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Wittich

(241 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Christoph (7.10.1625 Brieg – 19.5.1687 Leiden), ref. Theologe, studierte zuerst Jurisprudenz, dann Theol. in Bremen, Groningen und Leiden, wo er die Philos. R. Descartes' kennenlernte. 1650 Prof. der Philos. in Herborn, 1652 Pfarrer in Duisburg, 1655 Prof. der Theol. in Nijmwegen und 1671 in Leiden, schloß er sich der Föderaltheologie J. Coccejus' an. Sein Versuch, die ref. Dogmatik mit dem Cartesianismus zu vereinbaren, ließ ihn mehrfach mit kirchl. Autoritäten in Konflikt gera…

Sartorius

(80 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (Schröder), Jakob (ca.1560 Schönfließ, Brandenburg – 1626 Großen-Englis, Hessen), ref. Theologe, wurde als Pfarrer (seit 1585) in Rietberg 1607 von Paderborner Jesuiten vertrieben und später Pfarrer in Ropperhausen (Hessen). Seine gegen die Jesuiten 1606 vf. »Brennende Fackel« ist nicht erhalten. Ein 1612 gedr. »Kurzer, doch gründlicher Bericht« zeigt S.' Übergang vom Luthertum zum Calvinismus, wobei er bestrebt ist, die Übereinstimmungen aufzuzeigen. Christoph Strohm Bibliography F. Flaskamp, J.S. (AKuG 45, 1963, 313–333).

Placeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (de la Place), Josue´ (1596 Saumur – 1655/56 ebd.), wurde nach dem Studium der Theol. in Saumur bei J. Camero 1621 Prof. für Philos. und Gesch. ebd., 1625 Pfarrer in Nantes und 1633 Prof. für Theol. wiederum in Saumur. Mit den befreundeten M. Amyraut und L. Cappellus milderte er den strengen Calvinismus durch die Hervorhebung ethischer und allgemeinmenschlicher Aspekte, so z.B. in der Modifikation der Lehre von der Erbsünde. Mit Berufung auf Calvin und aus Interesse an der moralisch…

Trelcatius

(148 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] 1.Lucas d. Ä. , (1542 Erin bei Douai – 28.8.1602 Leiden), ref. Theologe, wurde nach dem Studium in Paris und Aufenthalten in London, Lille, Brüssel und Antwerpen 1585 Pfarrer der franz. Gemeinde in Leiden und 1587 auch Prof. der Theol. an der Universität ebd. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Werke s.u. 2. Über T.: A. Eekhof, De theologische faculteit de Leiden in de 17de eeuw, 1921 H.L. Clotz, Hochschule für Holland. Die Universität Leiden im Spannungsfeld zw. Provinz, Stadt und Kirche, 1575–1619, 1998. 2.Lucas d.J. (25.4.1570 London – 12.9.1607 Leiden), Soh…

Taffin

(155 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Taffin, Jean (1529/30 Doornik [Tournai] – 15.7.1602 Amsterdam), ref. Theologe, war nach dem Studium bei Calvin und Th. Beza in Genf 1558–1560 Pfarrer in Aachen, Metz, Antwerpen, Heidelberg und am Ende seines Lebens in Haarlem und Amsterdam. 1571 nahm er führend an der niederländischen Synode in Emden teil und wurde 1574–1583 Hofprediger Wilhelms von Oranien. Mit seiner Ausrichtung auf die innere Gnadenerfahrung und der Beschreibung christl. Lebens als Buße wurde T. einer der Pioniere der Nadere Reformatie. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Des marque…

Vossius

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Vossius, Gerardus Joannis (März/April 1577 Heidelberg – 17.3.1649 Amsterdam), Philologe und ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Leiden 1600 Rektor der Lateinschule in Dordrecht und 1615 mit Hilfe seines Freundes H. Grotius Regens des theol. Staaten-Kollegiums in Leiden. Wegen seiner Kontakte zu den Remonstranten (Remonstration) verlor er 1619 dieses Amt, erhielt dann aber 1622 die neugeschaffene Professur für Eloquenz und Gesch. in Leiden und 1631 die Profes…

