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Indo-Europeans

(1,054 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A. Definition, general, methods I. refers to both the carriers of individual  Indo-European languages and those of reconstructed proto-Indo-European (proto-Indo-European basic language) or for instance of proto-Greek. The proof provided at the beginning of the 19th cent. of the linguistic affinity has given rise to the question who the speakers of the basic language were. With this new concept, the postulate was introduced into prehistory that a people with a characteristic culture sh…

Volusus

(87 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] (also Volesus). Uncommon Latin praenomen , probably adopted from an ancient tradition without rhotacism. Etymologically, it is related, with ablaut, to the root of val-ēre 'to be strong and healthy' and to the nomen gentile Valerius . Secondarily as a cognomen in L. Valerius Messalla V. ( cos. in AD 5; Valerius [II 22]). A V. is considered the ancestor of the Valerii (Valerius [I 10]). The nomina gentilia Volus(i)enus and Volusius are derived from the praenomen. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 61; 322  Walde/Hofmann 2, 727.

Centum languages

(221 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The mnemonic Centum (from Latin centum) stands for those Indo-Germanic languages in which there is coincidence between the palatal series , , g̑h and the unaccented k, g, gh series of the Old Indo-Germanic tectals ( Gutturals) and the unaccented series: Old Indo-Germanic * kreuh2- ‘bloody flesh’ > Latin cruor, Greek kréas, * k̑ṛd- ‘heart’ > Latin cor, Greek kardía. Otherwise (in so-called  Satem languages) the palatals preserved as independent phonemes become sibilants. In Centum the labio-velars kw , gw , gwh (initially) remain preserved as phonemes, e.g…

Laryngeal

(464 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Technical term in modern linguistics (hybrid Lat. derivation from Greek lárynx ‘larynx’) for a class of consonants. In current Indo-European (IE) linguistics, it refers to (three) phonemes postulated in the reconstruction of the proto-language. Despite doubts as to their nature as sounds actually produced in the larynx, the term is still in use as the phonetic determination of said sounds remains controversial. Provisionally, they are designated by indices: h1 - 3 ( 1 - 3 ). These three consonants complete the Neogrammarian system of phonemes, which in …

Word formation

(821 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] I. General The vocabulary (Lexicon) of a language is an open inventory which is or can be constantly expanded through the adoption of elements from other languages (loan words) or by the creation of words with the means of the language itself. Linguistic creativity is most clearly revealed in the adoption and creation of new items of vocabulary. Since speakers seldom reflect on the 'onomasiological' or content elements of the lexicon, their attention is probably first caught by form…

Orthography

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] A. General (CT) This article covers only phenomena appertaining to alphabetic scripts (an example of a syllabic script would be the Mycenaean). Shorthand scripts are also excluded; although the standardization of abbreviations certainly falls within the scope of orthography. The word ὀρθογραφία, 'correct spelling; spelling according to accepted usage', is attested since the 2nd cent. BC (cf. the grammarian Tryphon). Since Antiquity, orthography has signif…

Vopiscus

(74 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Uncommon Roman praenomen (in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 9,37,1 Οὐοπῖσκος/ Ouopîskos) to be found in V. Iulius ( cos. in 473 BC). According to ancient evidence, vopīscus is a term for a child whose twin is stillborn. The etymology of the term is disputed. As a cognomen, it appears in one of the alleged authors of the Historia Augusta , Flavius V. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59-60; 141; 275  Walde/Hofmann 2, 835.

Ancient European

(372 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A. Definition Technical term established by the Indo-Germanist H. Krahe (1898-1965), with which he postulates a language that follows from proto-Indo-Germanic, a relatively unified stage that is a preliminary stage of the languages documented in historical times in the European region. These include Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Latino-Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian, Venetian and Illyrian. He postulates this stage of language and its original area of dispersion based on water names (‘ancient Eu…

Volero

(46 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] A 'lost' Roman praenomen without siglum, in Degrassi, FCap., recorded in 37 for the consular tribune of 399 BC, Volero Publilius [I 2] P.f. Voler. n. Philo. Etymologically it is an n-stem extension of Volusus / Volesus. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 59; 169 f.; 190.

