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Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …

Doxology

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Vollenweider, Samuel | Wainwright, Geoffrey | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Form Criticism – II. Theology – III. Liturgy – IV. Music I. Form Criticism 1. Old Testament Derived from the expression δόξαν λέγειν ( dóxan légein; cf. Ps 28:9 LXX), in the OT doxology denotes the liturgical act of paying homage to the deity, which in turn has its roots in the ceremonial of the royal court. Words and gestures express veneration, glorification, and exaltation of the addressee together …

Election

(7,050 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Hartman, Lars | Link, Christian | Börner-Klein, Dagmar
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics – IV. Judaism I. Old Testament Election, especially in compounds such as doctrine of election, election idea, election tradition, is a term from biblical theology based on the theological use of the Heb. verb בחר/ bḥr, especially in Deuteronomy, which has become established since K. Galling's monograph (1928). It has become the comprehensive term for the foundation of Israel's existence and involves “the philosop…

Reconciliation/Atonement

(6,443 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In comparison with expiation (I), reconciliation is defined more specifically; as a rule, its goal is to restore a personal relationship undermined by guilt or sin. In reconciliation we are dealing with a category rooted in ¶ the Judeo-Christian tradition that cannot be translated readily into other contexts. In comparison with Western Christianity, the understanding of reconciliation in Judaism displays several distinctive features. As in Christianity, the concept of reconciliation is complementar…

Köhler, Ludwig

(244 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
[German Version] (Apr 14, 1880, Neuwied – Nov 25, 1956, Zürich). After studying theology, philosophy, and education at Zürich, Köhler served as pastor in Aeugst and Langnau am Albis. He received his doctorate and was appointed associate professor of Old Testament in Zürich in 1908. In 1923 he was appointed full professor, and in 1932 his chair included practical theology. From 1930 to 1932 he served as rector of the university. His many publications include exegeses (on Amos, 1917), a monograph on…

Aaronic Blessing

(431 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jacobs, Martin | Saliers, Don E.
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. Liturgy I. Old Testament The priestly Blessing, transmitted within the framework of the so-called Priestly Source (Pentateuch) in Num 6:23-26, which is also attested in some inscriptions (e.g. in Ketef Hinnom near Jerusalem), consist of traditional blessing formulae, linked together in three stair-stepped lines. …

Joel/Book of Joel

(960 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
[German Version] I The book of Joel appears in the Hebrew canon as the second book of the Minor Prophets, following Hosea; in the Greek canon it comes fourth, following Hosea, Amos, and Micah (Bible: II). It is one of the three-chapter books of the Bible (divided into four chapters in Heb., three in Gk); it text (73 masoretic verses) probably filled some three columns of a scroll consisting of a single leaf or section. Three manuscripts of the Hebrew Minor Prophets contain portions of Joel (M. Abegg, The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, 1999, 428–432). Quotations from chs. 2f. appear in the Damascus Docu…

Hymn

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Jeremias, Gert
1. OT From the time of W. M. L. de Wette and H. Gunkel, the term “hymn” (Gk. hymnos, corresponding in part to Heb. tĕhillâ) has been used in studies of the Psalms for psalms of praise such as Psalms 8, 19, 29, 33, 46–48, 65, 67–68, 76, 84, 87, 93, 96–100, 103–5, 111, 113–14, 117, 135–36, 145–50, as well as Exodus 15, 1 Samuel 2, Deuteronomy 33, Judges 5, Habakkuk 3, and texts from Amos 4–9 and Isaiah 40–66. Insofar as these passages are not just portions of a larger text but independent texts themselves, a threefold structure may be discerned: (1) introduction or intro…

Monarchy in Israel

(1,523 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus
1. Israelite Monarchies There were various monarchies in ancient Israel (§1). Israel itself was originally made up of tribes, with monarchy not native to it. The monarchy was introduced and adopted only with further developments, dependent in part on the overall political situation in the Middle East. The main source for the history of monarchy in Israel is the OT (Judges; 1-2 Samuel; 1-2 Kings; 1-2 Chronicles; the Prophets). Light is also shed by contemporary annals and inscriptions (see TGI  [3d ed.], ANET , and TUAT  1). We might refer as well to 1 Maccabees and Josephus Ant.  Purel…

Psalms, Book of

(4,866 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Schnitker, Thaddeus A.
1. OT 1.1. Terms and Place in Canon The term “Psalms” or “Psalter” is used for the OT collection of 150 songs and prayers. It comes from the Greek OT (Bible Manuscripts and Editions; Bible Versions). The Codex Alexandrinus has psaltērion, which denotes a stringed instrument and is a rendering of Heb. nēbel, “lyre.” What is meant, then, is a book of songs to be sung with a stringed instrument. In the Codex Vaticanus we find the title psalmoi, with the subtitle biblos psalmōn (book of psalms), a term appearing also in the NT (Luke 20:42; 24:44; Acts 1:20; 13:33). Psalmos corresponds to the Heb.…

Versöhnung

(5,862 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Seybold, Klaus | Oegema, Gerbern S. | Porter, Stanley E. | Webster, John | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichIm Vergleich zur Sühne (: I.) ist V. spezifischer bestimmt und zielt in der Regel auf die Wiederherstellung einer durch Schuld oder Sünde zerrütteten personalen Beziehung. Bei V. handelt es sich um eine Kategorie aus der jüd.-christl. Tradition, die nicht ohne weiteres auf andere Kontexte übertragbar ist. Im Vergleich zu christl.-abendländischen Ausprägungen zeigt das Verständnis von V. bereits im Judentum erhebliche Besonderheiten. Zwar erscheint auch hi…

Poesie

(9,205 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bibel und antikes Judentum 1.Altes Testament a) AllgemeinP. (griech. ποι´ησις/poi´ēsis) bez. in den bibl. Wiss., im Unterschied zur Prosa, i. allg. Texte in vers-, rhythmus- und klanggebundener Sprache, deren Struktur und Stil von sprachlichen (Klangformen; Reime; Satzfolgen u.a.) wie auch außersprachlichen Faktoren (Musik; Umfang; Gleichbau; Szenerie u.a. Modifikationen, sog. constraints) bestimmt sind. Althebr. Begriffe sind nicht überliefert, obwohl die P. einen beträchtlichen An…