Ruchat

(154 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Ruchat, Abraham (15.9.1678 Vevey, Waadt – 28.9.1750 Lausanne), wurde nach Studium in Bern, Berlin und Leiden 1709 Pfarrer in Aubonne, 1716 in Rolle und war seit 1721 Prof. der Lit., seit 1733 Prof. der Theol. in Lausanne. 1727/28 veröff. er eine »Histoire de la réformation de la Suisse« (6 Bde., 1516–1536). Sein Lebenswerk war eine »Histoire générale de la Suisse« (bis 1516), die jedoch ungedr. blieb. Mit seinen auf akribischen Archivstudien beruhenden, aber noch apologetischen Zi…

Witsius

(118 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Hermann (12.2.1636 Enkhuizen – 22.10.1708 Leiden), ref. Theologe, war nach Studium in Utrecht und Groningen 1657–1675 Pfarrer in Westwoud, Wormer, Goes und Leeuwarden, sodann Prof. der Theol. in Franeker (1675–1680), Utrecht (1680–1698) und Leiden (1698–1707). Durch G. Voetius beeinflußt, entfaltete er eine Föderaltheol., die stärker als die J. Coccejus' bibl. orientiert war. W. bekämpfte den Cartesianismus ebenso wie den separatistischen Labadismus (J. de Labadie) und versuchte ohne Erfolg, Voetianer und Coccejaner zu versöhnen. Christoph Strohm Bib…

Scaliger

(159 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Scaliger, Joseph Justus (4./5.8.1540 Agen, Département Lot-et-Garonne – 21.1.1609 Leiden), studierte nach erstem Unterricht durch den Vater in Paris, wo er sich 1562 den Hugenotten anschloß. 1572–1574 lehrte er an der Akademie in Genf (: II.) und lebte dann als Privatgelehrter, bis er 1593 als Nachfolger J. Lipsius' auf den Lehrstuhl für alte Sprachen nach Leiden berufen wurde. In zahlreichen Editionen antiker Schriften erwies er sich als hervorragender Textkritiker. Als Begründer …

Pajon

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Pajon, Claude (1626 Romorantin, De´partement Loir-et Cher – 27.9.1685 Carre´ bei Orle´ans), wurde nach dem Theologiestudium in Saumur 1650 Pastor in Marchenoir und nach 1666 Theologieprof. in Saumur. Als Schüler von M. Amyraut und J. Camero vertrat er deren Auffassungen in der Gnaden- und Prädestinationslehre und suchte der Lehrverurteilung durch die Übernahme eines Pfarramts in Orle´ans 1668 zu entkommen. P. hat sich frühaufklärerischer Mittel bedient, um die ref. Lehre – teilwei…

Spanheim

(449 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] 1.Friedrich (d. Ä.; 1.1.1600 Amberg – 14.5.1649 Leiden), ref. Theologe, wurde 1626 Prof. der Philos. in Genf, 1631 der Theol. und 1633–1637 Rektor ebd. Seit 1642 Prof. der Theol. in Leiden und 1648 auch Pfarrer der wallonischen Gemeinde, war er ein Vertreter der strengen ref. Orthodoxie der Dordrechter Synode, der u.a. M. Amyrauts Gnadenlehre verwarf. Christoph Strohm Bibliography C. Borgeaud, Histoire de l'Université de Genève, 1900, 348–353. 2.Ezechiel (7.12.1629 Genf – 7.11.1710 London), Sohn von 1., studierte Theol. und Philol. in Leiden…

Wolzogen

(110 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Ludovicus von (1633 Ammersfoort – 13.11.1690 Amsterdam), ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studium in Utrecht, Groningen und Genf 1658 Pfarrer der wallonischen Gemeinde in Groningen und 1662 in Middelburg, 1664 zugleich Pfarrer und Prof. für Kirchengesch. in Utrecht und 1670 in Amsterdam. W. wandte sich gegen den Spinozismus (B. de Spinoza), war aber als Anhänger des Cartesianismus selbst dauernden Vorwürfen mangelnder Rechtgläubigkeit von seiten der Voetianer (G. Voetius) ausgesetzt. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Werke u.a.: De scripturarum interprete c…

