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Herder, Johann Gottfried

(841 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803), Lutheran theologian and philosopher, was born in Mohrungen in East Prussia. He began his study of theology and philosophy in 1762 in Königsberg, being strongly influenced there by the pre-Critique I. Kant and by J. G. Hamann, with the latter of whom Herder developed a lifelong friendship. Herder’s studies included historical-critical biblical scholarship, the philosophy of G. W. Leibniz and C. Wolff, and so-called rational orthodoxy (e.g., S. J. Baumgarten). In 1764 Herder became a teacher at the cathedral school in Riga, serv…

Rahtmann

(248 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[English Version] Rahtmann, Hermann (1585 Lübeck – 30.6.1628 Danzig), vollendete seine Schulausbildung bei Georg Rollenhagen in Magdeburg, studierte in Rostock und Köln, wo er seinen Lebensunterhalt als Korrektor verdiente; luth. bzw. jesuitische Theol., erwarb den M.A.-Grad und setzte sein Studium in Leipzig fort. 1612 wurde R. Diakon in Danzig, 1626 Pastor ebd. Ausgehend von einem Geist-Fleisch-Dualismus, beeinflußt durch K.v. Schwenckfeld und einem spiritualistisch interpretierten J. Arndt, mein…

Rist

(257 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[English Version] Rist, Johann (8.3.1607 Ottensen – 31.8.1667 Wedel), studierte seit 1626 Theol. und Medizin in Rostock, 1629–1631 in Rinteln (v.a. bei J. Stegmann). Von 1635 bis zu seinem Tode war R. Pastor in Wedel. R. war einer der bedeutendsten geistl. Dichter neben A. Gryphius, S. Dach und P. Gerhardt. Er war Mitglied des Pegnesischen Blumenordens (ab 1645) sowie der Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft (ab 1647), gründete zudem 1658 eine eigene Dichtergesellschaft (Elbschwanenorden) und wurde 1646 z…

Stegmann

(152 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[English Version] Stegmann,  Josua (14.9.1588 Sülzfeld – 3.8.1632 Rinteln), Promotion zum Dr. theol. in Leipzig 1617; 1618 auf Empfehlung J. Gerhards zum Superintendenten und als Prof. des akademischen Gymnasiums nach Stadthagen berufen, das 1621 Universitätsstatus erhielt und nach Rinteln verlegt wurde, wo J. Rist bei S. studierte. Als Rinteln 1623 von braunschweigischen Truppen besetzt wurde, floh S. Nach seiner Rückkehr wurde S. zum Ephorus der Grafschaft Schaumburg ernannt. Mit dem Restitutions…

Transsubstantiation

(461 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] The doctrine of transsubstantiaion, made a dogma at the fourth Lateran Council in 1215 (DH 802) and reiterated by the Council of Trent in 1551 (DH 1642), emerged from the debates over the symbolic interpretation of the Eucharist by Berengar of Tours. The doctrine is an effort to make the mystery of Christ’s true presence in the Eucharist comprehensible within the framework of an Aristotelian (Aristotle) conceptuality. It states that the substances of bread and wine are annihilated…

Rahtmann, Hermann

(287 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] (1585, Lübeck – Jun 30, 1628, Danzig [Gdansk]), completed his schooling under Georg Rollenhagen in Magdeburg and studied in Rostock and Cologne, where he earned his living as a printer’s reader. Educated to be a Lutheran and/or Jesuit theologian, Rahtmann obtained an M.A. and continued his studies in Leipzig. He became a deacon in Danzig in…

Scriptural Principle

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] The doctrine of Holy Scripture as the principium of theology was formulated classically in the dogmatic theology of Lutheran and Reformed orthodoxy (II, 2). It succeeded in highlighting Luther’s principle of sola scriptura, i.e. the conviction that the verba divina are the Christianorum prima principia (WA 7, 98.4), and the apostrophization of Holy Scripture as unica regula et norma (FC SD [BSLK 767]) and its own interpreter ( sui ipsius interpres [WA 7, 977.23]), relying on the (neo-)Aristotelian definition of scientific knowledge. Philosophy and m…

