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Connacorix

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοννακόριξ; Konnakórix). Galatian with a Celtic name [1. 182; 2. 155], in 73 BC a commander of  Mithridates in  Heraclea (Memnon 29,4; 34,4; 35,1-4; 7; 36=FGrH 3 no. 434). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt. 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Aneroestes

(48 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀνηροέστης, Ἀνηρόεστος; Anēroéstēs, Anēróestos). Celtic name, perhaps a variant of Anarevisios (‘very wise’). King of the  Gaesates, committed suicide after the defeat of the Celtic army at Telamon (225 BC) (Pol. 2,22,2; 2,26,5; 2,31,2; Flor. 1,20: Ariovisto duce). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Schmidt, 126, 131.

Cambaules

(29 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Καμβαύλης; Kambaúlēs). Leader of a Celtic army that invaded Thrace in 281 BC but who had to retreat from there (Paus. 10,19,5-6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Segovesus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name containing the morpheme sego-, 'power, strength, audacity' (cf. also CIL II 2871: Secovesus [1. 254-255; 2. 1452]). Brother of Bellovesus and son of Ambigatus' sister. According to the Celtic migration legend recorded in Livy (5,34,3-6), it fell to S.' lot to advance with his group eastwards into the Hercynian Forest (Hercynia silva) in about 600 BC. According to ancient tradition, modern southern Germany was as a consequence settled by Celts. The historical content of this legend is highly disputed. Celts Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography…

Epasnactus

(54 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Epad[nactus]; Celt. name compilation from epo- ‘Horse’ [2. 89-90]). Pro-Roman prince of the  Arverni, who captured the rebellious Cadurcan leader Lucterius in 51 BC and turned him over to Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 8,44,3). E. is documented on several coins [1. 432-436]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1] 2 Evans.

Domnilaus

(82 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δομνέκλειος; Domnékleios). Celtic name; tetrarch of the Trocmi, the son and successor of Brogitarus [1. 1303; 2. 155]. D. was killed on Pompey's side at Pharsalus in 49 BC. After the death of Deiotarus his territory was awarded to his son Adiatorix by Antony but Augustus had him executed after the battle of Actium (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5; Str. 12,3,6).  Antonius [I 9];  Brogitarus;  Deiotarus;  Trocmi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken 1931.

Mallovendus

(50 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name (cf. Mal(l)orix). Prince of the Marsi who had subjugated himself to the Romans and who betrayed to Germanicus [2] in AD 15 the hiding place of the eagle standard of one of the fallen legions of Quinctilius Varus (Tac. Ann. 2,25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Eporedorix

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name: ‘king of the riders?’ (cf. also Plut. Mor. 259A; C (Πορηδόριξ MS]. [German version] [1] Before Caesar's arrival the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani E. was the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani prior to Caesar's arrival,. In 52 BC, he fell into Roman captivity at Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 67,7).  Alesia;  Haedui;  Sequani Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Young equestrian leader of the Haedui Young equestrian leader of the Haedui, of noble descent. With Caesar's help, E. and Viridomarus had risen to highest office.…

Eposognatus

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐποσόγνατος; Eposógnatos). Celtic name; pro-Roman tetrarch of the Galatian Tolistobogii [1. 155]. E. remained loyal to Eumenes II of Pergamum and did not support Antiochus [5] the Great. For that reason, C.  Manlius Vulso asked him during his campaign against the Galatians in 189 BC to talk the Tolistobogii into voluntary submission, but without success (Pol. 21,37; Liv. 38,18).  Tolistobogii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Vertico

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Nervian noble (Nervii) who defected to the Roman side and helped Q. Tullius [I 11] Cicero during the siege of his winter camp  in 54 BC to send reports to Caesar (Caes. Gall. 5,45; 5,49). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 385 f.

Lugotorix

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Lucotorix). Celtic compound name [1. 98f.]. British prince, who was taken captive in an attack on the Roman ship camp in Kent in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1-2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Albruna

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Albrinia, Aurinia). Germanic compound name (‘the one furnished with the secret knowledge of the albs’?) [1. 553], probably not a personal name, but rather a designation for a visionary woman. According to Tac. Germ. 8, A. was worshipped almost as a god by the Germans together with others even before  Veleda. Several such visionaries are transmitted in literature; thus Ganna,  Waluburg and other women who are not named (Suet. Vit. 14; Cass. Dio 55,1). Their meaning is often overstated; they had sooner a low function in cult and in society [2. 151-162]. Spickermann, Wol…

Catumelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Catmelus). Celtic name compound ‘ceaseless in battle’ [1. 168]. Gallic prince who commanded a camp of relief troops on the Roman side in the campaign against the Histrians at Lake Timavus in 178 BC (Liv. 41,1,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Waluburg

