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Deinomachus

(81 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δεινόμαχος; Deinómachos). Philosopher whose dates and school cannot be precisely determined; little can be deduced doxographically. He is mentioned only in association with Calliphon, who is scarcely more easily placed: both represent a position recorded in a discourse on the divisio Carneadea ( Carneades) in Cic. Fin. 5,21, seeing virtue ( honestas) allied with pleasure (ἡδονή) as the goal of human action (Clem. Al. Strom. 2,21,127; also critically commented upon in Cic. Off. 3,119; Tusc. 5,85). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)

Telecles

(88 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεκλῆς; Tēleklês). Academian philosopher of the 3rd/ 2nd cent. BC from Phocaea, after Lacydes' resignation from leading the Academy ( Akadḗmeia ) he apparently held a prominent position alongside Evander [3] (cf. Diog. Laert. 4,60). T. had his own pupils and gave lectures, but we know nothing of any writings or specific doctrines, Apollodorus [7] ( Chroniká 30 Dorandi) gives 167/6 BC as the year of his death; T. presumably died before Evander. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Görler, T. Euandros. Hegesinus, in: GGPh2, Bd. 4.2, 834-836.

Carneades

(628 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Καρνεάδης; Karneádēs). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher from the 3rd/2nd cent. BC Academic philosopher, born 214/3 (or 219/8 BC) in Cyrene, died 129/8 in Athens. He probably came to Athens as a young man, later receiving rights of citizenship. After studying i. a. under the Stoic  Diogenes [15] of Babylon he joined the  Academy, taking over leadership from another of his masters,  Hegesinus [1], in around 164/60. He gave up the leadership in 137/6, thus long before his death, perhaps for health re…

Erastus

(75 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔραστος; Érastos) from Scepsis. 4th cent. BC; a pupil of Plato, he took part in the philosophical delegation to Hermias at Assos (Didymus, In Demosthenem commenta V 54 = F 7 Lasserre). According to Philod. Index academicorum VI 10-12, E. like Asclepiades of Phleius was the author of a text ‘Memories ( Apomnēmoneúmata) of Plato’, otherwise unknown. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d' Oronte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Lacydes

(230 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λακύδης; Lakýdēs) of Cyrene. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC. Took over the leadership of the Academy from Arcesilaus [5], which he held, according to Diog. Laert. 4,60/61, for 26 years and handed over in his own lifetime to Evander and Telecles. How the information contained in Philod. Academicorum Index 27,1-7 is to be reconciled with this is disputed (details in [1. 831]). L. died most likely in the year 207 BC ([1. 830], differently [2. 50]). He lectured in a garden…

Speusippus

(1,394 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Σπεύσιππος/ Speúsippos), c. 410-339/8 BC [German version] A. Life Academic philosopher, c. 410-339/8 BC Academic philosopher, son of Plato's sister Potone, who succeeded his uncle as scholarch of the Academy (from 348/7 BC, the year of Plato's [1] death; Academy), without having been appointed by means of an official election; the family relationship may have been the decisive factor. A fundamental organisational innovation in the Academy is linked to his name: the introduction of school fees; lessons during…

Hestiaeus

(107 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἑστιαῖος; Hestiaîos) from Perinthus (4th cent. BC), student of Plato (Philod. Academicorum index 6,2 after Timaeus; Diog. Laert. 3,46), who, according to Simplicius, together with Aristotle and Heraclides [15] Ponticus the Elder heard Plato's lectures ‘On the Good’ and also recorded them. According to Theophrastus' testimony (Metaphysica 11-13 = F 2 Lasserre = Testimonium Platonicum 30 Gaiser), H., like Xenocrates, also concerned himself to a certain extent with the derivation of the realms of being from the principles.  Academy Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübinge…

Appendix Platonica

(213 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] The Corpus Platonicum contains in its appendix several dialogues which were already generally agreed to be false in antiquity (ὁμολογουμένως νοθευόμενοι; homologouménōs notheuómenoi). Besides the dialogues Sisyphus, Demodocus (actually containing four conversations), Περὶ δικαίου ( Perì dikaíou), Περὶ ἀρετῆς ( Perì aretês), Alcyon, Eryxias and Axiochus, which follow the Hóroi in the MSS, five additional titles are named by Diog. Laert. 3,62. The appendix was created mainly in order to support the order by tetralogies, although t…

Coriscus

(78 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κορίσκος; Korískos) from Scepsis; a Socratic often mentioned c. 375-350 BC alongside  Erastus (Str. 13,1,54); accompanied Plato to Hermias at Assus; recipient of the sixth of Plato's letters. Father of Neleus, to whom Theophrastus bequeathed the body of Aristotle's writings. Stobaeus passes down an apophthegm on death by C. in his old age (Stob. 3,7,53 = T 9 Lasserre). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d'Oponte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Timonides