Orangeois

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] . Im südfranz. Fürstentum Orange, das durch Erbschaft an das Haus Nassau-Oranien gekommen war, hatte die Reformation früh ihren Einzug gehalten. Orange verlor jedoch im Span. Erbfolgekrieg seine Souveränität, und 1703 erließ Ludwig XIV. dort ein Verbot der ref. Kirche. Die um ihres Glaubens willen Exilierten, O. genannt, ließen sich zum großen Teil nach einem vorläufigen Aufenthalt in Genf oder der Schweiz in Brandenburg-Preußen (Burg, Halberstadt, Magdeburg und Halle) nieder. In…

Rabaut

(268 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Rabaut, Paul (29.1.1718 Bédarieux, Département Hérault – 25.9.1794 Nîmes), schloß sich schon in jugendlichem Alter Jean Bétrine (1718–1756) an und teilte mit diesem vier Jahre lang das gefährliche Wanderleben des Predigers der »Kirche in der Wüste«. Nach dem Antritt des Vikariats in Nîmes 1738 studierte er 1740/41 sechs Monate am theol. Seminar in Lausanne bei A. Court. In den folgenden 40 Jahren seiner Tätigkeit als Pfarrer der verfolgten ref. Kirche in Frankreich (Hugenotten) er…

Sibel

(72 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Sibel, Kaspar (9.6.1590 Gut Bardt bei Elberfeld – 1.1.1658 Deventer), ref. Theologe, wurde nach dem Studium in Herborn, Siegen und Leiden 1609 Pfarrer in Randerath (Jülich) und 1617 in Deventer. Als Teilnehmer der Dordrechter Synode 1618/19 vertrat S., der auch an der niederländischen NT-Übers. mitgearbeitet hat, eine gemäßigte Orthodoxie (: II.,2., b). Christoph Strohm Bibliography J. Reitsma, Geschiedenis van de Hervorming en de Hervormde kerk der Nederlanden, 51949.

Tilenus

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Tilenus, Daniel (4.2.1563 Goldberg, Schlesien – 1.8.1633 Paris), ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studien in Deutschland 1602 zum Prof. der Theol. an die Akademie von Sedan berufen. In der Auseinandersetzung mit P. Du Moulin über das Verständnis der unio hypostatica warf er diesem vor, die Ubiquität zu vertreten. Im Vorfeld der Dordrechter Synode verteidigte T. die Position der Remonstranten gegen J. Camero und verlor daraufhin 1618 seine Professur. Gegen die Presbyterianer hob er den We…

Nymwegen (Nijmegen), Universität

(207 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] . Bereits im 17.Jh. befand sich in der 1591 durch Moritz von Oranien eingenommenen Stadt N. eine Lateinschule und eine calvinistische Akademie, an der bekannte Theologen wie Ch. Wittich und J. Braun lehrten. Kriegswirren machten der 1655 gegründeten Akademie 1679 ein Ende. Versuche einer Neugründung im 18.Jh. scheiterten. Erst 1923 wurde nach fast 20jährigem Bemühen der St. Radboudstiftung die kath. Universität N., nach Karl dem Großen »Universitas Carolina« genannt, als Gegenstü…

Haemstede, Adriaen Cornelisz van

(161 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1525, Zierikzee/Zeeland [?] – c. 1562, Emden) studied law in Leuven, was ordained priest in 1552, and assumed leadership of the Reformed congregation in Antwerp in dangerous circumstances in 1556. Having sojourned in Aachen and Emden, Haemstede pastored the expatriate Dutch congregation in London from 1559. Here, he was excommunicated by archbishop Grindal in 1560 because of his tolerant attitude toward the Anabaptists. Finally expelled from England in 1562, he again worked in…