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βαλουβουργ; Baloubourg). Semnonian seer ('Sibyl'), mentioned on an AD 2nd-century óstrakon from Elephantine (in Egypt): Βαλουβουργ Σήνονι σιβύλλᾳ (SB III 6221). The inscription contains a list of people on the staff of the praefectus Aegypti ; W. was therefore in Roman service and may have been responsible for interpreting omens and soothsaying. Her name may trace back to Gothic *walus (pilgrim's/traveller's staff or magic wand). Other Germanic women seers probably also had political roles beyond their tribes, e.g. Ganna, a successor to Veled…

Cerethrius

(31 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κερέθριος; Keréthrios). Leader of one of the three parts of the Galatian army who plundered Thrace in 280 BC (Paus. 10,19,7).  Belgius;  Brennus [2] Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Bituitus

(115 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound form based on bitu- ‘world’ [1.149]. King of the Arverni, defeated in 121 BC by the consul Q.  Fabius Maximus in the region of the Isère's confluence with the Rhône when he came to the aid of the  Allobroges. B. was afterwards banished by the Senate to Alba (Liv. per. 61; Eutr. 4,22; Flor. Epit. 1,37; Oros. 5,14,1 i.a.; Fasti triumphales, CIL I2 634, p. 49 Betulto). His son, Congonnetiacus (Contoniatus), was initially brought to Rome as a hostage but may later have been installed as a client king (Diod. Sic. 34,36). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bib…

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Dumnovellaunus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnovellaunus; Celtic composite name: ‘he who sees the world’? [1. 196-197; 272-277]). King of some tribes in eastern Kent c. 15 BC ─ c. AD 15 [2. no. 275-291A]. Around the beginning of our era he conquered the territory of the Trinovantes north of the Thames and established himself in Camulodunum. In c. AD 10 he was driven out by Cunobellinus. It is probably this event that caused him to flee to Augustus, who mentions him in his Res Gestae (R. Gest. div. Aug. ch. 32).  Camulodunum;  Cunobellinus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 R. P. Mack, The Coin…

Ducarius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name formed from -caro- ‘dear’. Knight, in a unit of Insubres in Hannibal's army, who in the battle at Lake Trasimene in 217 BC killed the consul C.  Flaminius (Liv. 22,6,3-5; Sil. Pun. 5,644-658).  Hannibal Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Troucillus

(94 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] C. Valerius T. was a respected man from the province of Gaul, who had the confidence of Caesar, who sent him as his interpreter to Diviciacus [2] in 58 BC (Caes. Gall. 1,19,3). Identifying him with C. Valerius Procillus, son of C. Valerius Caburus, the chieftain of the Helvii, and brother of Donnotaurus, is debatable. The latter and M. Mettius [I 1] were sent as Caesar's negotiators to the camp of Ariovistus, but were taken prisoner and freed by Caesar personally (Caes. Gall. 1,47,4; 1,53,5). Helvii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 380-382.

Veleda

(235 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic female seer who played a significant part in the Batavian Revolt in AD 69/70 ( Iulius [II 43] Civilis). According to Tacitus, she was part of the Bructeri tribe and lived in a high tower on the River Lippe ( Lupia; Tac. Hist. 4,61,2; 5,22,3). Among the tribes to the east of the Rhine, she was worshipped as divine and was invoked as an arbiter (Tac. Germ. 8,2 f.; Tac. Hist. 4,65). Petillius [II 1] Cerialis made her a secret offer of peace. Tacitus gives a satirical account of how some of the Batavi in oppositio…

Maelo

(98 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μέλωνος/ Mélōnos; Μαίλος/ Maílos). King of the Sugambri with a Celtic name [1. 374], who is supposed to have started the war against the Romans according to Str. 7,1,4; this probably refers to the defeat of M. Lollius [II 1] in 17/6 BC. After the forced relocation of the Sugambri to the left side of the Rhine (8 BC) he appears to have sought refuge with Augustus (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32). The son of his brother Baetorix, Deidorix, was carried along in the triumphal parade of Germanicus [2]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 2.

Nerthus

(319 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Tacitus describes the cult of the mother deity N., adding as his own interpretation: id est terra mater (Tac. Germ. 40,2). He states that N. is venerated by seven tribes (the so-called Nerthus peoples), whom he includes among the Suebi living to the east of the Elbe. They probably lived in western Mecklenburg and were part of the Ingaevones [3. 460]. On an island (probably in the Danish Baltic Sea) he locates a sacred grove containing a cultic wagon concealed by covers. Only one priest ( sacerdos) is allowed to touch it. The goddess’s solemn procession, linked to …

Magalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μάγιλος; Mágilos). Celtic name from maglo-, ‘prince’ [1. 234]. Chief of the Boii who offered himself to Hannibal [4] in 217 BC as an ally and leader for the crossing of the Alps (Pol. 3,44,5; Liv. 21,29,6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Boiorix

