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Valesius

(88 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Valesius, Heinrich (Henri de Valois; 10.9.1603 Paris – 7.5.1676 ebd.), Philologe, war nach dem Jurastudium in Bourges 1622–1624 als Parlamentsadvokat in Paris tätig, widmete sich aber seit 1630 philol. Arbeiten. 1634 erschien eine erste Edition griech. Kirchenväter, seit 1650 arbeitete er im Auftrag des franz. Episkopats an der Edition der griech. Kirchenhistoriker (Eusebius von Caesarea, 1659; Sokrates und Sozomenus, 1668; Theodoret von Cyrus und Evagrius Ponticus, 1673). Christoph Strohm Bibliography A.de Valois, De vita Henrici Valesii histori…

Perrot

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Perrot, Charles (1541–15.10.1608 Genf), studierte als Sohn eines Pariser Parlamentsrates vermutlich in Bourges Jura, 1564 in Genf Theol. Bis 1567 war er Pfarrer in Moens (Ain) und Genthod und seit 1567 in Genf. 1570–1572 und 1588–1592 war er Rektor der Akademie und vertrat mehrfach Th. Beza als Lehrer der Theol., bevor er 1598 selbst Theologieprof. wurde. Irenisch gesinnt, erregte er mit seiner Forderung nach Toleranz und insbes. der Abschaffung der Unterzeichnung der »Formula con…

Witsius

(118 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Hermann (12.2.1636 Enkhuizen – 22.10.1708 Leiden), ref. Theologe, war nach Studium in Utrecht und Groningen 1657–1675 Pfarrer in Westwoud, Wormer, Goes und Leeuwarden, sodann Prof. der Theol. in Franeker (1675–1680), Utrecht (1680–1698) und Leiden (1698–1707). Durch G. Voetius beeinflußt, entfaltete er eine Föderaltheol., die stärker als die J. Coccejus' bibl. orientiert war. W. bekämpfte den Cartesianismus ebenso wie den separatistischen Labadismus (J. de Labadie) und versuchte ohne Erfolg, Voetianer und Coccejaner zu versöhnen. Christoph Strohm Bib…

Rabaut

(268 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Rabaut, Paul (29.1.1718 Bédarieux, Département Hérault – 25.9.1794 Nîmes), schloß sich schon in jugendlichem Alter Jean Bétrine (1718–1756) an und teilte mit diesem vier Jahre lang das gefährliche Wanderleben des Predigers der »Kirche in der Wüste«. Nach dem Antritt des Vikariats in Nîmes 1738 studierte er 1740/41 sechs Monate am theol. Seminar in Lausanne bei A. Court. In den folgenden 40 Jahren seiner Tätigkeit als Pfarrer der verfolgten ref. Kirche in Frankreich (Hugenotten) er…

Wittich

(241 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Christoph (7.10.1625 Brieg – 19.5.1687 Leiden), ref. Theologe, studierte zuerst Jurisprudenz, dann Theol. in Bremen, Groningen und Leiden, wo er die Philos. R. Descartes' kennenlernte. 1650 Prof. der Philos. in Herborn, 1652 Pfarrer in Duisburg, 1655 Prof. der Theol. in Nijmwegen und 1671 in Leiden, schloß er sich der Föderaltheologie J. Coccejus' an. Sein Versuch, die ref. Dogmatik mit dem Cartesianismus zu vereinbaren, ließ ihn mehrfach mit kirchl. Autoritäten in Konflikt gera…

Sedan

(222 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] . Die Stadt in den Ardennen, die im MA im Grenzbereich des franz. Königreiches und des dt. Reiches lag, wurde am Ende des 16.Jh. ein wichtiger Rückzugsort verfolgter Protestanten. Der Landesherr Henri de la Tour erhob 1601 eine seit 1579 bestehende Schule in den Rang einer ref. Akademie. Sie bestand aus einer philos., einer theol. und einer juristischen Fakultät. Nachdem 1642 die Herrschaft an Ludwig XIII. übergegangen und die Arbeit in den 60er Jahren des 17.Jh. zunehmend behind…