Scaliger, Joseph Justus

(174 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 4/5, 1540 Agen, Département Lot-et-Garonne – Jan 21, 1609, Leiden). After initial instruction at home by his father, Scaliger studied in Paris, where he joined the Huguenots in 1562. From 1572 to 1574 he taught at the academy in Geneva (II), afterwards working as an independent scholar. In 1593 he was appointed to the chair of ancient languages at Leiden, succeeding J. Lipsius. Editor of many ancient works, he proved to be an outstanding textual critic. As the father of the m…

Orangeois

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the southern French principality of Orange, which by inheritance had come to belong to the house of Nassau-Orange, the Reformation had taken an early hold. Orange, however, lost its sovereignty in the War of the Spanish Succession, and in 1703 Louis XIV issued a decree banning the Reformed church there. Those exiled for their faith, called Orangeois, mostly settled in Brandenburg-Prussia (Burg, Halberstadt, Magdeburg and Halle), after a temporary stay in Geneva or elsewhere in …

Dohnanyi, Hans von

(196 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 1, 1902, Vienna – Apr 9/17, 1945, Sachsenhausen). The jurist Hans v. Dohnanyi's almost uninterrupted career at the Reich Ministry of Justice began in 1929. From 1934 to 1938, he served as head of its Bureau of Ministry. In this position of trust, he was able to furnish the Confessing Church with important information about the church policies of the National Socialists …

Franeker

(328 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Franeker, principal town in the district of Franekeradeel in the Dutch province of Friesland. In 1585, the governor of Friesland, Count William Louis of Nassau, founded the second university in the northern Netherlands (after Leiden, 1575) with faculties of theology, law, the arts, and (from 1589) medicine. As a result of the attendance of numerous students from western Germany, Hungary, and the Scandinavian countries, the university attained European stature during the 17th centu…

Ruchat, Abraham

(168 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1678, Vevey, Vaud – Sep 28, 1750, Lausanne). After studies in Bern, Berlin, and Leiden, Ruchat was appointed pastor in Aubonne in 1709, then in Rolle in 1716. In 1721 he was appointed professor of literature and in 1733 professor of theology in Lausanne. In 1727/1728 he published a Histoire de la réformation de la Suisse (6 vols., covering 1516–1536). His life work, an Histoire générale de la Suisse (to 1516), was never published. His works, based on meticulous archival research but still written with an apologetic aim, made him the father …

Nethenus

(335 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Matthias (Oct 27, 1618, Süchteln on the Lower Rhine – Oct 9, 1686, Herborn). After attending secondary school in Wesel from 1632, Nethenus studied philosophy and theology in Harderwijk, Deventer, and Utrecht. In 1646 he became pastor and headmaster in Kleve. Through the good offices of G. Voetius he was called in 1654 to be professor of theology in Utrecht, but in 1662 he was removed from office because of a polemical writing against S. Maresius in the controversy over the proper…

Gentile, Valentino

(279 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Gentilis; c. 1520 Cosenza, Calabria – Sep 10, 1566, Bern), a humanist, joined the Italian refugee community in Geneva after his flight from Italy in 1557. Under the influence of M. Gribaldi, he ¶ criticized the church's doctrine of the Trinity and, thus, came into conflict with the Genevan authorities. His rejection of the scholastic concept of substance and his intensive involvement with the church fathers led him to a subordinationist understanding of the Trinity. The Father alone is the source of deity and the…

Maresius (des Marets), Samuel

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1599, Oisemont, Picardy – May 18, 1673, Groningen). After studying in Paris, Saumur, and Geneva, Maresius became a pastor in Laon in 1620 and in Falaise in 1624. Appointed professor at Sedan in 1625, he went to Maastricht as a Walloon pastor in 1631; in 1636 to went on to 's-Hertogenbosch and finally was appointed professor in Groningen in 1643, where he also became a pastor in 1652. His works are mostly in the area of controversial theology. Until 1636 his primary target …

Leiden, University

(559 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Wishing that the formation of pastors and jurists should not be left to the Catholic University of Leuven, William of Orange founded the first university of the northern Netherlands in Leiden in 1575. In addition to the theological and juridical fields of study, departments of philosophy and literature as well as medicine were also planned. From the very beginning, the university was characterized by a strong orientation to Humanism (III) and Calvinism. The Humanist philologists J…