(157 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic/Illyrian compound for ‘King of the Boii’ [1.497; 2.153]. [German version] [1] Prince of the Boii around 194 in Italy Titular name of a prince of the Boii in Italy who, together with his brothers, led the war against the Romans in 194 BC (Liv. 34,46,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of the Cimbri around 105 BC King of the  Cimbri, probably identical with the ferox iuvenis who in 105 BC killed the captured legate M.  Aurelius [I 18] Scaurus. Together with his fellow king, Lugius, B. fell at Vercellae, after first negotiating the t…

Tarcondarius

(75 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ταρκονδάριος/ Tarkondários). T. Castor I, tetrarch of the Tectosages, with a Celtic name [1. 1732]. In the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, T. and his father-in-law Deiotarus supported Pompeius [I 3], sending him 300 horsemen (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5). After Caesar's death in 44 BC, he and his wife were killed in his residence of Gorbeus by Deiotarus (Str. 12,5,3). He was the father of T. Castor II (Deiotarus). Galatia Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder 2

Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Orgetorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic composite name: “King of the cudgels” [1. 108f.]). Influential and prosperous Helvetian nobleman, whose greed for royal power, according to Caesar,  led him to instigate a conspiracy by the nobility and in 61 BC to persuade his tribe to move away from its ancestral territory. Appointed leader of this enterprise, O. (according to Caesar) then made plans with Casticus and Dumnorix to conquer the whole of Gaul. In the spring of 60 BC his large number of followers prevented hi…

Cotuatus

(57 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name from cot -- ‘old’ (Evans, 340-342). [German version] [1] Leader of an army of Carnutes Leader of an army of Carnutes, who in 52 BC attacked and murdered Roman merchants in Cenabum together with Conconnetodumnus. As a deterrent, Caesar had him cruelly executed (Caes. B. Gall. 7,3; 8,38). Conconnetodumnus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Ollovico

(41 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name: 'the one who fights all (enemies)'). King (?) of the Nitiobroges and father of Teutomatus, who had received the title 'friend' from the Roman Senate (Caes. B Gall. 7,31,5). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 106.

Deiotarus

(682 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δηιόταρος; Dēiótaros). Φιλορώμαιος (regarding Celtic composite name cf. [4. 190; 5. 155]). Born at the end of the 2nd cent. BC the son of Sinorix (IG III2 3429); husband of Berenice; tetrarch of the Tolistobogii, king of the Galatians; died c. 40 BC. D. was a semi-Hellenized client prince of the Romans, and practised an energetic and unscrupulous form of power politics. He was one of the three Galatian tetrarchs who in 86 BC escaped the assassination attempts of Mithridates of Pontus. From then on he fought as an all…

Segovellauni

(96 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in the area between the Rhodanus and the Druna (modern département of Drôme). With the founding of the province the S. were absorbed into the civitas Valentinorum or the colonia Valentia founded under Caesar or Augustus (Plin. HN 3,34; Ptol. 2,10,12: Σεγαλλαυνοί). Str. 4,1,11 subsumes them under the name Cavari. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 254-257, 272-277  J. Whatmough, The Dialects of Ancient Gaul, 1970, 80, 185  G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, in…

Camulogenus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound Celtic name, ‘descendant of the (god) Camulus’ [1.60-61; 2.160]. An Aulercan, who in 52 BC lead the  Parisii and their neighbouring tribes against T.  Labienus, but fell in a battle at the Seine (Caes. B Gall. 7,57-62). A gold coin of the  Arverni was possibly dedicated to him [3.419, fig. 454; 4.726-727]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt. 3 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 4 Holder, 1.

Dorulatus

(39 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name; prince of the Insubres. In 194 BC, D. led an army over the Po, but then endured a crushing defeat by the proconsul L.  Valerius Flaccus at Mediolanum (Liv. 34,46,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Ortiagon

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὀρτιάγων; Ortiágōn). In 189 BC, he was the prince of the Galatian Tolistobogii tribe and husband of Chiomara (cf. [1. 151]). Together with Comboiomarus and Gaulotus, O. was defeated by Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso on the mountains of Magaba and Olympus [10]. He was able to escape and then clearly aspired to rule over the whole of Galatia in the Hellenistic manner. Polybius (22,21) praises O. as a generous, noble, intelligent and brave man. In 184/3 BC, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon appea…

Teutoboduus

(77 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] The name is probably partly Celtic and partly Germanic [1. 202; 2. 277]. King of the Teutoni, who were annihilated in 102 BC by C. Marius [I 1] at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae. T. was captured in flight and in 101 handed over to Marius, who paraded him in his triumphal procession (Flor. Epit. 1,38; Eutr. 5,1,4; Oros. 5,16,11). Germani, Germania; Cimbri Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Scherrer, Die keltisch-germanischen Namensgleichungen, in: H. Krahe (ed.), FS F. Sommer, 1955, 199-210 2 Schmidt.