Ruchat

(154 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Ruchat, Abraham (15.9.1678 Vevey, Waadt – 28.9.1750 Lausanne), wurde nach Studium in Bern, Berlin und Leiden 1709 Pfarrer in Aubonne, 1716 in Rolle und war seit 1721 Prof. der Lit., seit 1733 Prof. der Theol. in Lausanne. 1727/28 veröff. er eine »Histoire de la réformation de la Suisse« (6 Bde., 1516–1536). Sein Lebenswerk war eine »Histoire générale de la Suisse« (bis 1516), die jedoch ungedr. blieb. Mit seinen auf akribischen Archivstudien beruhenden, aber noch apologetischen Zi…

Orangeois

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] . Im südfranz. Fürstentum Orange, das durch Erbschaft an das Haus Nassau-Oranien gekommen war, hatte die Reformation früh ihren Einzug gehalten. Orange verlor jedoch im Span. Erbfolgekrieg seine Souveränität, und 1703 erließ Ludwig XIV. dort ein Verbot der ref. Kirche. Die um ihres Glaubens willen Exilierten, O. genannt, ließen sich zum großen Teil nach einem vorläufigen Aufenthalt in Genf oder der Schweiz in Brandenburg-Preußen (Burg, Halberstadt, Magdeburg und Halle) nieder. In…

Saurin

(153 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Saurin, Jacques (6.1.1677 Nîmes – 30.12.1730 Den Haag), ref. Prediger und Theologe, wurde nach Flucht aus Frankreich 1686 infolge der Aufhebung des Edikts von Nantes (Hugenotten: I.,1.) und nach Studium in Genf 1701 Pfarrer von Flüchtlingsgemeinden in London und seit 1705 in Den Haag. S. erlangte den Ruf eines hervorragenden Predigers und setzte sein Ansehen für die Unterstützung verfolgter Glaubensgenossen ein. Moderat orth. und der Polemik gänzlich abgeneigt, verfolgen seine Bibelauslegungen wesentlich apologetische und ethische Ziele. Christoph Str…

Uytenbogaert

(254 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (Wtenbogaert), Johannes (11.2.1557 Utrecht – 4.9.1644 Den Haag), Führer der niederländischen Remonstranten (Remonstration), studierte mit J. Arminius 1580–1584 bei Th. Beza in Genf und war 1584 Pfarrer in Utrecht und 1591 in Den Haag, wo er theol. Berater J. van Oldenbarnevelts und seit 1601 auch Hof- und Feldprediger Moritz' von Oranien wurde. Im Streit mit den orth. Calvinisten verteidigte er die Lehren des Arminius und verfaßte nach dessen Tod mit anderen die fünf Artikel der …

Spanheim

(449 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] 1.Friedrich (d. Ä.; 1.1.1600 Amberg – 14.5.1649 Leiden), ref. Theologe, wurde 1626 Prof. der Philos. in Genf, 1631 der Theol. und 1633–1637 Rektor ebd. Seit 1642 Prof. der Theol. in Leiden und 1648 auch Pfarrer der wallonischen Gemeinde, war er ein Vertreter der strengen ref. Orthodoxie der Dordrechter Synode, der u.a. M. Amyrauts Gnadenlehre verwarf. Christoph Strohm Bibliography C. Borgeaud, Histoire de l'Université de Genève, 1900, 348–353. 2.Ezechiel (7.12.1629 Genf – 7.11.1710 London), Sohn von 1., studierte Theol. und Philol. in Leiden…

Taffin

(155 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Taffin, Jean (1529/30 Doornik [Tournai] – 15.7.1602 Amsterdam), ref. Theologe, war nach dem Studium bei Calvin und Th. Beza in Genf 1558–1560 Pfarrer in Aachen, Metz, Antwerpen, Heidelberg und am Ende seines Lebens in Haarlem und Amsterdam. 1571 nahm er führend an der niederländischen Synode in Emden teil und wurde 1574–1583 Hofprediger Wilhelms von Oranien. Mit seiner Ausrichtung auf die innere Gnadenerfahrung und der Beschreibung christl. Lebens als Buße wurde T. einer der Pioniere der Nadere Reformatie. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Des marque…