Satem languages

(242 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] In phonetics and phonology, the term satem (Avest. satəm, ‘hundred’) is employed to characterize those Indo-European languages which - unlike centum languages - preserve the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) series of palatal stops , , g̑h as independent phonemes. The change of palatal tectals (Gutturals) into affricates (such as č, ć) or fricatives is a common phenomenon in the history of languages. Not all languages did necessarily take the same path in the development from PIE * k̑ṃtó- to Avestan satəm, Sanskrit śatám, Lithuanian šim̃tas or Old Church Slavonic sto. …

Tullus

(75 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Rare Latin praenomen , which became unusual even before the introduction of sigla. There is no assured etymology. The best-known bearer was the third king of Rome, Tullus Hostilius [4] in the 7th cent. BC. Tullius, the nomen gentile derived from it, is first encountered with the sixth king Servius Tullius [I 4]. Of later bearers the best known is M. Tullius Cicero. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 58 f.; 186  Walde/Hofmann 2, 714.

Gutturals

(254 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The Neo-Latin terminus technicus gutturals (‘guttural sounds’) for a class of consonants is traditional (nouns that before the endings have a g, k/c or χ are called guttural stems). Today research prefers the more appropriate term ‘Tectals’, as in the articulation of this consonant the back of the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth (Latin tectum) in order to obstruct the stream of air through constriction or blockage, so producing the sound typical of gutturals. To the proto-Indo-European are attributed nine or ten tectal ph…

Septimus

(88 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Must be a former Roman individual name (see below) which in the classical period no longer appears as a praenomen. Etymologically, it corresponds to the Latin ordinal septimus, 'the seventh' (cf. Quintus, Sextus). A synonymous name exists in Umbrian (old-Umbrian nom. Se(f)tums). The (neo)-Umbrian vocative evolved, with phonetic and graphic variations, into the Etruscan Sehtume (genitive Sehtumna). The common genitive Septumius/ Septimius is a regular derivation from the older Latin * Septumos. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 111-114…

Indogermanen

(908 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition, Allgemeines, Methoden Mit I. meint man sowohl die Träger einzelner indogermanischer Sprachen als auch die des rekonstruierten Uridg. (uridg. Grundsprache) oder etwa des Urgriech. Der zu Beginn des 19. Jh. erbrachte Nachweis der sprachlichen Verwandtschaft hat die Frage nach den Sprechern der Grundsprache aufkommen lassen. In die Vorgesch. wurde mit diesem neuen Begriff das Postulat eingeführt, daß ein Volk mit einer charakteristischen Kultur zu suchen sei. Doch hängt d…

Kentumsprache

(199 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Das Merkwort K. (nach lat. centum) steht für solche idg. Sprachen, in denen von den uridg. Tektalen (Gutturale) die palatale Reihe , , g̑h und die unmarkierte k, g, gh in der unmarkierten zusammengefallen sind: uridg. * kreuh2- “blutiges Fleisch” > lat. cruor, griech. kréas, * k̑ṛd- “Herz” > lat. cor, griech. kardía. Sonst (in sog. Satemsprachen) werden die als eigenständige Phoneme erh. Palatale zu Zischlauten. In K. blieben die Labiovelare kw , gw , gwh (anfänglich) als Phoneme erh., z.B. im Urgriech. und Mykenischen mit der geringen Einbuße * kw > k neben u. Die fr…

Laryngal

(424 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Moderner sprachwiss. t.t. (hybride lat. Ableitung von griech. lárynx “Kehlkopf”) für eine Klasse von Kons. In der h. Indogermanistik bezeichnet man damit (drei) bei der Rekonstruktion der Grundsprache postulierte Phoneme. Trotz Zweifel an ihrer Natur als Kehlkopflaute hält sich der Begriff, weil die phonetische Bestimmung besagter Laute in der wiss. Diskussion strittig bleibt. Sie werden behelfsmäßig durch Indizes notiert: h1 - 3 ( 1 - 3 ). Diese drei Kons., L., vervollständigen das junggrammatische Phonemsystem, welches dafür nur ein “Schwa (…

Alteuropäisch

(332 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] A. Definition Von dem Indogermanisten H. Krahe (1898-1965) etablierter t.t., mit dem er ein auf das Uridg. folgendes, relativ einheitliches Stadium als Vorstufe der im europ. Raum in histor. Zeit bezeugten Sprachen Kelt., German., Baltisch, Latinofaliskisch, Oskoumbrisch, Venetisch und Illyr. postuliert. Diese Sprachstufe und ihr urspr. Verbreitungsgebiet erschließt er aus Gewässernamen (“a. Hydronymie”), die ungefähr im 2. Jt. v. Chr. entstanden sein sollen. Als Folge des Vordring…