Trelcatius

(173 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Lucas the Elder (1542, Erin, near Douai – Aug 28, 1602, Leiden), Reformed theologian. After studying at Paris and stays in London, Lille, Brussels, and Antwerp, in 1585 he was appointed pastor of the French congregation in Leiden; in 1587 he was also appointed professor of theology at the University of Leiden. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works: see 2 below. On Trelcatius: A. Eekhof, De theologische faculteit te Leiden in de 17de eeuw, 1921 (Dutch) H.L. Clotz, Hochschule für Holland. Die Universität Leiden im Spannungsfeld zwischen Provinz, Stadt und K…

Junius, Franciscus, the Elder

(217 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (du Jon; May 1, 1545, Bourges – Oct 13, 1602, Leiden). After studying law in Bourges and theology in Geneva with T. Beza, Junius became the French preacher in Antwerp in 1565 and in the Electoral Palatinate in 1567. There, from 1573 onward, he collaborated with I. Tremellius on a Latin translation of the Old Testament. In 1576, he became professor of theology in Neustadt an der Haardt, in ¶ 1584 in Heidelberg and in 1592 in Leiden. With his Eirenicum de pace ecclesiae catholicae (first in Fr., 1593), written for Henry IV of France, which proposed a Gallican model…

Alting

(383 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Menso (Nov 9, 1541, Eelde an der Drenthe near Groningen – Oct 7, 1612, Emden) studied in Cologne and, after converting to the Reformed Church in 1565, theology in Heidelberg. Active primarily as a preacher in the Netherlands and, from 1567 on, in the Rhineland, his chief activity from 1575 onward lay in Emden as preacher and Praeses of the Coetus of …

Du Moulin, Pierre

(158 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Molinaeus; Oct 16 or 18, 1568, Castle Buhy en Vexin – Mar 10, 1658, Sedan) studied at the Protestant academy in Sedan; became a tutor in England in 1588; was professor of Greek language and philosophy in Leiden, 1592–1598; and pastored the Reformed congregation in Charenton near Paris, 1599–1620. From 1621 until his death, he was preacher and …

Groningen, University of

(341 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The Rijksuniversiteit Groningen was established by the provinces on Nov 26, 1612 as the third university in the northern Netherlands following Leiden (1575) and Franeker (1585) and was opened on Aug 23, 1614 in a former monastery. It included chairs for theology, law, medicine, philosophy, history and mathematics. The first rector was the Calvinist East-Frisian historian, Ubo Emmius (1547– 1625). Through many foreign students and outstanding scholars, the university gained a lofty…

Sartorius, Jakob

(84 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Schröder; c. 1560, Schönfließ, Brandenburg – 1626, Großen-Englis, Hesse), Reformed theologian. Pastor in Rietberg since 1585, he was expelled by Paderborn Jesuits in 1607 and later became pastor in Ropperhausen (Hesse). His 1606 Brennende Fackel attacking the Jesuits has not survived. His Kurzer, doch gründlicher Bericht, published in 1612, describes his shift from Lutheranism to Calvinism, although he is at pains to point out what they have in common. Christoph Strohm Bibliography F. Flaskamp, “Jakob Sartorius,” AKuG 45, 1963, 313–333.

Saurin, Jacques

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1677, Nîmes – Dec 30, 1730, The Hague), Reformed preacher and theologian. After fleeing from France in 1686 following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: I, 1) and studying in Geneva, he became a pastor of refugee congregations in London, then after 1705 in The Hague. He gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher and used it in support of persecuted coreligionists. Moderately orthodox and totally averse to polemic, his biblical interpretations were primarily in the service of apologetic and ethical goals. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works i…

Braun, Johannes

(136 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Braunius; 1628, Kaiserslautern – 1708, Groningen) studied under J. Cocceius in Leiden. After preaching in Zeeland, Delft, and, from 1661, in Nijmegen, Braun became professor there in 1665 and professor of theology and Hebrew in Groningen in 1680. The further development of Cocceius's federal theology by incorporating Cartesian philosophy brought him into conflict with his colleague Johannes à Marck, who accused him, among other things, of Sabellianism (Sabellius/Sabellians). In the work La véritable religion des Hollandois (1675) Braun defended …