Vossius

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Vossius, Gerardus Joannis (März/April 1577 Heidelberg – 17.3.1649 Amsterdam), Philologe und ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Leiden 1600 Rektor der Lateinschule in Dordrecht und 1615 mit Hilfe seines Freundes H. Grotius Regens des theol. Staaten-Kollegiums in Leiden. Wegen seiner Kontakte zu den Remonstranten (Remonstration) verlor er 1619 dieses Amt, erhielt dann aber 1622 die neugeschaffene Professur für Eloquenz und Gesch. in Leiden und 1631 die Profes…

Sibel

(72 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Sibel, Kaspar (9.6.1590 Gut Bardt bei Elberfeld – 1.1.1658 Deventer), ref. Theologe, wurde nach dem Studium in Herborn, Siegen und Leiden 1609 Pfarrer in Randerath (Jülich) und 1617 in Deventer. Als Teilnehmer der Dordrechter Synode 1618/19 vertrat S., der auch an der niederländischen NT-Übers. mitgearbeitet hat, eine gemäßigte Orthodoxie (: II.,2., b). Christoph Strohm Bibliography J. Reitsma, Geschiedenis van de Hervorming en de Hervormde kerk der Nederlanden, 51949.

Placeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (de la Place), Josue´ (1596 Saumur – 1655/56 ebd.), wurde nach dem Studium der Theol. in Saumur bei J. Camero 1621 Prof. für Philos. und Gesch. ebd., 1625 Pfarrer in Nantes und 1633 Prof. für Theol. wiederum in Saumur. Mit den befreundeten M. Amyraut und L. Cappellus milderte er den strengen Calvinismus durch die Hervorhebung ethischer und allgemeinmenschlicher Aspekte, so z.B. in der Modifikation der Lehre von der Erbsünde. Mit Berufung auf Calvin und aus Interesse an der moralisch…

Scholten

(134 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Scholten,  Johann Heinrich (17.8.1811 Vleuten bei Utrecht – 10.4.1885 Leiden), 1837 Prediger in Meerkerk, 1840 Prof. in Franeker, 1843 a.o. Prof. und 1845 o. Prof. für NT und Dogmatik in Leiden, seit 1877 für Religionsphilos. Sch. hat unter dem Einfluß der Tübinger Schule (Tübingen: I.) einschlägige Werke zur Gesch. der urchristl. Lit. vf. und dabei hist.-krit. Zugänge apologetischen Zwecken dienstbar gemacht. Bedeutsamer für die »moderne« Richtung der niederländischen Theol. sind…

Scaliger

(159 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Scaliger, Joseph Justus (4./5.8.1540 Agen, Département Lot-et-Garonne – 21.1.1609 Leiden), studierte nach erstem Unterricht durch den Vater in Paris, wo er sich 1562 den Hugenotten anschloß. 1572–1574 lehrte er an der Akademie in Genf (: II.) und lebte dann als Privatgelehrter, bis er 1593 als Nachfolger J. Lipsius' auf den Lehrstuhl für alte Sprachen nach Leiden berufen wurde. In zahlreichen Editionen antiker Schriften erwies er sich als hervorragender Textkritiker. Als Begründer …

Wolzogen

(110 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] , Ludovicus von (1633 Ammersfoort – 13.11.1690 Amsterdam), ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studium in Utrecht, Groningen und Genf 1658 Pfarrer der wallonischen Gemeinde in Groningen und 1662 in Middelburg, 1664 zugleich Pfarrer und Prof. für Kirchengesch. in Utrecht und 1670 in Amsterdam. W. wandte sich gegen den Spinozismus (B. de Spinoza), war aber als Anhänger des Cartesianismus selbst dauernden Vorwürfen mangelnder Rechtgläubigkeit von seiten der Voetianer (G. Voetius) ausgesetzt. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Werke u.a.: De scripturarum interprete c…

Nethenus

(296 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] 1.Matthias , (27.10.1618 Süchteln/Niederrhein – 9.10.1686 Herborn), wurde nach dem Besuch des Gymnasiums in Wesel (ab 1632) und des Studiums der Philos. und Theol. in Harderwijk, Deventer und Utrecht 1646 Pfarrer und Rektor in Kleve. Durch die Vermittlung G. Voetius' erhielt er 1654 einen Ruf als Prof. der Theol. in Utrecht, wurde dort aber 1662 wegen einer polemischen Schrift gegen S. Maresius im Streit um die ref. Kapitelgüter abgesetzt. Von 1669 bis zu seinem Tod war N. Prof. …