(129 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τιμωνίδης/ Timōnídēs) of Leucas, 4th cent. BC; according to Plut. Dion 31,3, a friend and comrade-in-arms of Dion [I 1] in the latter's attempt to overthrow Dionysius [2] II in Syracuse and seize power himself. He is named by Plutarch among those who actively supported Dion's military venture (Plut. Dion 22,5). According to Diog. Laert. 4,5, T. also wrote letters to Speusippus reporting on Dion's activities in Syracuse. These writings, in which T., not shrinking from distortion, s…

Crantor

(286 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κράντωρ; Krántōr) of Soli. Academic philosopher of the early 3rd cent. BC. Studied with  Xenocrates and  Polemon. He surrounded himself with a considerable number of students (Diog. Laert. 4,24). It is unclear whether he was scholar of the  Academy for a short period of time. His favourite student was  Arcesilaus [5]. Little has survived of his voluminous and varied writings (Diog. Laert. 4,24: 30,000 lines). The writing ‘On Mourning’ (Περὶ Πένθους) was famous and decisive for the…

Ecdemus

(112 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔκδημος; Ékdēmos) or Ecdelus (Ἔκδηλος; Ékdēlos, thus Plutarch, Polybius) from Megalopolis. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, pupil of Arcesilaus who is mainly known because of his many and diverse political activities (Plut. Aratus 5: ‘a philosopher and a man of action at the same time’, ἀνὴρ φιλόσοφος καὶ πρακτικός cf. Id., Philopoemen 1); (Pol. 10,22; cf. Paus. 8,49,1): he was a teacher of Philopoemen; together with Demophanes, he liberated his home town of Aristodemus' tyra…

Charmadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Χαρμάδας; Charmádas or Χαρμίδας; Charmídas). Lived c. 165- 91 BC (cf. Cic. De or. 2,360). Apollod. Chronica 119-130 Dorandi (= FGrH 244 F 59; subsequently Philod. Ind. Acad. 31,35-32,10) very probably relates to him: a pupil of Carneades, after founding his own school he returned to the Academy. In Sext. Emp. Pyrrhōneioi hypotypṓseis 1,220 and Euseb. Praep. evang. 14,4,16 mentioned with Philo as founder of a ‘Fourth Academy’. Probably most important as a teacher of rhetoric (cf. Cic. D…

Axiothea

(70 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀξιοθέα; Axiothéa) from Phleius. She is supposed to have come to the Academy after reading a work by Plato about government and to have attended classes there with Lastheneia of Mantinea, whilst dressed like a man (Diog. Laert. 3,46 = Dicaearchus F 44 W.).  Academy Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography T. Dorandi, Assiotea e Lastenia. Due donne all'Academia, in: Atti e Memorie Accademia Toscana ‘La Colombaria’ 54, 1989, 53-66.

Anonymus in Theaetetum

(178 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] A fragment preserved on papyrus of a commentary with rather selective interpretations on the Platonic dialogue Theaetetus (mainly concerning the section 142d to 153de). [1] is now the definitive edition with a detailed introduction and commentary. The exact dating is controversial. The common assumption that the fragment originates from the 2nd cent. AD was recently challenged by the attempt of dating it to the pre-Christian era; more at [1. 256]. The anonymous author, who mentions several commen…

Hegesinus

(161 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡγησίνους; Hēgēsínous). [German version] [1] Teacher of Carneades, 2nd cent. BC H. of Pergamum, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC, likely identical with Hegesilaus in Clem. Al. strom. 1,64,1. He took over the direction of the Academy from Evander (Diog. Laert. 4,60). H., the last representative of the Middle Academy (Galen hist. phil. 3 = Diels, DG 599f.; Clem. Al. ibid.), was the teacher of Carneades (Cic. Acad. 2,16), his later (before 155 BC) successor in the scholarchate. The name H. turns up only in succession lists; information going beyond mention of the name is lacking.  Academy Stanzel,…

Perictione

(280 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Frede, Michael (Oxford)
(Περικτιόνη; Periktiónē). [German version] [1] Mother of Plato Mother of Plato; came from an old aristocratic Athenian family to which Critias and Charmides [1] also belonged. Also born of her marriage to Ariston were the pair of brothers Glaucon and Adeimantus, Socrates' discussion partner in the Platonian Politeía, as well as Potone, the mother of Speusippus, Plato's successor in the headship of the Academy. In her second marriage, P. was the wife of Pyrilampes, the son of an Antiphon. From this relationship was born a son who was also cal…