Gaizatorix

(97 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Γαιζατόριξ, Γεζατόριος; Gaizatórix, Gezatórios). Celtic name, ‘lord of the Gaesati (spear bearers)’ [2. 215]. Leader of the Galates, who in 180 BC together with  Cassignatus approached Eumenes II for help against  Pharnaces of Pontus. Eumenes refused, as the Galates had previously sided with the latter (Pol. 24,14; 25,2). A region in western Paphlagonia may also have been named after G. (Str. 12,3,41). Regarding a forged silver coin of the ‘Boian king’ Gesatorix, see [1. 77-79]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Göbl, Typologie und Chronolo…

Camma

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάμμα; Kámma). Wife of the Galatian tetrarch Sinatus, priestess of Artemis in the 2nd cent. BC. Plutarch notes her as an example of marital love and fidelity because she poisoned the murderer of her husband,  Sinorix, who had forced her to marry him, and herself in the temple (Plut. Mor. 257e-258c; 768b-e; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,39). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Brogitarus

(143 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρογίταρος; Brogítaros). Celtic compound name from brogi ‘land’ and taros ‘bull’ [1. 276f.; 2. 159]. Tetrarch of the Galatian  Trocmi (OGIS 349), husband of Adobogiona II, daughter of  Deiotarus I. P. In 58 BC, as people's tribune,  Clodius [I 4] Pulcher sold him for a great deal of money the priestly office of Magna Mater of  Pessinus and the title of king, which he had accepted in a plebiscite (Cic. Sest. 26,56; Har. resp. 28-29; Dom. 50,129; Ad Q. fr. 2,7 (9); Str. 12,5,2). The title …

Nasua

(26 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the Suebi in 58 BC, name Germanic (?), brother to Cimberius (Caes. B Gall. 1,37,3). Ariovistus; Suebi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Tarcondimotus

(191 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Ταρκονδίμοτος/ Tarkondímotos; also Ταρκόνδημος/ Tarkóndēmos). [German version] [1] T. I. Philantonius King of Amanus, son of Straton. Roman ally, partisan of Pompeius [I 3], Caesar, Cassius [I 10] and finally Antonius [I 9], on whose side he fell at Actium in 31 BC (Plut. Antonius 61,2; Cass. Dio. 41,63,1; 47,26,2; 50,14,2; Flor. Epit. 2,13,5; IGR 3, 901 = OGIS 752 and 753). In 51 BC Cicero appraises him as fidelissimus socius trans Taurum amicissimusque populi Romani ("the most faithful ally beyond the Taurus and the best friend of the Roman people", Cic. Fam. 15,…

Sido

(92 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] deposed (according to Tac. Ann. 12,29-30), together with his brother Vangio, their uncle Vannius, who - himself a Quadus - by Roman mandate ruled the kingdom of the Suebi, which neighboured the Quadi. The two brothers then ruled the Suebi state together and remained faithful to Rome. S. fought on the side of the followers of Vespasianus together with Italicus [2] and a contingent of troops on the front line in the battle of Cremona in 68/9 AD (Tac. Hist. 3,5,1; 3,21,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Holder 2, 1540.

Vertiscus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Remian noble and army leader (Remi). In 51 BC, as commander of a tribal contingent fighting on the side of Caesar, which he was leading in spite of his great age, V. fell in a cavalry battle with the  Bellovaci (Caes. Gall. 8,12). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 386.

Corolamus

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Minor king of the  Boii with a Celtic name [1. 184]. In 196 BC he killed the consul M.  Claudius [I 12] Marcellus (Liv. 33,36,4-8), who was operating in the Boian region in northern Italy. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Mandubracius

(66 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Trinobantes in south-eastern Britannia, who on the occasion of the murder of his father by Cassivellaunus had fled to Caesar on the mainland. When Caesar invaded Britannia for the second time in 54 BC, M. was able to return to his tribe by providing hostages and grain (Caes. B Gall. 5,20; 22,5; Oros. 6,9,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 100ff.

Drappes

(73 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Draptes). Celtic or pre-Celtic name; leader of the Senones (Evans, 445-446). Together with the Cadurcian Lucterius, D. tried to invade the Gallic provincia in 51 BC. Pursued by Roman forces, the Gallic troops entrenched themselves at Uxellodunum. In an attempt to resupply the city, D. was blocked and captured by C. Caninius Rebilus. He thereupon committed suicide (Caes. B Gall. 8,30-36; 44,2; Oros. 6,11,20-22).  Senones;  Uxellodunum Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
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