Saurin

(156 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Saurin, Elias (28.8.1639 Usseaux, Dauphiné – 8.4.1703 Utrecht), wurde 1661 Pfarrer in Venterol (Drôme) und Embrun, mußte aber 1664 wegen seines ref. Bekenntnisses aus der franz. Schweiz nach Holland fliehen, wo er 1664 Pfarrer der wallonischen Gemeinde in Delft und 1670 Pfarrer in Utrecht wurde. S. wirkte an der Untersuchung gegen J. de  Labadie mit und betonte in gewisser Nähe zum Sozinianismus (Sozinianer) gegen P. Jurieu die Gewissensfreiheit. Beeinflußt von der myst. Theol. F.…

Tilenus, Daniel

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Feb 4, 1563, Goldberg, Silesia [Złotoryja, Poland] – Aug 1, 1633, Paris), Reformed theologian. After studying in Germany, Tilenus was appointed professor of theology at the Academy of Sedan. In his dispute with P. Du Moulin over the interpretation of the unio hypostatica, he accused Du Moulin of advocating ubiquity. During preparations for the Synod of Dort, Tilenus defended the position of the Remonstrants against J. Cameron, a stance that lost him his chair in 1618. Against the Presbyterians, he emphasized the value of…

Gentile, Valentino

(279 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Gentilis; c. 1520 Cosenza, Calabria – Sep 10, 1566, Bern), a humanist, joined the Italian refugee community in Geneva after his flight from Italy in 1557. Under the influence of M. Gribaldi, he ¶ criticized the church's doctrine of the Trinity and, thus, came into conflict with the Genevan authorities. His rejection of the scholastic concept of substance and his intensive involvement with the church fathers led him to a subordinationist understanding of the Trinity. The Father alone is the source of deity and the…

Groningen, University of

(341 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The Rijksuniversiteit Groningen was established by the provinces on Nov 26, 1612 as the third university in the northern Netherlands following Leiden (1575) and Franeker (1585) and was opened on Aug 23, 1614 in a former monastery. It included chairs for theology, law, medicine, philosophy, history and mathematics. The first rector was the Calvinist East-Frisian historian, Ubo Emmius (1547– 1625). Through many foreign students and outstanding scholars, the university gained a lofty…

Leiden, University

(559 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Wishing that the formation of pastors and jurists should not be left to the Catholic University of Leuven, William of Orange founded the first university of the northern Netherlands in Leiden in 1575. In addition to the theological and juridical fields of study, departments of philosophy and literature as well as medicine were also planned. From the very beginning, the university was characterized by a strong orientation to Humanism (III) and Calvinism. The Humanist philologists J…

Charron, Pierre

(253 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1541, Paris – Nov 16, 1603, Paris). After studying law, Charron became an advocate in Paris in 1571; soon, however, he entered the clergy and became a successful preacher in southern France, in part as court preacher to Queen Marguerite of Angoulême, and was a canon at Bordeaux. His Des trois vérités (1594), which led the bishop of Cahors to appoint him vicar-general, is an apology for the existence of God against atheists, for the Christian religion against Muslims and Jews, and for the Roman Catholic Church…

Lausanne, University

(555 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] A year after the annexation of Vaud in 1536, the Bernese council established an academy in Lausanne, whose primary purpose was the training of Reformed clergy for the Francophone territories under Bernese rule. Until the Academy of Geneva (II) was founded in 1559, Lausanne was the only school of Protestant theology in the Francophone region, in which theology was taught along with the propaedeutic philosophical and humanistic subjects. At the outset, P. Viret taught theology and K…

Spanheim

(560 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Friedrich, the Elder ( Jan 1, 1600, Amberg – May 14, 1649, Leiden), Reformed theologian. He was appointed professor of theology in Geneva in 1626 and professor of theology in 1631; from 1633 to 1637 he served as rector of the university. He was appointed professor of theology in Leiden in 1642 and in 1648 he became pastor of the Walloon congregation there. He was a champion of strict Reformed orthodoxy as defined by the Synod of Dort, rejecting such theological positions as M. Amyraut’s doctrine of grace. Christoph Strohm Bibliography C. Borgeaud, Histoire de l’univers…