Gutturale

(220 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[English version] Der nlat. terminus technicus G. (“Kehllaute”) für eine Konsonantenklasse ist traditionell (Nomina, die vor den Endungen ein g, k/c oder χ haben, heißen Gutturalstämme). Heute bevorzugt die Forsch. den angemesseneren Begriff “Tektale”, da bei der Hervorbringung dieser Kons. der Zungenrücken gegen das Munddach (lat. tectum) gedrückt wird, um den Luftstrom durch Enge bzw. Verschluß zu hindern, wodurch das für G. typische Geräusch erzeugt wird. Dem Uridg. spricht man neun oder zehn tektale Phoneme zu. Die g. Verschlußlaute ver…

Spurius

(359 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Latin praenomen Latin praenomen, customary initial abbreviation originally S., then, as it became rarer, from c. 100 BC, Sp. The rare nomen gentile, Spurilius, is derived from its diminutive form, of which no record survives. Some evidence also survives from the Italic languages, e.g. Oscan Spuriis (the personal name identical to the nomen gentile). The vocative formed the basis for the Etruscan personal name Spurie, attested from the 7th cent. BC on. The Etruscan nomen gentile Spurie/ana- was absorbed into Latin in its later pronunciation as Spurinna…

Servius

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman praenomen Rare Roman praenomen; Siglum: SER, at times confused with Sergius; carried by King S. Tullius in the 6th cent. BC. Up to the Imperial Period, it was used mainly by the noble families of Cornelii, Fulvii and Sulpicii. The nomen gentile Servīlius is derived from S., specifically from an undocumented diminutive of S. The etymology is regarded as uncertain, but an Etruscan origin is unlikely. Present-day scholarship is largely unanimous in regarding the ancient opinion that S. Tullius was the son of a slave as based on the similarity in sound of servus, 'sla…

Publius

(129 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Common Roman praenomen , abbreviated by the siglum P.; earliest evidence Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; c. 500 BC; Lapis Satricanus), thereafter Greek Πόπλιος ( Póplios). The name is etymologically linked to populus (‘army’ > ‘people’). A derivation from Etruscan must be rejected since the rare Etruscan word Puplie was inherited from an Italic language. The shift of poplico- to pūblico- (following pūbēs) was also adopted for the praenomen and its derivative Pūblīlius, the nomen gentile. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian of Rome who wrote in Gr…

Publius

(123 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
Häufiges röm. Praenomen mit der Sigle P.; ältester Beleg Poplio- (CIL I2 4, 2832a; ca. 500 v. Chr.; Lapis Satricanus), danach griech. Πόπλιος. Der Name gehört etym. zu populus (“Heer” > “Volk”). Die Herleitung aus dem Etr. muß abgelehnt werden, denn das seltene etr. Puplie wurde aus einer ital. Sprache übernommen. Die Umbildung von poplico- zu pūblico- (nach pūbēs) wurde auch auf das Praen. und sein Derivat, das Gent. Pūblīlius, übertragen. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] Tragiker Griechisch schreibender Tragiker aus Rom, belegte ca. 85 v. Chr. an de…

Postumus

(1,067 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman praenomen Roman praenomen , like other numerical praenomina (Quintus) given to a child according to the order of his birth; the adjective postumus ('last') refers to the birth 'after the father's death' (cf. P. [2]). The use of the name as a praenomen is evident in Rome up to the 3rd cent. BC, after that only as a cognomen . The wider geographical spread of * Postumo- as an Italic personal name can be concluded from its Etruscan derivative, where it led to the formation of a nomen gentile, Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715), the equivalent to the Roman Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter…

Postumus

(964 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Manthe, Ulrich (Passau) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[English version] [1] Röm. Praenomen Röm. Praenomen, das wie andere der sog. “Numeralpraenomina” (Quintus) Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben wurde: das Adj. p., “letzter”, meint hier “(weil) nach (dem Tod des Vaters) geboren” (vgl. P. [2]). Bei den Römern war P. bis ins 3. Jh. v. Chr. als Vorname in Gebrauch, dann nur noch als Cognomen. Die weitere Verbreitung eines ital. Individualnamens * Postumo- läßt sich aus der Entlehnung ins Etr. erschließen, wo daraus ein Gent. Pustmi-na- (CIE 8715) gebildet wurde; dies entspricht dem röm. Gent. Postumius. Steinbauer, Dieter (…