Le Maistre Family

(187 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The three Le Maistre brothers were Jansenist theologians (Jansenism). The oldest, Antoine (May 2, 1608, Paris – Nov 4, 1658, Port Royal), was a successful lawyer in Paris and came under the influence of J. Duvergier de Hauranne, one of the first hermits in Port-Royal Abbey. Known for his piety, Antoine wrote apologies and, among other writings, also a biography of Bernard of Clairvaux. He began a Bible translation that was continued by the youngest brother, Isaac Louis (Mar 29, 1613, Paris – Jan 4, 1684, Pomponne; called Le Maistre de Sacy), who was the mo…

Claude, Jean

(139 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1619, La-Sauvetat-du-Dropt – Jan 13, 1687, The Hague). After studying at Montauban, Claude became a pastor in St. Affrique and, from 1654, in Nîmes. In 1661, he was forbidden to preach after plans to reunify the Protestants with the Catholic Church were rejected by a provincial synod over which he presided; in 1662, he became pastor and professor in Montauban, and in 1666 pastor in Charenton, near Paris. Following the revocation of the Edict of …

Goulart, Simon

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1543, Senlis, Picardy – Feb 3, 1628, Geneva). After studying law and converting to Protestantism, Goulart moved to Geneva in 1566 and became pastor in the nearby municipalities of Chancy and Cartigny. In 1571, he assumed the pastorate in Genève-St. Gervais. Apart from brief pastoral activities in French congregations, he officiated there until the end of his life. After the death of T. Beza in 1605, he chaired the Vénérable Compagnie des pasteurs for seven years. Goulart was less an inventive thinker than an editor, translator and collector. Hi…

Perrot, Charles

(181 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1541 – Oct 15, 1608, Geneva), son of a Paris conseiller du Parlement, Perrot probably studied law at Bourges; in 1564 he studied theology at Geneva. He served as pastor in Moens (Ain) and Genthod until 1567, when he moved to Geneva. From 1570 to 1572 and from 1588 to 1592, he was rector of the Geneva Academy and frequently substituted for T. Beza as teacher of theology; in 1598 he was appointed professor of theology. Irenically inclined, his demand for toleration and especially for abolishing the mandatory signing of the Formula confessionis fidei by the students drew cr…

Rabaut, Paul

(313 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 29, 1718, Bédarieux, Département Hérault – Sep 25, 1794, Nîmes). At an early age, he joined with Jean Bétrine (1718–1756) and for four years shared with him the dangerous life of an itinerant preacher of the “church in the desert.” In 1738 he was formally admitted as a preacher in Nîmes; in 1740/1741 he studied with A. Court for six months at the theological seminary in Lausanne. During the following 40 years of his ministry as a pastor of the persecuted Reformed Church in Fr…

Daneau, Lambert

(154 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1530, Beaugency-sur-Loire – 1595, Castres). After law school in Orléans and Bourges, Daneau turned to Protestantism under the influence of Calvin in 1560. In 1562, he became pastor in Gien-sur-Loire, and in 1572 pastor and professor of theology in Geneva. He moved to Leiden in 1581, and on to Ghent in 1582; from 1583 he worked in Orthez an…

Saurin, Elias

(166 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1639, Usseaux, Dauphiné – Apr 8, 1703, Utrecht), was appointed pastor in Venterol (Drôme) and Embrun in 1661 but was forced to flee to Holland from French Switzerland on account of his Reformed faith. There he was appointed pastor of the ¶ Walloon congregation in Delft and in 1670 pastor in Utrecht. He participated in the investigation into J. de Labadie; having a certain sympathy with Socinianism (Socinians), he emphasized freedom of conscience in opposition to P. Jurieu, Influenced by the mystical theology of F. …