Sedan

(225 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, this city in the Ardennes was in the borderland between the French kingdom and the German Empire; in the late 16th century, it became an important haven for persecuted Protestants. In 1601 the sovereign Henri de la Tour elevated a school founded in 1579 to the status of a Reformed academy, with faculties of philosophy, theology, and law. After sovereignty passed to Louis XIII in 1642, its work was increasingly hampered in the 1670s; a decree of Louis XIV shut i…

Le Maistre Family

(187 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The three Le Maistre brothers were Jansenist theologians (Jansenism). The oldest, Antoine (May 2, 1608, Paris – Nov 4, 1658, Port Royal), was a successful lawyer in Paris and came under the influence of J. Duvergier de Hauranne, one of the first hermits in Port-Royal Abbey. Known for his piety, Antoine wrote apologies and, among other writings, also a biography of Bernard of Clairvaux. He began a Bible translation that was continued by the youngest brother, Isaac Louis (Mar 29, 1613, Paris – Jan 4, 1684, Pomponne; called Le Maistre de Sacy), who was the mo…

Witsius, Herman

(142 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Wits; Feb 12, 1636, Enkhuizen – Oct 22, 1708, Leiden), Reformed theologian. After studying at Utrecht and Groningen, he served as pastor in Westwoud, Wormer, Goes, and Leeuwarden from 1657 to 1675, then as professor of theology at Frankener (1675–1680), Utrecht (1680–1698), and Leiden (1698–1707). Influenced by G. Voetius, he developed a federal theology, more biblically oriented than that of J. Cocceius. Witsius opposed Cartesianism as well as the separatist followers of J. de L…

Valesius, Henricus

(104 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Henri de Valois; Sep 10, 1603, Paris – May 7, 1676, Paris), philologist. After studying law in Bourges from 1622 to 1624, he worked as a parliamentary lawyer in Paris, but from 1630 on he devoted himself to classical philology. In 1634 he published a first edition of several Greek church fathers. In 1650 he was commissioned by the French episcopate to work on an edition of the Greek church historians (Eusebius of Caesarea, 1659; Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen, 1668; Theodoret of Cyrrhus and Evagrius Ponticus, 1673). Christoph Strohm Bibliography A. de Valois, De vita …

Place, Josué de la

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Placeus; 1596, Saumur – 1655/ 1656, Saumur). After theological studies under J. Cameron in Saumur, Place became professor of philosophy and history in Saumur in 1621, pastor in Nantes in 1625, and professor of theology in Saumur in 1633. Along with his friends M. Amyraut and L. Cappellus, he moderated strict Calvinism by emphasizing ethical and general human aspects, for example, in modifying the doctrine of original sin. With reference to Calvin, and on account of his interest i…

Cloppenburch, Johannes

(153 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Cloppenburg; May 13, 1592, Amsterdam – Jul 30, 1652, Franeker) studied theology in Leiden under F. Gomarus and Johannes Polyander, as well as at several foreign universities, notably in Heidelberg, Basel and Geneva. He became pastor in Heusden (1618), Amsterdam (1621) and Brielle (1629). In 1640, he was appointed professor of theology in Harderwijk and, in 1643, in Franeker. The literary oeuvre of this staunch Calvinist is dominated by disputes with Mennonites, Arminians and Socinians. His Disputationes de foedere Dei et testamento veteri et novo (1643) prepared…

Saurin, Jacques

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1677, Nîmes – Dec 30, 1730, The Hague), Reformed preacher and theologian. After fleeing from France in 1686 following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: I, 1) and studying in Geneva, he became a pastor of refugee congregations in London, then after 1705 in The Hague. He gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher and used it in support of persecuted coreligionists. Moderately orthodox and totally averse to polemic, his biblical interpretations were primarily in the service of apologetic and ethical goals. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works i…