Stegmann, Josua

(171 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] (Sep 14, 1588, Sülzfeld – Aug 3, 1632, Rinteln), received his Dr.theol. at Leipzig in 1617. In 1618, on the recommendation of J. Gerhard, he was called to Stadthagen as superintendent and professor at the Academic Gymnasium, which achieved university status in 1621 an…

Knapp, Albert

(198 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] (Jul 25, 1798, Tü…

Rist, Johann

(301 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1607, Ottensen – Aug 31, 1667, Wedel), studied theology and medicine from 1626 in Rostock, and from 1629 to 1631 in Rinteln (under J. Stegmann in particular). From 1635 until his death, Rist was pastor in Wedel. He was one of the most important religious poets, alongside A. Gryphius, S. Dach, and P. Gerhardt. He was a member of the literary societies Societas Florigerae ad Pegnensum (from 1645) a…

Schriftprinzip

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[English Version] . Die Lehre von der Hl. Schrift (Sch.) als principium der Theol. wurde in ihrer klassischen Ausprägung von der Dogmatik der luth. und ref. Orthodoxie (: II.,2.) formuliert. So gelang es, Luthers Grundsatz »sola scriptura«, d.h. die Überzeugung, daß die »verba divina« »Christianorum prima principia« (WA 7,98,4) sind, sowie die Apostrophierung der Hl. Sch. als »unica regula et norma« (FC SD [BSLK 767]) und Auslegerin ihrer selbst (sui ipsius interpres [WA 7,97,23]) im Rückgriff auf…

Consubstantiation

(286 words)

Author(s): Steiger, Johann Anselm
[German Version] After transsubstantiation, the doctrine of consubstantiation is the most prominent explanation of the miraculous bodily presence of Christ in the Eucharist (II, 2) proposed by medieval Scholasticism. This theory, whose roots go back to the christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries, maintains that the eucharistic consecration does not transform the substances of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, annihilating the former. Instead the substantiae of Christ's caro and sanguis are added to the substantiae of panis and vinum to constitut…

Rationalism

(3,896 words)

Author(s): Fricke, Christel | Steiger, Johann Anselm | Veltri, Giuseppe
[German Version] I. Philosophy The term rationalism is used in philosophy in a wider and a narrower sense. In its wider sense, it stands for all those antiskeptical positions (Skepticism: I) in the theory of being and its epistemology that see the only reliable source of certain knowledge not in sensory perception but in the activity of ratio, reason (I). The paradigm for reasoning activity that guarantees certainty (I) is provided by mathematical thought with its concepts of tautologies and deductive conclusions. In its narrower sense, Rationalism stands for a particular period in the history o…

Causality

(3,429 words)

Author(s): Schütt, Hans-Peter | Russell, Robert John | Steiger, Johann Anselm | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Science – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Philosophy Causality (from Lat. causa, “cause”), also causal nexus, causal relationship, is a term for the characteristic relationship between cause and effect. The things related are gener…

Taufe

(19,410 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Avemarie, Friedrich | Wallraff, Martin | Grethlein, Christian | Koch, Günter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichAus religionswiss. Sicht ist die T. kein allg. Ritustyp (Ritus/Ritual), sondern ein Lustrationsritual, das sowohl im Christentum als auch in den gesch. mit diesem verwandten Rel. wie Judentum und Mandäismus durchgeführt wird. Die T. hat sich aus Lustrationsritualen antiker nahöstlicher Flußzivilisationen entwickelt, wobei die Einzelheiten dieser Entwicklung eher im dunkeln liegen. In der Spätzeit des Zweiten Tempels wurde die T. in mehreren Gemeinschaften – bei den Essenern (Qumran), Johannes de…