Sextus

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Author of a collection of 'gnomes' The name 'Sextus' is associated with a Greek collection of 610 maxims (Gnome) in all, known from two Greek MSS (Patm. 263, Vat. Gr. 742; Pap. Palau Rib. 225v, c. AD 400 offers 21 'gnomes'); they probably originated c. AD 200. Origenes [2] is the first to mention the title Σέξτου γνῶμαι ( Séxtou gnômai), remarking among other things that 'most Christians read them' (Orig. Contra Celsum 8,30). In about 399, Rufinus [II 6] Tyrannius translated a collection of 451 maxims into Latin, naming as author…

Quintus

(1,526 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Common Roman praenomen Common Roman praenomen ; abbreviation: Q.; Greek Κόιντος/ Kóintos. It is identical to the ordinal quīntus (‘fifth’); in Oscan-Umbrian, this name is represented by Pompo and the like, with the nomina gentilicia Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Like other so-called ‘numeral praenomina’, the former individual name could be given to children according to their birth order in the early period. In no case is Q. derived from quīntīlis (‘July’) because the name of this month is in turn already a derivative of quīntus (Months, names of the). The nomen ge…

Titus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I Greek (Τίτος/ Títos). [German version] [I 1] Companion of Paul Important 'assistant' and 'partner' of Paul (Paulus [II 2]; 2 Cor 8,23), of unknown origin. Taken by Paul to the Apostles' Convent in Jerusalem as a 'Gentile Christian', he was not compelled to be circumcised there, in spite of the demands of the Judaists (Gal 2:1-3). Paul sent T. to Corinth on several occasions as his negotiator (2 Cor 7:6 f.; 7:13 f.; he also appeared as an independent co-organizer of the collects: 8:6; 8:16 …

Vibius

(2,209 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Sallmann, Klaus (Mainz)
Uncommon Latin praenomen , abbreviation V. The etymology of the name is unknown. Like the identical nomen gentilicium, it derives from the Osco-Umbrian Vībie/o-. Related nomina gentilicia were Vibidius, Vibuleius, Vibulenus. The praenomen and its feminine equivalent Vībia- were loaned into Etruscan as Vipie and Vipia respectively. The nomen gentilicium formed from that, Vipi(e)na, appears in Latinized form as Vibenna . Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Curius Prefect of Caesar, to whom troops of L. Manlius [I 18] Torquatu…

Tiberius

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, prob. late 3rd/4th cent. (Τιβέριος/ Tibérios). Greek rhetor, probably of the late 3rd or 4th cents. AD, author of a small surviving treatise on figures (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ Δημοσθένει σχημάτων, Perì tòn parà Demosthénei schēmáton, 'On the figures in Demosthenes'), which uses Apsines as its main source. The latter's dates (1st half of 3rd cent. AD) are thus the only point of reference for dating T. The treatise deals separately with figures of thought (1-22) and figures of speech (23-42; Figures). E…

Quintus

(1,419 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] [1] Häufiger röm. Vorname Häufiger röm. Vorname (Praenomen); Sigle: Q.; griech. Κόιντος. Er ist mit dem Ordinale quīntus, “fünfter”, identisch - im Oskisch-Umbrischen steht dafür Pompo u. ä., mit Gent. Pomponius, Pompeius, Pontius. Wie andere sog. “Numeralpraenomina” konnte der einstige Individualname in der Frühzeit Kindern nach der Reihenfolge der Geburt gegeben werden. Keinesfalls darf Q. von quīntīlis, “Juli”, abgeleitet werden, da der Monatsname seinerseits schon Derivat von quīntus ist. Zu Q., genauer zu seinem Deminutivum, ist das Gent. Quīntilius g…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Proculus

(587 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Et al.
Röm. Praenomen ( P. Iulius, ein Zeitgenosse des Romulus [1]), und sekundär Cognomen. Der Bildung nach ein Deminutivum (älter * prokelo-) zum Stamm * proko- ( klass. procus “Bewerber, Freier”), bedeutet es urspr. etwa “wer (das Erbe?) fordert, beansprucht”. Etym. ist Proca (König von Alba Longa) anzuschließen. Das schon früh selten gewordene Praen. lebt in Ableitungen, den Gent. Procilius und Proculeius, fort. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] röm. Jurist, 1. Jh. Der Jurist aus der Zeit der Julio-Claudier, verm. Schüler des Antistius [II 3] Labeo…
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