Maccovius, Johannes

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Makowski; 1588, Lobzenic, Poland – Jun 24, 1644, Franeker, the Netherlands) attended secondary school in Danzig and studied in various places including Heidelberg. In 1614 in Franeker he became a doctor of theology, and already in 1615 was appointed there to the post of professor of theology and physics. By his Aristotelian teaching he made a significant contribution to the development of Reformed orthodoxy (II, 2.b). His supralapsarian teaching on predestination (Predestination:…

Charron, Pierre

(253 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1541, Paris – Nov 16, 1603, Paris). After studying law, Charron became an advocate in Paris in 1571; soon, however, he entered the clergy and became a successful preacher in southern France, in part as court preacher to Queen Marguerite of Angoulême, and was a canon at Bordeaux. His Des trois vérités (1594), which led the bishop of Cahors to appoint him vicar-general, is an apology for the existence of God against atheists, for the Christian religion against Muslims and Jews, and for the Roman Catholic Church…

Lubbertus, Sibrandus

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1555 Langwarden, Butjadingen, Lower Saxony – Jan 10, 1625, Franeker, The Netherlands). After studying at Wittenberg, Geneva, Marburg, and Neustadt an der Haardt and a brief ministry in Emden from 1582 to 1584, Lubbertus was appointed the first professor of theology at the newly founded university of Franeker. After receiving his Dr.theol. from Heidelberg in 1587, he wrote numerous works to secure the heritage of the Reformation against the Socinians ( De Jesu Christo servatore, 1611), the Remonstrants (Arminians), and especially Catholic theologians …

Place, Josué de la

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Placeus; 1596, Saumur – 1655/ 1656, Saumur). After theological studies under J. Cameron in Saumur, Place became professor of philosophy and history in Saumur in 1621, pastor in Nantes in 1625, and professor of theology in Saumur in 1633. Along with his friends M. Amyraut and L. Cappellus, he moderated strict Calvinism by emphasizing ethical and general human aspects, for example, in modifying the doctrine of original sin. With reference to Calvin, and on account of his interest i…

Sedan

(225 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, this city in the Ardennes was in the borderland between the French kingdom and the German Empire; in the late 16th century, it became an important haven for persecuted Protestants. In 1601 the sovereign Henri de la Tour elevated a school founded in 1579 to the status of a Reformed academy, with faculties of philosophy, theology, and law. After sovereignty passed to Louis XIII in 1642, its work was increasingly hampered in the 1670s; a decree of Louis XIV shut i…

Roëll, Hermann Alexander

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1653, Dolberg/Mark – Jul 12, 1718, Amsterdam), Reformed theologian. Following study in Utrecht under F. Burman (1), in Groningen under J. Alting, and in Zürich under J.H. Heidegger, Roëll became court preacher in Herford in 1679, and pastor in Leeuwarden in 1680, and in Deventer in 1682. From 1686 he taught philosophy and theology at Franeker University, and from 1704 theology in Utrecht. He was a moderate Cocceian Cartesian (J. Cocceius, R. Descartes), whose theology was based on the concept of conscientia as an innate idea that makes possible God-given know…

Vorst, Conrad

(163 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jul 19, 1569, Cologne – Sep 29, 1622, Tönning), Arminian theologian. Vorst studied with J. Piscator in Herborn in 1593 and in 1593 and 1594 in Heidelberg, Basel, and Geneva. In 1596 he was appointed professor of theology at the Gymnasium Illustre in Steinfurt. He accepted a call to Leiden in 1611. Suspected early on of Socinianism (Socinians), in 1619 he was condemned by the Synod of Dort and expelled from the Netherlands. Along with other Remonstrants (Remonstration), he finally…

Lausanne, University

(555 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] A year after the annexation of Vaud in 1536, the Bernese council established an academy in Lausanne, whose primary purpose was the training of Reformed clergy for the Francophone territories under Bernese rule. Until the Academy of Geneva (II) was founded in 1559, Lausanne was the only school of Protestant theology in the Francophone region, in which theology was taught along with the propaedeutic philosophical and humanistic subjects. At the outset, P. Viret taught theology and K…
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