Geuzen

(247 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Fr. gueux, “beggar”), originally a taunt, soon the self-designation of Dutch aristocracy who opposed Spanish domination and Catholic persecutions of believers in the last third of the 16th century. The designation probably originated when one of the advisers of the Governor General, Margareta of Parma, upon being presented with a petition concerning, inter alia, the abolition of the Inquisition on Apr 5, 1566, cried out: “Voilà des beaux gueux.” The aristocracy and soon also other champions of freedom adopted this designation as ho…

Du Moulin, Pierre

(158 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Molinaeus; Oct 16 or 18, 1568, Castle Buhy en Vexin – Mar 10, 1658, Sedan) studied at the Protestant academy in Sedan; became a tutor in England in 1588; was professor of Greek language and philosophy in Leiden, 1592–1598; and pastored the Reformed congregation in Charenton near Paris, 1599–1620. From 1621 until his death, he was preacher and …

Nijmegen, University of

(254 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, took the city in 1591. In the 17th century, it was already home to a Latin school and a Calvinist academy, founded in 1655, at which noted theologians like C. Wittig and J. Braun taught. In 1679 the chaos of war forced the academy to close. Attempts to reestablish it in the 18th century failed. Not until 1923, after almost 20 years of efforts on the part of the Sankt Radboud Foundation, was the Catholic University of Nijmegen founded as a count…

Cameron, John

(283 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1579, Glasgow – Nov 27, 1625, Montauban) went to France around 1600 and was initially active as a teacher in the vicinity of Humaniora. After studying in Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg, he became pastor in Bordeaux in 1608, professor of theology at the Protestant academy in Saumur in 1618 and in Montauban in 1624. In the disputes with the Arminians, Cameron defended the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, but modified it by emphasizing …

Sartorius, Jakob

(84 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Schröder; c. 1560, Schönfließ, Brandenburg – 1626, Großen-Englis, Hesse), Reformed theologian. Pastor in Rietberg since 1585, he was expelled by Paderborn Jesuits in 1607 and later became pastor in Ropperhausen (Hesse). His 1606 Brennende Fackel attacking the Jesuits has not survived. His Kurzer, doch gründlicher Bericht, published in 1612, describes his shift from Lutheranism to Calvinism, although he is at pains to point out what they have in common. Christoph Strohm Bibliography F. Flaskamp, “Jakob Sartorius,” AKuG 45, 1963, 313–333.

Goulart, Simon

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1543, Senlis, Picardy – Feb 3, 1628, Geneva). After studying law and converting to Protestantism, Goulart moved to Geneva in 1566 and became pastor in the nearby municipalities of Chancy and Cartigny. In 1571, he assumed the pastorate in Genève-St. Gervais. Apart from brief pastoral activities in French congregations, he officiated there until the end of his life. After the death of T. Beza in 1605, he chaired the Vénérable Compagnie des pasteurs for seven years. Goulart was less an inventive thinker than an editor, translator and collector. Hi…

Braun, Johannes

(136 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Braunius; 1628, Kaiserslautern – 1708, Groningen) studied under J. Cocceius in Leiden. After preaching in Zeeland, Delft, and, from 1661, in Nijmegen, Braun became professor there in 1665 and professor of theology and Hebrew in Groningen in 1680. The further development of Cocceius's federal theology by incorporating Cartesian philosophy brought him into conflict with his colleague Johannes à Marck, who accused him, among other things, of Sabellianism (Sabellius/Sabellians). In the work La véritable religion des Hollandois (1675) Braun defended …

Alting

(383 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Menso (Nov 9, 1541, Eelde an der Drenthe near Groningen – Oct 7, 1612, Emden) studied in Cologne and, after converting to the Reformed Church in 1565, theology in Heidelberg. Active primarily as a preacher in the Netherlands and, from 1567 on, in the Rhineland, his chief activity from 1575 onward lay in Emden as preacher and Praeses of the Coetus of …

Uytenbogaert (Wtenbogaert), Johannes

(274 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Feb 11, 1556, Utrecht – Sep 4, 1644, The Hague), leader of the Dutch Remonstrants (Remonstration). Together with J. Arminius, he studied with T. Beza in Geneva from 1580 to 1584. In 1584 he was appointed pastor in Utrecht and in 1591 in The Hague, where he served as theological adviser to J. van Oldenbarnevelt and (after 1601) as court and military chaplain of Maurice of Orange. Against the orthodox Calvinists he defended the teachings of Arminius; after the latter’s death, he joined with others to compose the five articles of the Remonstratie of Jan 14, 1610, which rej…

