Albis. He received his doctorate and was appointed associate professor of Old Testament in Zürich in 1908. In 1923 he was appointed full professor, and in 1932 his chair included practical theology. From 1930 to 1932 he served as rector of the university. His many publications include exegeses (on Amos, 1917), a monograph on…

Aaronic Blessing

(431 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jacobs, Martin | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. Liturgy I. Old Testament The priestly Blessing, transmitted within the framework of the so-called Priestly Source (Pentateuch) in Num 6:23-26, which is also attested in some inscriptions (e.g. in Ketef Hinnom near Jerusalem), consist of traditional blessing formulae, linked together in three stair-stepped lines. …

Joel/Book of Joel

(960 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
[German Version] I

Election

(7,050 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Hartman, Lars | Link, Christian | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament Election, especially in compounds such as doctrine of election, election idea, election tradition, is a term from biblical theology based on the theological use of the Heb. verb בחר/ bḥr, especially in Deuteronomy, which has become established since K. Galling's monograph (1928). It has become the comprehensive term for the foundation of Israel's existence and involves “the philosop…

Reconciliation/Atonement

(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in …