Bucolics

(3,076 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
I. Greek [German version] A. Genre Real Greek bucolic poetry (‘real’ compared with its later development in Latin, see below, and in  Longus, 2nd cent. AD) consists of Idyls (= Id.; eidyllia). 1, 3 to 7 and 11 of  Theocritus, 3rd cent. BC (Id. 10 is similar, but more agriculturally Hesiodic than pastoral), and several other poems of the Corpus Theocriteum (Id. 8; 9; 20; 27). The latter are probably pseudoepigraphs and can be ascribed to the epoch between the end of the 3rd and the 2nd cent. All except Id. [8],33-60 (elegiac distichs) are written in hexa…

Cleitomachus

(368 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Κλειτόμαχος; Kleitómachos). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher Academic philosopher, probably born in 187/6 BC in Carthage, died in 110/109. Original name Hasdrubal (Philod. Academicorum Index 25.1-2). Presumably came to Athens in 163/2 (information in Diog. Laert. 4,67 is wrong). He entered the Academy in 159/8 After an elementary education of sorts with  Carneades [1], and studies in the Peripatos and the Stoa. Occasionally, his participation in the philosophers' delegation in 155 to Rome is …

Evander

(586 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὔανδρος; Eúandros). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the first settlement on the Palatine Arcadian-Roman hero, according to Paus. 8,43,1ff. the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph (Themis, Nicostrate: Plut. Quaest. Rom. 278B-C), or alternatively the prophesying  Carmentis from Pallantium. In Hes. fr. 168MW, he is a son of Echemus of Tegea and Tyndareos' daughter Timandra, Hellenism makes him the son of the Italian Sibyl. Banished because of his involvement in a popular uprising or the murder of one …

Polyxenus

(397 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πολύξενος/ Polýxenos, 'he who has many guests'). [German version] [1] Sobriquet for Hades Poetic epithet for the god of the underworld (Hades, Pluto): Aesch. Supp. 156 f. etc. (cf. Polydectes [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis; holds in safekeeping the cattle stolen from Electryon; Amphitryon releases them and receives Electryon's daughter Alcmene in return (Apollod. 2,55 f.; Schol. Lycoph. 932). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis, grandson of Augeias; suitor of Helen…

Moschion

(705 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Piccione, Rosa Maria
(Μοσχίων/ Moschíōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, 3rd cent. BC Athenian tragedian, probably 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC, known almost solely through quotations by Stobaeus. Titles attested include ‘Telephos and two historical dramas: ‘Themistokles, at the heart of which was probably the naval battle at Salamis, following on from Aeschylus' ‘Persians, with the distinction that M. made Themistocles the protagonist; and ‘The Pheraeans, probably dealing with the death of Alexander [15] of Pherae. A lengthy f…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Hagnon

(282 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων; Hágnōn). [German version] [1] Strategos in Athens, 5th cent. BC Father of Theramenes [1. 191], in 440 BC stratēgós in the war of Athens against rebellious Samos (Thuc. 1,117,2). H. founded Amphipolis in 437/6 (Thuc. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War he held the office of strategos again in 431/0 and 429/8 (Thuc. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). According to Plutarch (Pericles 32) he was one of the opponents of  Pericles. In April 421 he signed, among other things, the peace treaty (Peace of Nicias) betwe…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Melissa

(817 words)

Author(s): Kowalzig, Barbara (Oxford) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Μέλισσα/ Mélissa, ‘bee’). Epithet of priestesses, name of nymphs and proper name, sometimes in aetiological myths. [German version] [1] Priestesses of Demeter Mélissai are the priestesses of Demeter (Pind. Fr. 158; Callim. H. 2,110; [1. no. 91]; Apollod. FGrH 244 F 89, on Paros), and in schol. Theoc. 15,94 of Persephone as well. The name probably derives from the association of bees and their behaviour, which was thought of as especially pure (Aristot. Hist. an. 4,535a 2 f.; schol. Pind. P. 4,106a), with idealised f…

Crates

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης; Krátēs). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies, 5th cent. BC Athenian, the poet of the Old Comedy who began giving performances c. 450 BC [1. test. 7]. Previously an actor with  Cratinus [1], [1. test. 2 and 3]. Certain sources claim that he wrote seven plays [1. test. 1 and 2], other sources claim eight [1. test. 4]. Altogether nine titles of plays have survived (although the Μέτοικοι ‘The Metoikoi’ and Πεδῆται ‘The Prisoners’ may be wrongly attributed to him). On the list of Dionysian winners, C. is list…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …
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