Taffin, Jean

(176 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1529/1530, Doornik [Tournai] – Jul 15, 1602, Amsterdam), Reformed theologian. After studying with Calvin and T. Beza in Geneva from 1558 to 1560, he served churches in Aachen, Metz, Antwerp, Heidelberg, and (at the end of his life) in Amsterdam. In 1571 he played a leading role at the Dutch synod in Emden; from 1574 to 1583 he served as court chaplain to William of Orange. With his emphasis on the inward experience of grace and his ¶ description of the Christian life as penance, Taffin was one of the pioneers of the Nadere Reformatie. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works inclu…

Roëll, Hermann Alexander

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1653, Dolberg/Mark – Jul 12, 1718, Amsterdam), Reformed theologian. Following study in Utrecht under F. Burman (1), in Groningen under J. Alting, and in Zürich under J.H. Heidegger, Roëll became court preacher in Herford in 1679, and pastor in Leeuwarden in 1680, and in Deventer in 1682. From 1686 he taught philosophy and theology at Franeker University, and from 1704 theology in Utrecht. He was a moderate Cocceian Cartesian (J. Cocceius, R. Descartes), whose theology was based on the concept of conscientia as an innate idea that makes possible God-given know…

Scaliger, Joseph Justus

(174 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 4/5, 1540 Agen, Département Lot-et-Garonne – Jan 21, 1609, Leiden). After initial instruction at home by his father, Scaliger studied in Paris, where he joined the Huguenots in 1562. From 1572 to 1574 he taught at the academy in Geneva (II), afterwards working as an independent scholar. In 1593 he was appointed to the chair of ancient languages at Leiden, succeeding J. Lipsius. Editor of many ancient works, he proved to be an outstanding textual critic. As the father of the m…

Maresius (des Marets), Samuel

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 9, 1599, Oisemont, Picardy – May 18, 1673, Groningen). After studying in Paris, Saumur, and Geneva, Maresius became a pastor in Laon in 1620 and in Falaise in 1624. Appointed professor at Sedan in 1625, he went to Maastricht as a Walloon pastor in 1631; in 1636 to went on to 's-Hertogenbosch and finally was appointed professor in Groningen in 1643, where he also became a pastor in 1652. His works are mostly in the area of controversial theology. Until 1636 his primary target …

Reformierter Bund

(875 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph | Schilberg, Arno
[English Version] I. Geschichte Der Ref. B. wurde im August 1884 auf einer anläßlich des 400. Geburtstags Zwinglis abgehaltenen Tagung in Marburg als eingetragener Verein »zur Wahrung und Pflege der Güter und Gaben der ref. Kirche« gegründet. Er war gedacht als lockerer Zusammenschluß von Kirchen, Gemeinden und Kirchenmitgliedern, die ref. Identität angesichts des gerade im Zusammenhang des 400. Geburtstags Luthers 1883 als bedrängend wahrgenommenen luth. Übergewichts in Deutschland zu stärken such…

Reformierter Bund

(973 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph | Schilberg, Arno
[German Version] I. History The Reformed League (Reformierter Bund) was founded in August 1884 at a conference in Marburg commemorating the 400th anniversary of Zwingli’s birth; as a registered association, its purpose was defined as “preservation and cultivation of the goods and bounties of the Reformed Church.” It was conceived as a loose association of churches, congregations, and individual members, seeking to strengthen Reformed identity in light of the Lutheran preponderance in Germany, which…

Tithing

(1,866 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Otto, Eckart | Reichman, Ronen | Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] I. History of Religion Instances in which a certain share of a person’s gains were ceded to the gods are known from the religions of the ancient Near East and of Classical Antiquity; on the evidence of the Old Testament (e.g. Lev 27:32f.; 1 Sam 8:15), Judaism and Christianity were also familiar with tithing (see III, IV below). Even the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), which only cultivates a loose relationship to biblical tradition, takes up this notion in the B…
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